Oceanography The Official Magazine of
The Oceanography Society

Volume 34 | Number 4 | December 2021

SUPPLEMENT • Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards

On the Cover: Developed by scientists at the Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment, University of Oldenburg, the Sea Surface Scanner (S3) is a radio-controlled catamaran designed to detect biogenic and ubiquitous surface films called the sea surface microlayer (SML). The SML is typically less than 1 mm thick and controls air-sea interactions due to its unique biogeochemical properties relative to the underlying water. S3 uses a set of partially submerged glass disks that continuously rotate through the sea surface, skimming and wiping the SML from the disks. The principle of this collection technique was developed several decades ago. The continuous sample stream is diverted to a set of onboard flow-through sensors (e.g., temperature, conductivity, fluorescence, pH, pCO2) and to a bottle carousel triggered by a command from the pilot. S3 is capable of mapping the SML with high temporal and spatial resolution and collecting large amounts of samples for broader biogeochemical assessment of the SML. Since 2015, S3 has been deployed in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic Oceans, including in open leads near the North Pole, providing a unique large data set of biogeochemical features of the ocean‘s surface. Photo credit: Alex Ingle/Schmidt Ocean Institute
Cover PDF
Volume 34 Issue 04 Supplement

Articles in this inaugural Frontiers in Ocean Observing supplement to Oceanography describe new technologies and reveal some exciting results that advance our understanding of the world ocean and its resources and support its sustainable use and management. Topics covered in the supplement align with the priorities of the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021–2030) in the following areas: (1) Ocean-Climate Nexus, (2) Ecosystems and Their Diversity, (3) Ocean Resources and the Economy Under Changing Environmental Conditions, (4) Pollutants and Contaminants and Their Potential Impacts on Human Health and Ecosystems, and (5) Multi-Hazard Warning Systems. The sixth and closing chapter describes several exciting new ocean observing technologies. We hope that you enjoy this supplement and share it widely.

Kappel, E.S., S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds. 2021. Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), 102 pp., https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02.




Introduction to the Ocean Observing Supplement to Oceanography
By Ellen S. Kappel, S. Kim Juniper, Sophie Seeyave, Emily A. Smith, and Martin Visbeck


The Technological, Scientific, and Sociological Revolution of Global Subsurface Ocean Observing
By Dean Roemmich, Lynne Talley, Nathalie Zilberman, Emily Osborne, Kenneth S. Johnson, Leticia Barbero, Henry C. Bittig, Nathan Briggs, Andrea J. Fassbender, Gregory C. Johnson, Brian A. King, Elaine McDonagh, Sarah Purkey, Stephen Riser, Toshio Suga, Yuichiro Takeshita, Virginie Thierry, and Susan Wijffels

Linking Oxygen and Carbon Uptake with the Meridional Overturning Circulation Using a Transport Mooring Array
By Dariia Atamanchuk, Jaime Palter, Hilary Palevsky, Isabela Le Bras, Jannes Koelling, and David Nicholson

Climate-Relevant Ocean Transport Measurements in the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans
By Barbara Berx, Denis Volkov, Johanna Baehr, Molly O. Baringer, Peter Brandt, Kristin Burmeister, Stuart Cunningham, Marieke Femke de Jong, Laura de Steur, Shenfu Dong, Eleanor Frajka-Williams, Gustavo J. Goni, N. Penny Holliday, Rebecca Hummels, Randi Ingvaldsen, Kerstin Jochumsen, William Johns, Steingrimur Jónsson, Johannes Karstensen, Dagmar Kieke, Richard Krishfield, Matthias Lankhorst, Karin Margetha H. Larsen, Isabela Le Bras, Craig M. Lee, Feili Li, Susan Lozier, Andreas Macrander, Gerard McCarthy, Christian Mertens, Ben Moat, Martin Moritz, Renellys Perez, Igor Polyakov, Andrey Proshutinsky, Berit Rabe, Monika Rhein, Claudia Schmid, Øystein Skagseth, David A. Smeed, Mary-Louise Timmermans, Wilken-Jon von Appen, Bill Williams, Rebecca Woodgate, and Igor Yashayaev

Coastal Monitoring in the Context of Climate Change: Time-Series Efforts in Lebanon and Argentina
By Abed El Rahman Hassoun, Rodrigo Hernández-Moresino, Elena S. Barbieri, Juan Cruz Carbajal, Augusto Crespi-Abril, Antonella De Cian, Lucía Epherra, Milad Fakhri, Abeer Ghanem, Houssein Jaber, Marie-Thérèse Kassab, Antonela Martelli, Anthony Ouba, Flavio Paparazzo, Juan Pablo Pisoni, Elie Tarek, and Juan Gabriel Vázquez

Changes in Southern Ocean Biogeochemistry and the Potential Impact on pH-Sensitive Planktonic Organisms
By Elizabeth H. Shadwick, Andrés S. Rigual-Hernández, Ruth S. Eriksen, Peter Jansen, Diana M. Davies, Cathryn A. Wynn-Edwards, Adrienne Sutton, Christina Schallenberg, Eric Shulz, and Thomas W. Trull

Monitoring Boundary Currents Using Ocean Observing Infrastructure
By Tamaryn Morris, Daniel Rudnick, Janet Sprintall, Juliet Hermes, Gustavo J. Goni, Justine Parks, Francis Bringas, Emma Heslop, and and the numerous contributors to the OCG-12 Boundary Current Workshop and OceanGliders BOON Project

Putting Training into Practice: An Alumni Network Global Monitoring Program
By Lilian A. Krug, Subrata Sarker, A.N.M. Samiul Huda, Adriana Gonzalez-Silvera, Akinnigbagbe Edward, Carla Berghoff, Christian Naranjo, Edem Mahu, Jorge López-Calderón, Luís Escudero, Maria Tapia, Mauricio A. Noernberg, Mohamed Ahmed, Nandini Menon, and Stella Betancur-Turizo


Exploring New Technologies for Plankton Observations and Monitoring of Ocean Health
By Pascal I. Hablützel, Isabelle Rombouts, Nick Dillen, Rune Lagaisse, Jonas Mortelmans, Anouk Ollevier, Michiel Perneel, and Klaas Deneudt

New Technologies Aid Understanding of the Factors Affecting Adélie Penguin Foraging
By Walker O. Smith Jr., David G. Ainley, Karen J. Heywood, and Grant Ballard

Image Data Give New Insight into Life on the Seafloor
By Franzis Althaus, Candice Untiedt, and Kylie Maguire

Porcupine Abyssal Plain Sustained Observatory Monitors the Atmosphere to the Seafloor on Multidecadal Timescales
By Andrew R. Gates, Susan E. Hartman, Jon Campbell, Christopher Cardwell, Jennifer M. Durden, Anita Flohr, Tammy Horton, Steven Lankester, Richard S. Lampitt, Charlotte Miskin-Hymas, Corinne Pebody, Nick Rundle, Amanda Serpell-Stevens, and Brian J. Bett

The Evolution of Cyanobacteria Bloom Observation in the Baltic Sea
By Lumi Haraguchi, Sirpa Lehtinen, Jenni Attila, Hanna Alasalmi, Matti Lindholm, Kaisa Kraft, Otso Velhonoja, Katri Kuuppo, Timo Tamminen, and Jukka Seppälä

Ocean Observing in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre
By Nicholas R. Bates and Rodney J. Johnson

EcoFOCI: A Generation of Ecosystem Studies in Alaskan Waters
By Heather M. Tabisola, Janet T. Duffy-Anderson, Calvin W. Mordy, and Phyllis J. Stabeno


Integrating Biology into Ocean Observing Infrastructure: Society Depends on It
By Maurice Estes Jr., Frank Muller-Karger, Kerstin Forsberg, Margaret Leinen, Suzan Kholeif, Woody Turner, Douglas Cripe, Yana Gevorgyan, Peer Fietzek, Gabrielle Canonico, Francisco Werner, and Nicholas Bax

Observations of Industrial Shallow-Water Prawn Trawling in Kenya
By Esther N. Fondo and Johnstone O. Omukoto

Upwelling Variability Offshore of Dakhla, Southern Morocco
By Ahmed Makaoui, Younes Belabchir, Ismail Bessa, Abedelaziz Agouzouk, Mohammed Idrissi, Omar Ettahiri, and Karim Hilmi

Valuing the Ocean Carbon Sink in Light of National Climate Action Plans
By Johannes Karstensen, Wilfried Rickels, Pierre Testor, and Maciej Telszewski


An Integrated Observing System for Monitoring Marine Debris and Biodiversity
By Nikolai Maximenko, Artur P. Palacz, Lauren Biermann, James Carlton, Luca Centurioni, Mary Crowley, Jan Hafner, Linsey Haram, Rebecca R. Helm, Verena Hormann, Cathryn Murray, Gregory Ruiz, Andrey Shcherbina, Justin Stopa, Davida Streett, Toste Tanhua, Cynthia Wright, and Chela Zabin

A Novel Experiment in the Baltic Sea Shows that Dispersed Oil Droplets Can Be Distinguished by Remote Sensing
By Kamila Haule, Włodzimierz Freda, Henryk Toczek, Karolina Borzycka, Sławomir Sagan, and Mirosław Darecki

Comparison of Two Soundscapes: An Opportunity to Assess the Dominance of Biophony Versus Anthropophony
By Maria Paula Rey Baquero, Clea Parcerisas, Kerri D. Seger, Christina Perazio, Natalia Botero Acosta, Felipe Mesa, Andrea Luna-Acosta, Dick Botteldooren, and Elisabeth Debusschere

PacIOOS Water Quality Sensor Partnership Program
By Shaun Wriston, Gordon Walker, Margaret Anne McManus, Simon Ellis, Fiona Langenberger, and Melissa Iwamoto

An Integrated Observing Effort for Sargassum Monitoring and Warning in the Caribbean Sea, Tropical Atlantic, and Gulf of Mexico1
By Joaquin Triñanes, Chuanmin Hu, Nathan F. Putman, Maria J. Olascoaga, Francisco J. Beron-Vera, Shuai Zhang, and Gustavo J. Goni


Long-Term Ocean Observing Coupled with Community Engagement Improves Tsunami Early Warning
By Danielle F. Sumy, Sara K. McBride, Christa von Hillebrandt-Andrade, Monica D. Kohler, John Orcutt, Shuichi Kodaira, Kate Moran, Daniel McNamara, Takane Hori, Elizabeth Vanacore, Benoît Pirenne, and John Collins

Uncrewed Ocean Gliders and Saildrones Support Hurricane Forecasting and Research
By Travis N. Miles, Dongxiao Zhang, Gregory R. Foltz, Jun A. Zhang, Christian Meinig, Francis Bringas, Joaquin Triñanes, Matthieu Le Hénaff, Maria F. Aristizabal Vargas, Sam Coakley, Catherine R. Edwards, Donglai Gong, Robert E. Todd, Matthew J. Oliver, W. Douglas Wilson, Kerri Whilden, Barbara Kirkpatrick, Patricia Chardon-Maldonado, Julio M. Morell, Debra Hernandez, Gerhard Kuska, Cheyenne D. Stienbarger, Kathleen Bailey, Chidong Zhang, Scott M. Glenn, and Gustavo J. Goni

Tide Gauges: From Single Hazard to Multi-Hazard Warning Systems
By Angela Hibbert, Liz Bradshaw, Jeff Pugh, Simon Williams, and Philip Woodworth

Multi-Stressor Observations and Modeling to Build Understanding of and Resilience to the Coastal Impacts of Climate Change
By Jan Newton, Parker MacCready, Samantha Siedlecki, Dana Manalang, John Mickett, Simone Alin, Ervin “Joe” Schumacker, Jennifer Hagen, Stephanie Moore, Adrienne Sutton, and Roxanne Carini


Technologies for Observing the Near Sea Surface
By Mariana Ribas-Ribas, Christopher J. Zappa, and Oliver Wurl

Hyperspectral Radiometry on Biogeochemical-Argo Floats: A Bright Perspective for Phytoplankton Diversity
By Emanuele Organelli, Edouard Leymarie, Oliver Zielinski, Julia Uitz, Fabrizio D’Ortenzio, and Hervé Claustre

Visualizing Multi-Hectare Seafloor Habitats with BioCam
By Blair Thornton, Adrian Bodenmann, Takaki Yamada, David Stanley, Miquel Massot-Campos, Veerle Huvenne, Jennifer Durden, Brian Bett, Henry Ruhl, and Darryl Newborough

Special Issue Guest Editors

• Ellen S. Kappel, Geosciences Professional Services Inc.

• S. Kim Juniper, Ocean Networks Canada
• Sophie Seeyave, Partnership for Observation of the Global Ocean
• Emily A. Smith, NOAA Global Ocean Monitoring and Observing Program
• Martin Visbeck, GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research