Oceanography The Official Magazine of
The Oceanography Society

Volume 34 | Number 4 | December 2021

SUPPLEMENT • Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards

On the Cover: Developed by scientists at the Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment, University of Oldenburg, the Sea Surface Scanner (S3) is a radio-controlled catamaran designed to detect biogenic and ubiquitous surface films called the sea surface microlayer (SML). The SML is typically less than 1 mm thick and controls air-sea interactions due to its unique biogeochemical properties relative to the underlying water. S3 uses a set of partially submerged glass disks that continuously rotate through the sea surface, skimming and wiping the SML from the disks. The principle of this collection technique was developed several decades ago. The continuous sample stream is diverted to a set of onboard flow-through sensors (e.g., temperature, conductivity, fluorescence, pH, pCO2) and to a bottle carousel triggered by a command from the pilot. S3 is capable of mapping the SML with high temporal and spatial resolution and collecting large amounts of samples for broader biogeochemical assessment of the SML. Since 2015, S3 has been deployed in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic Oceans, including in open leads near the North Pole, providing a unique large data set of biogeochemical features of the ocean‘s surface. Photo credit: Alex Ingle/Schmidt Ocean Institute
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Volume 34 Issue 04 Supplement
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About the Supplement
Articles in this inaugural Frontiers in Ocean Observing supplement to Oceanography describe new technologies and reveal some exciting results that advance our understanding of the world ocean and its resources and support its sustainable use and management. Topics covered in the supplement align with the priorities of the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021–2030) in the following areas: (1) Ocean-Climate Nexus, (2) Ecosystems and Their Diversity, (3) Ocean Resources and the Economy Under Changing Environmental Conditions, (4) Pollutants and Contaminants and Their Potential Impacts on Human Health and Ecosystems, and (5) Multi-Hazard Warning Systems. The sixth and closing chapter describes several exciting new ocean observing technologies. We hope that you enjoy this supplement and share it widely.

Citation
Kappel, E.S., S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds. 2021. Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), 102 pp., https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02.

DOI
https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02

REGULAR ISSUE FEATURES

INTRODUCTION

Introduction to the Ocean Observing Supplement to Oceanography

Kappel, E.S., S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E.A. Smith, and M. Visbeck. 2021. Introduction to the ocean observing supplement to Oceanography. P. 1 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-01.

TOPIC 1. THE OCEAN-CLIMATE NEXUS

The Technological, Scientific, and Sociological Revolution of Global Subsurface Ocean Observing

Roemmich, D., L. Talley, N. Zilberman, E. Osborne, K.S. Johnson, L. Barbero, H.C. Bittig, N. Briggs, A.J. Fassbender, G.C. Johnson, B.A. King, E. McDonagh, S. Purkey, S. Riser, T. Suga, Y. Takeshita, V. Thierry, and S. Wijffels. 2021. The technological, scientific, and sociological revolution of global subsurface ocean observing. Pp. 2–8 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-02.

Linking Oxygen and Carbon Uptake with the Meridional Overturning Circulation Using a Transport Mooring Array
Atamanchuk, D., J. Palter, H. Palevsky, I. Le Bras, J. Koelling, and D. Nicholson. 2021. Linking oxygen and carbon uptake with the meridional overturning circulation using a transport mooring array. P. 9 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-03.

Climate-Relevant Ocean Transport Measurements in the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans
Berx, B., D. Volkov, J. Baehr, M.O. Baringer, P. Brandt, K. Burmeister, S. Cunningham, M.F. de Jong, L. de Steur, S. Dong, E. Frajka-Williams, G.J. Goni, N.P. Holliday, R. Hummels, R. Ingvaldsen, K. Jochumsen, W. Johns, S. Jónsson, J. Karstensen, D. Kieke, R. Krishfield, M. Lankhorst, K.M.H. Larsen, I. Le Bras, C.M. Lee, F. Li, S. Lozier, A. Macrander, G. McCarthy, C. Mertens, B. Moat, M. Moritz, R. Perez, I. Polyakov, A. Proshutinsky, B. Rabe, M. Rhein, C. Schmid, Ø. Skagseth, D.A. Smeed, M.-L. Timmermans, W.-J. von Appen, B. Williams, R. Woodgate, and I. Yashayaev. 2021. Climate-relevant ocean transport measurements in the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans. Pp. 10–11 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-04.

Coastal Monitoring in the Context of Climate Change: Time-Series Efforts in Lebanon and Argentina
Hassoun, A.E.R., R. Hernández-Moresino, E.S. Barbieri, J.C. Carbajal, A. Crespi-Abril, A. De Cian, L. Epherra, M. Fakhri, A. Ghanem, H. Jaber, M.-T. Kassab, A. Martelli, A. Ouba, F. Paparazzo, J.P. Pisoni, E. Tarek, and J.G. Vázquez. 2021. Coastal monitoring in the context of climate change: Time-series efforts in Lebanon and Argentina. Pp. 12–13 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-05.

Changes in Southern Ocean Biogeochemistry and the Potential Impact on pH-Sensitive Planktonic Organisms
Shadwick, E.H., A.S. Rigual-Hernández, R.S. Eriksen, P. Jansen, D.M. Davies, C.A. Wynn-Edwards, A. Sutton, C. Schallenberg, E. Shulz, and T.W. Trull. 2021. Changes in Southern Ocean biogeochemistry and the potential impact on pH-sensitive planktonic organisms. Pp. 14–15 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-06.

Monitoring Boundary Currents Using Ocean Observing Infrastructure
Morris, T., D. Rudnick, J. Sprintall, J. Hermes, G. J. Goni, J. Parks, F. Bringas, E. Heslop, and the numerous contributors to the OCG-12 Boundary Current Workshop and OceanGliders BOON Project. 2021. Monitoring boundary currents using ocean observing infrastructure. Pp. 16–17 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-07.

Putting Training into Practice: An Alumni Network Global Monitoring Program
Krug, L.A., S. Sarker, A.N.M.S. Huda, A. Gonzalez-Silvera, A. Edward, C. Berghoff, C. Naranjo, E. Mahu, J. López-Calderón, L. Escudero, M. Tapia, M.A. Noernberg, M. Ahmed, N. Menon, and S. Betancur-Turizo. 2021. Putting training into practice: An alumni network global monitoring program. Pp. 18–19 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-08.

TOPIC 2. ECOSYSTEMS AND THEIR DIVERSITY

Exploring New Technologies for Plankton Observations and Monitoring of Ocean Health

Hablützel, P.I., I. Rombouts, N. Dillen, R. Lagaisse, J. Mortelmans, A. Ollevier, M. Perneel, and K. Deneudt. 2021. Exploring new technologies for plankton observations and monitoring of ocean health. Pp. 20–25 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-09.

New Technologies Aid Understanding of the Factors Affecting Adélie Penguin Foraging
Smith, W.O. Jr., D.G. Ainley, K.J. Heywood, and G. Ballard. 2021. New technologies aid understanding of the factors affecting Adélie penguin foraging. Pp. 26–27 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-10.

Image Data Give New Insight into Life on the Seafloor
Althaus, F., C. Untiedt, and K. Maguire. 2021. Image data give new insight into life on the seafloor. P. 28 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-11.

Porcupine Abyssal Plain Sustained Observatory Monitors the Atmosphere to the Seafloor on Multidecadal Timescales
Gates, A.R., S.E. Hartman, J. Campbell, C. Cardwell, J.M. Durden, A. Flohr, T. Horton, S. Lankester, R.S. Lampitt, C. Miskin-Hymas, C. Pebody, N. Rundle, A. Serpell-Stevens, and B.J. Bett. 2021. Porcupine Abyssal Plain Sustained Observatory monitors the atmosphere to the seafloor on multidecadal timescales. P. 29 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-12.

The Evolution of Cyanobacteria Bloom Observation in the Baltic Sea
Haraguchi, L., S. Lehtinen, J. Attila, H. Alasalmi, M. Lindholm, K. Kraft, O. Velhonoja, K. Kuuppo, T. Tamminen, and J. Seppälä. 2021. The evolution of cyanobacteria bloom observation in the Baltic Sea. Pp. 30–31 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-13.

Ocean Observing in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre
Bates, N.R., and R.J. Johnson. 2021. Ocean observing in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Pp. 32–33 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-14.

EcoFOCI: A Generation of Ecosystem Studies in Alaskan Waters
Tabisola, H.M., J.T. Duffy-Anderson, C.W. Mordy, and P.J. Stabeno. 2021. EcoFOCI: A generation of ecosystem studies in Alaskan waters. Pp. 34–35 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-15.

TOPIC 3. OCEAN RESOURCES AND THE ECONOMY UNDER CHANGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

Integrating Biology into Ocean Observing Infrastructure: Society Depends on It

Estes, M. Jr., F. Muller-Karger, K. Forsberg, M. Leinen, S. Kholeif, W. Turner, D. Cripe, Y. Gevorgyan, P. Fietzek, G. Canonico, F. Werner, and N. Bax. 2021. Integrating biology into ocean observing infrastructure: Society depends on it. Pp. 36–43 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-16.

Observations of Industrial Shallow-Water Prawn Trawling in Kenya
Fondo, E.N., and J.O. Omukoto. 2021. Observations of industrial shallow-water prawn trawling in Kenya. Pp. 44–45 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-17.

Application of Remote Sensing and GIS to Identifying Marine Fisheries off the Coasts of Kenya and Tanzania
Mutia, D., and I. Sailale. 2021. Application of remote sensing and GIS to identifying marine fisheries off the coasts of Kenya and Tanzania. Pp. 46–47 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-18.

Quantification of the Impact of Ocean Acidification on Marine Calcifiers
Kimoto, K. 2021. Quantification of the impact of ocean acidification on marine calcifiers. P. 48 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-19.

Upwelling Variability Offshore of Dakhla, Southern Morocco
Makaoui, A., Y. Belabchir, I. Bessa, A. Agouzouk, M. Idrissi, O. Ettahiri, and K. Hilmi. 2021. Upwelling variability offshore of Dakhla, southern Morocco. P. 49 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-20.

Valuing the Ocean Carbon Sink in Light of National Climate Action Plans
Karstensen, J., W. Rickels, P. Testor, and M. Telszewski. 2021. Valuing the ocean carbon sink in light of national climate action plans. Pp. 50–51 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-21.

TOPIC 4. POLLUTANTS AND CONTAMINANTS AND THEIR POTENTIAL IMPACTS ON HUMAN HEALTH AND ECOSYSTEMS

An Integrated Observing System for Monitoring Marine Debris and Biodiversity

Maximenko, N., A.P. Palacz, L. Biermann, J. Carlton, L. Centurioni, M. Crowley, J. Hafner, L. Haram, R.R. Helm, V. Hormann, C. Murray, G. Ruiz, A. Shcherbina, J. Stopa, D. Streett, T. Tanhua, C. Wright, and C. Zabin. 2021. An integrated observing system for monitoring marine debris and biodiversity. Pp. 52–59 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-22.

A Novel Experiment in the Baltic Sea Shows that Dispersed Oil Droplets Can Be Distinguished by Remote Sensing
Haule, K., W. Freda, H. Toczek, K. Borzycka, S. Sagan, and M. Darecki. 2021. A novel experiment in the Baltic Sea shows that dispersed oil droplets can be distinguished by remote sensing. Pp. 60–61 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-23.

Comparison of Two Soundscapes: An Opportunity to Assess the Dominance of Biophony Versus Anthropophony
Rey Baquero, M.P., C. Parcerisas, K.D. Seger, C. Perazio, N. Botero Acosta, F. Mesa, A. Luna-Acosta, D. Botteldooren, and E. Debusschere. 2021. Comparison of two soundscapes: An opportunity to assess the dominance of biophony versus anthropophony. Pp. 62–65 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-24.

PacIOOS Water Quality Sensor Partnership Program
Wriston, S., G. Walker, M.A. McManus, S. Ellis, F. Langenberger, and M. Iwamoto. 2021. PacIOOS Water Quality Sensor Partnership Program. Pp. 66–67 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-25.

An Integrated Observing Effort for Sargassum Monitoring and Warning in the Caribbean Sea, Tropical Atlantic, and Gulf of Mexico
Triñanes, J., C. Hu, N.F. Putman, M.J. Olascoaga, F.J. Beron-Vera, S. Zhang, and G.J. Goni. 2021. An integrated observing effort for Sargassum monitoring and warning in the Caribbean Sea, tropical Atlantic, and Gulf of Mexico. Pp. 68–69 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-26.

TOPIC 5. MULTI-HAZARD WARNING SYSTEMS

Long-Term Ocean Observing Coupled with Community Engagement Improves Tsunami Early Warning

Sumy, D.F., S.K. McBride, C. von Hillebrandt-Andrade, M.D. Kohler, J. Orcutt, S. Kodaira, K. Moran, D. McNamara, T. Hori, E. Vanacore, B. Pirenne, and J. Collins. 2021. Long-term ocean observing for international capacity development around tsunami early warning. Pp. 70–77 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-27.

Uncrewed Ocean Gliders and Saildrones Support Hurricane Forecasting and Research
Miles, T.N., D. Zhang, G.R. Foltz, J. Zhang, C. Meinig, F. Bringas, J. Triñanes, M. Le Hénaff, M.F. Aristizabal Vargas, S. Coakley, C.R. Edwards, D. Gong, R.E. Todd, M.J. Oliver, W.D. Wilson, K. Whilden, B. Kirkpatrick, P. Chardon-Maldonado, J.M. Morell, D. Hernandez, G. Kuska, C.D. Stienbarger, K. Bailey, C. Zhang, S.M. Glenn, and G.J. Goni. 2021. Uncrewed ocean gliders and saildrones support hurricane forecasting and research. Pp. 78–81 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-28.

Tide Gauges: From Single Hazard to Multi-Hazard Warning Systems
Hibbert, A., L. Bradshaw, J. Pugh, S. Williams, and P. Woodworth. 2021. Tide gauges: From single hazard to multi-hazard warning systems. Pp. 82–83 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-29.

The California Harmful Algal Bloom Monitoring and Alert Program: A Success Story for Coordinated Ocean Observing
Kudela, R.M., C. Anderson, and H. Ruhl. 2021. The California Harmful Algal Bloom Monitoring and Alert Program: A success story for coordinated ocean observing. Pp. 84–85 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-30.

Multi-Stressor Observations and Modeling to Build Understanding of and Resilience to the Coastal Impacts of Climate Change
Newton, J., P. MacCready, S. Siedlecki, D. Manalang, J. Mickett, S. Alin, E. Schumacker, J. Hagen, S. Moore, A. Sutton, and R. Carini. 2021. Multi-stressor observations and modeling to build understanding of and resilience to the coastal impacts of climate change. Pp. 86–87 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-31.

TECHNOLOGY

Technologies for Observing the Near Sea Surface

Ribas-Ribas, M., C.J. Zappa, and O. Wurl. 2021. Technologies for observing the near sea surface. Pp. 88–89 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-32.

Hyperspectral Radiometry on Biogeochemical-Argo Floats: A Bright Perspective for Phytoplankton Diversity
Organelli, E., E. Leymarie, O. Zielinski, J. Uitz, F. D’Ortenzio, and H. Claustre. 2021. Hyperspectral radiometry on Biogeochemical-Argo floats: A bright perspective for phytoplankton diversity. Pp. 90–91 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-33.

Visualizing Multi-Hectare Seafloor Habitats with BioCam
Thornton, B., A. Bodenmann, T. Yamada, D. Stanley, M. Massot-Campos, V. Huvenne, J. Durden, B. Bett, H. Ruhl, and D. Newborough. 2021. Visualizing multi-hectare seafloor habitats with BioCam. Pp. 92–93 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-34.

Emerging, Low-Cost Ocean Observing Technologies to Democratize Access to the Ocean
Butler, J., and C.M.L.S. Pagniello. 2021. Emerging, low-cost ocean observing technologies to democratize access to the ocean. Pp. 94–95 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-35.

Robotic Surveyors for Shallow Coastal Environments
Ackleson, S.G. 2021. Robotic surveyors for shallow coastal environments. Pp. 96–97 in Frontiers in Ocean Observing: Documenting Ecosystems, Understanding Environmental Changes, Forecasting Hazards. E.S. Kappel, S.K. Juniper, S. Seeyave, E. Smith, and M. Visbeck, eds, A Supplement to Oceanography 34(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2021.supplement.02-36.

Supplement Guest Editors

EDITOR
• Ellen S. Kappel, Geosciences Professional Services Inc.

GUEST EDITORS
• S. Kim Juniper, Ocean Networks Canada
• Sophie Seeyave, Partnership for Observation of the Global Ocean
• Emily A. Smith, NOAA Global Ocean Monitoring and Observing Program
• Martin Visbeck, GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research