Oceanography The Official Magazine of
The Oceanography Society

Volume 29 | Number 2 | June 2016

Special Issue: Bay of Bengal: From Monsoons to Mixing

On the Cover: A series of vignettes from a research ship in the Bay of Bengal (above water), during the southwest monsoon season. On sunny days, the sea surface is a source of heat and moisture feeding deep atmospheric convection. The placid conditions are abruptly terminated by an approaching wall cloud, accompanied by gusty winds and torrential monsoon rains. While the ocean’s surface layer is visibly stirred up, what are the processes that determine the interior properties and currents? And, how are the air-sea fluxes themselves affected? These are questions addressed by the articles in this issue. Photo credits: Above-water photographs by San Nguyen, Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Bottom panel photo by Gualtiero Spiro Jaeger, MIT/WHOI Joint Program
Cover PDF
Volume 29 Issue 02

FROM THE GUEST EDITORS. Introduction to the Special Issue on the Bay of Bengal: From Monsoons to Mixing
By Amala Mahadevan, Theresa Paluszkiewicz , M. Ravichandran, Debasis Sengupta, and Amit Tandon

Monsoons to Mixing in the Bay of Bengal: Multiscale Air-Sea Interactions and Monsoon Predictability
By B.N. Goswami , Suryachandra A. Rao, Debasis Sengupta, and Soumi Chakravorty

Air-Sea Interaction in the Bay of Bengal
By Robert A. Weller, J. Thomas Farrar, Jared Buckley, Simi Mathew, R. Venkatesan, J. Sree Lekha, Dipanjan Chaudhuri, N. Suresh Kumar , and B. Praveen Kumar

Representation of Bay of Bengal Upper-Ocean Salinity in General Circulation Models
By Jasti S. Chowdary, G. Srinivas, T.S. Fousiya, Anant Parekh, C. Gnanaseelan, Hyodae Seo , and Jennifer A. MacKinnon

A Tale of Two Spicy Seas
By Jennifer A. MacKinnon, Jonathan D. Nash, Matthew H. Alford , Andrew J. Lucas, John B. Mickett, Emily L. Shroyer, Amy F. Waterhouse, Amit Tandon , Debasis Sengupta, Amala Mahadevan, M. Ravichandran, Robert Pinkel , Daniel L. Rudnick, Caitlin B. Whalen, Marion S. Alberty, J. Sree Lekha, Elizabeth C. Fine, Dipanjan Chaudhuri, and Gregory L. Wagner

Modification of Upper-Ocean Temperature Structure by Subsurface Mixing in the Presence of Strong Salinity Stratification
By Emily L. Shroyer, Daniel L. Rudnick, J. Thomas Farrar, Byungho Lim, S. Karan Venayagamoorthy, Louis C. St. Laurent , Amrapalli Garanaik , and James N. Moum

Freshwater in the Bay of Bengal: Its Fate and Role in Air-Sea Heat Exchange
By Amala Mahadevan, Gualtiero Spiro Jaeger, Mara Freilich, Melissa M. Omand, Emily L. Shroyer, and Debasis Sengupta

Bay of Bengal: 2013 Northeast Monsoon Upper-Ocean Circulation
By Arnold L. Gordon, Emily L. Shroyer, Amala Mahadevan, Debasis Sengupta, and Mara Freilich

Modeling Salinity Exchanges Between the Equatorial Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal
By Tommy G. Jensen , Hemantha W. Wijesekera , Ebenezer S. Nyadjro, Prasad G. Thoppil , Jay F. Shriver , K.K. Sandeep, and Vimlesh Pant

Collaborative Observations of Boundary Currents, Water Mass Variability, and Monsoon Response in the Southern Bay of Bengal
By Craig M. Lee , S.U.P. Jinadasa, Arachaporn Anutaliya , Luca R. Centurioni , Harindra J.S. Fernando , Verena Hormann, Matthias Lankhorst , Luc Rainville, Uwe Send, and Hemantha W. Wijesekera

Observations of Currents Over the Deep Southern Bay of Bengal—With a Little Luck
By Hemantha W. Wijesekera, William J. Teague, Ewa Jarosz, David W. Wang, Tommy G. Jensen, S.U.P. Jinadasa , Harindra J.S. Fernando , Luca R. Centurioni , Zachariah R. Hallock , Emily L. Shroyer , and James N. Moum

Variability of Near-Surface Circulation and Sea Surface Salinity Observed from Lagrangian Drifters in the Northern Bay of Bengal During the Waning 2015 Southwest Monsoon
By Verena Hormann, Luca R. Centurioni , Amala Mahadevan, Sebastian Essink, Eric A. D’Asaro, and B. Praveen Kumar

Adrift Upon a Salinity-Stratified Sea: A View of Upper-Ocean Processes in the Bay of Bengal During the Southwest Monsoon
By Andrew J. Lucas, Jonathan D. Nash, Robert Pinkel, Jennifer A. MacKinnon, Amit Tandon, Amala Mahadevan , Melissa M. Omand , Mara Freilich , Debasis Sengupta, M. Ravichandran, and Arnaud Le Boyer

The Interplay Between Submesoscale Instabilities and Turbulence in the Surface Layer of the Bay of Bengal
By Sutanu Sarkar , Hieu T. Pham, Sanjiv Ramachandran , Jonathan D. Nash, Amit Tandon, Jared Buckley, Aneesh A. Lotliker, and Melissa M. Omand

Monsoon Mixing Cycles in the Bay of Bengal: A Year-Long Subsurface Mixing Record
By Sally J. Warner , Johannes Becherer, Kandaga Pujiana, Emily L. Shroyer , M. Ravichandran , V.P. Thangaprakash, and James N. Moum

Ocean Turbulence and Mixing Around Sri Lanka and in Adjacent Waters of the Northern Bay of Bengal
By S.U.P. Jinadasa, Iossif Lozovatsky, Jesús Planella-Morató, Jonathan D. Nash, Jennifer A. MacKinnon, Andrew J. Lucas , Hemantha W. Wijesekera , and Harinda J.S. Fernando

Decay Mechanisms of Near-Inertial Mixed Layer Oscillations in the Bay of Bengal
By T.M. Shaun Johnston, Dipanjan Chaudhuri , Manikandan Mathur, Daniel L. Rudnick, Debasis Sengupta, Harper L. Simmons, Amit Tandon, and R. Venkatesan

Large-Scale Air-Sea Coupling Processes in the Bay of Bengal Using Space-Borne Observations
By R. Sharma, N. Agarwal , A. Chakraborty, S. Mallick , Jared Buckley, V. Shesu, and Amit Tandon

What Controls Seasonal Evolution of Sea Surface Temperature in the Bay of Bengal? Mixed Layer Heat Budget Analysis Using Moored Buoy Observations Along 90°E
By V.P. Thangaprakash, , K. Suprit, N. Suresh Kumar, Dipanjan Chaudhuri, K. Dinesh, Ashok Kumar, S. Shivaprasad , M. Ravichandran, J. Thomas Farrar, R. Sundar, and Robert A. Weller

Penetrative Radiative Flux in the Bay of Bengal
By Aneesh A. Lotliker, Melissa M. Omand , Andrew J. Lucas , Samuel R. Laney, Amala Mahadevan, and M. Ravichandran

Effects of Freshwater Stratification on Nutrients, Dissolved Oxygen, and Phytoplankton in the Bay of Bengal
By V.V.S.S. Sarma, G.D. Rao, R. Viswanadham , C.K. Sherin , Joseph Salisbury , Melissa M. Omand, Amala Mahadevan, V.S.N. Murty , Emily L. Shroyer, Mark Baumgartner, and Kathleen M. Stafford

Technological Advancements in Observing the Upper Ocean in the Bay of Bengal: Education and Capacity Building
By Amit Tandon, Eric A. D’Asaro, Kathleen M. Stafford , Debasis Sengupta , M. Ravichandran , Mark Baumgartner, R. Venkatesan , and Theresa Paluszkiewicz


Journey of an Arctic Ice Island
By Anna J. Crawford, Peter Wadhams , Till J.W. Wagner, Alon Stern , E. Povl Abrahamsen, Ian Church, Richard Bates, and Keith W. Nicholls

Oceanography Surrounding Krakatau Volcano in the Sunda Strait, Indonesia
By R. Dwi Susanto, Zexun Wei , T. Rameyo Adi , Quanan Zheng, Guohong Fang, Bin Fan, Agus Supangat, Teguh Agustiadi , Shujiang Li , Mukti Trenggono, and Agus Setiawan

Biological Impacts of the 2013–2015 Warm-Water Anomaly in the Northeast Pacific: Winners, Losers, and the Future
By Letícia M. Cavole, Alyssa M. Demko, Rachel E. Diner, Ashlyn Giddings, Irina Koester, Camille M.L.S. Pagniello, May-Linn Paulsen, Arturo Ramirez-Valdez, Sarah M. Schwenck, Nicole K. Yen, Michelle E. Zill, and Peter J.S. Franks

Summer Bridge Program Establishes Nascent Pipeline to Expand and Diversify Hawai‘i’s Undergraduate Geoscience En­rollment
By Barbara C. Bruno, Johanna L.K. Wren, Jessica Ayau , Sherril Leon Soon, Heidi Needham, Keolani Noa, Elisha M. Wood-Charlson, and C. Anela Choy

Special Issue Guest Editors

Amala Mahadevan, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Theresa Paluszkiewicz, Office of Naval Research
M. Ravichandran, Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services
Debasis Sengupta, Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Indian Institute of Science
Amit Tandon, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth


Production of this issue of Oceanography was supported by the US Office of Naval Research through a grant to Scripps Institution of Oceanography.