Oceanography The Official Magazine of
The Oceanography Society

Volume 29 | Number 2 | June 2016

Special Issue: Bay of Bengal: From Monsoons to Mixing

On the Cover: A series of vignettes from a research ship in the Bay of Bengal (above water), during the southwest monsoon season. On sunny days, the sea surface is a source of heat and moisture feeding deep atmospheric convection. The placid conditions are abruptly terminated by an approaching wall cloud, accompanied by gusty winds and torrential monsoon rains. While the ocean’s surface layer is visibly stirred up, what are the processes that determine the interior properties and currents? And, how are the air-sea fluxes themselves affected? These are questions addressed by the articles in this issue. Photo credits: Above-water photographs by San Nguyen, Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Bottom panel photo by Gualtiero Spiro Jaeger, MIT/WHOI Joint Program
Cover PDF
Volume 29 Issue 02

FROM THE GUEST EDITORS. Introduction to the Special Issue on the Bay of Bengal: From Monsoons to Mixing
Mahadevan, A., T. Paluszkiewicz, M. Ravichandran, D. Sengupta, and A. Tandon. 2016. Introduction to the special issue on the Bay of Bengal: From monsoons to mixing. Oceanography 29(2):14–17, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.34.

Monsoons to Mixing in the Bay of Bengal: Multiscale Air-Sea Interactions and Monsoon Predictability
Goswami, B.N., S.A. Rao, D. Sengupta, and S. Chakravorty. 2016. Monsoons to mixing in the Bay of Bengal: Multiscale air-sea interactions and monsoon predictability. Oceanography 29(2):18–27, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.35.

Air-Sea Interaction in the Bay of Bengal
Weller, R.A., J.T. Farrar, J. Buckley, S. Mathew, R. Venkatesan, J. Sree Lekha, D. Chaudhuri, N. Suresh Kumar, and B. Praveen Kumar. 2016. Air-sea interaction in the Bay of Bengal. Oceanography 29(2):28–37, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.36.

Representation of Bay of Bengal Upper-Ocean Salinity in General Circulation Models
Chowdary, J.S., G. Srinivas, T.S. Fousiya, A. Parekh, C. Gnanaseelan, H. Seo, and J.A. MacKinnon. 2016. Representation of Bay of Bengal upper-ocean salinity in general circulation models. Oceanography 29(2):38–49, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.37.

A Tale of Two Spicy Seas
MacKinnon, J.A., J.D. Nash, M.H. Alford, A.J. Lucas, J.B. Mickett, E.L. Shroyer, A.F. Waterhouse, A. Tandon, D. Sengupta, A. Mahadevan, M. Ravichandran, R. Pinkel, D.L. Rudnick, C.B. Whalen, M.S. Alberty, J. Sree Lekha, E.C. Fine, D. Chaudhuri, and G.L. Wagner. 2016. A tale of two spicy seas. Oceanography 29(2):50–61, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.38.

Modification of Upper-Ocean Temperature Structure by Subsurface Mixing in the Presence of Strong Salinity Stratification
Shroyer, E.L., D.L. Rudnick, J.T. Farrar, B. Lim, S.K. Venayagamoorthy, L.C. St. Laurent, A. Garanaik, and J.N. Moum. 2016. Modification of upper-ocean temperature structure by subsurface mixing in the presence of strong salinity stratification. Oceanography 29(2):62–71, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.39.

Freshwater in the Bay of Bengal: Its Fate and Role in Air-Sea Heat Exchange
Mahadevan, A., G. Spiro Jaeger, M. Freilich, M. Omand, E.L. Shroyer, and D. Sengupta. 2016. Freshwater in the Bay of Bengal: Its fate and role in air-sea heat exchange. Oceanography 29(2):72–81, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.40.

Bay of Bengal: 2013 Northeast Monsoon Upper-Ocean Circulation
Gordon, A.L., E.L. Shroyer, A. Mahadevan, D. Sengupta, and M. Freilich. 2016. Bay of Bengal: 2013 northeast monsoon upper-ocean circulation. Oceanography 29(2):82–91, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.41.

Modeling Salinity Exchanges Between the Equatorial Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal
Jensen, T.G., H.W. Wijesekera, E.S. Nyadjro, P.G. Thoppil, J.F. Shriver, K.K. Sandeep, and V. Pant. 2016. Modeling salinity exchanges between the equatorial Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal. Oceanography 29(2):92–101, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.42.

Collaborative Observations of Boundary Currents, Water Mass Variability, and Monsoon Response in the Southern Bay of Bengal
Lee, C.M., S.U.P. Jinadasa, A. Anutaliya, L.R. Centurioni, H.J.S. Fernando, V. Hormann, M. Lankhorst, L. Rainville, U. Send, and H.W. Wijesekera. 2016. Collaborative observations of boundary currents, water mass variability, and monsoon response in the southern Bay of Bengal. Oceanography 29(2):102–111, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.43.

Observations of Currents Over the Deep Southern Bay of Bengal—With a Little Luck
Wijesekera, H.W., W.J. Teague, E. Jarosz, D.W. Wang, T.G. Jensen, S.U.P. Jinadasa, H.J.S. Fernando, L.R. Centurioni, Z.R. Hallock, E.L. Shroyer, and J.N. Moum. 2016. Observations of currents over the deep southern Bay of Bengal—with a little luck. Oceanography 29(2):112–123, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.44.

Variability of Near-Surface Circulation and Sea Surface Salinity Observed from Lagrangian Drifters in the Northern Bay of Bengal During the Waning 2015 Southwest Monsoon
Hormann, V., L.R. Centurioni, A. Mahadevan, S. Essink, E.A. D’Asaro, and B. Praveen Kumar. 2016. Variability of near-surface circulation and sea surface salinity observed from Lagrangian drifters in the northern Bay of Bengal during the waning 2015 southwest monsoon. Oceanography 29(2):124–133, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.45.

Adrift Upon a Salinity-Stratified Sea: A View of Upper-Ocean Processes in the Bay of Bengal During the Southwest Monsoon
Lucas, A.J., J.D. Nash, R. Pinkel, J.A. MacKinnon, A. Tandon, A. Mahadevan, M.M. Omand, M. Freilich, D. Sengupta, M. Ravichandran, and A. Le Boyer. 2016. Adrift upon a salinity-stratified sea: A view of upper-ocean processes in the Bay of Bengal during the southwest monsoon. Oceanography 29(2):134–145, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.46.

The Interplay Between Submesoscale Instabilities and Turbulence in the Surface Layer of the Bay of Bengal
Sarkar, S., H.T. Pham, S. Ramachandran, J.D. Nash, A. Tandon, J. Buckley, A.A. Lotliker, and M.M. Omand. 2016. The interplay between submesoscale instabilities and turbulence in the surface layer of the Bay of Bengal. Oceanography 29(2):146–157, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.47.

Monsoon Mixing Cycles in the Bay of Bengal: A Year-Long Subsurface Mixing Record
Warner, S.J., J. Becherer, K. Pujiana, E.L. Shroyer, M. Ravichandran, V.P. Thangaprakash, and J.N. Moum. 2016. Monsoon mixing cycles in the Bay of Bengal: A year-long subsurface mixing record. Oceanography 29(2):158–169, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.48.

Ocean Turbulence and Mixing Around Sri Lanka and in Adjacent Waters of the Northern Bay of Bengal
Jinadasa, S.U.P., I. Lozovatsky, J. Planella-Morató, J.D. Nash, J.A. MacKinnon, A.J. Lucas, H.W. Wijesekera, and H.J.S. Fernando. 2016. Ocean turbulence and mixing around Sri Lanka and in adjacent waters of the northern Bay of Bengal. Oceanography 29(2):170–179, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.49.

Decay Mechanisms of Near-Inertial Mixed Layer Oscillations in the Bay of Bengal
Johnston, T.M.S., D. Chaudhuri, M. Mathur, D.L. Rudnick, D. Sengupta, H.L. Simmons, A. Tandon, and R. Venkatesan. 2016. Decay mechanisms of near-inertial mixed layer oscillations in the Bay of Bengal. Oceanography 29(2):180–191, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.50.

Large-Scale Air-Sea Coupling Processes in the Bay of Bengal Using Space-Borne Observations
Sharma, R., N. Agarwal, A. Chakraborty, S. Mallick, J. Buckley, V. Shesu, and A. Tandon. 2016. Large-scale air-sea coupling processes in the Bay of Bengal using space-borne observations. Oceanography 29(2):192–201, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.51.

What Controls Seasonal Evolution of Sea Surface Temperature in the Bay of Bengal? Mixed Layer Heat Budget Analysis Using Moored Buoy Observations Along 90°E
Thangaprakash, V.P., M.S. Girishkumar, K. Suprit, N. Suresh Kumar, D. Chaudhuri, K. Dinesh, A. Kumar, S. Shivaprasad, M. Ravichandran, J.T. Farrar, R. Sundar, and R.A. Weller. 2016. What controls seasonal evolution of sea surface temperature in the Bay of Bengal? Mixed layer heat budget analysis using moored buoy observations along 90°E. Oceanography 29(2):202–213, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.52.

Penetrative Radiative Flux in the Bay of Bengal
Lotliker, A.A., M.M. Omand, A.J. Lucas, S.R. Laney, A. Mahadevan, and M. Ravichandran. 2016. Penetrative radiative flux in the Bay of Bengal. Oceanography 29(2):214–221, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.53.

Effects of Freshwater Stratification on Nutrients, Dissolved Oxygen, and Phytoplankton in the Bay of Bengal
Sarma, V.V.S.S., G.D. Rao, R. Viswanadham, C.K. Sherin, J. Salisbury, M.M. Omand, A. Mahadevan, V.S.N. Murty, E.L. Shroyer, M. Baumgartner, and K.M. Stafford. 2016. Effects of freshwater stratification on nutrients, dissolved oxygen, and phytoplankton in the Bay of Bengal. Oceanography 29(2):222–231, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.54.

Remotely Driven Anomalous Sea-Air Heat Flux Over the North Indian Ocean During the Summer Monsoon Season
Bhat, G.S., and H.J.S. Fernando. 2016. Remotely driven anomalous sea-air heat flux over the north Indian Ocean during the summer monsoon season. Oceanography 29(2):232–241, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.55.

Technological Advancements in Observing the Upper Ocean in the Bay of Bengal: Education and Capacity Building
Tandon, A., E.A. D’Asaro, K.M. Stafford, D. Sengupta, M. Ravichandran, M. Baumgartner, R. Venkatesan, and T. Paluszkiewicz. 2016. Technological advancements in observing the upper ocean in the Bay of Bengal: Education and capacity building. Oceanography 29(2):242–253, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.56.


Journey of an Arctic Ice Island
Crawford, A.J., P. Wadhams, T.J.W. Wagner, A. Stern, E.P. Abrahamsen, I. Church, R. Bates, and K.W. Nicholls. 2016. Journey of an Arctic ice island. Oceanography 29(2):254–263, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.30.

Oceanography Surrounding Krakatau Volcano in the Sunda Strait, Indonesia
Susanto, R.D., Z. Wei, T.R. Adi, Q. Zheng, G. Fang, B. Fan, A. Supangat, T. Agustiadi, S. Li, M. Trenggono, and A. Setiawan. 2016. Oceanography surrounding Krakatau Volcano in the Sunda Strait, Indonesia. Oceanography 29(2):264–272, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.31.

Biological Impacts of the 2013–2015 Warm-Water Anomaly in the Northeast Pacific: Winners, Losers, and the Future
Cavole, L.M., A.M. Demko, R.E. Diner, A. Giddings, I. Koester, C.M.L.S. Pagniello, M.-L. Paulsen, A. Ramirez-Valdez, S.M. Schwenck, N.K. Yen, M.E. Zill, and P.J.S. Franks. 2016. Biological impacts of the 2013–2015 warm-water anomaly in the Northeast Pacific: Winners, losers, and the future. Oceanography 29(2):273–285, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.32.

Summer Bridge Program Establishes Nascent Pipeline to Expand and Diversify Hawai‘i’s Undergraduate Geoscience En­rollment
Bruno, B.C., J.L.K. Wren, K. Noa, E.M. Wood-Charlson, J. Ayau, S. Leon Soon, H. Needham, and C.A. Choy. 2016. Summer bridge program establishes nascent pipeline to expand and diversify Hawai‘i’s undergraduate geoscience en­rollment. Oceanography 29(2):286–292, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.33.


QUARTERDECK • Wading in the Footsteps of an Ecological Giant
Greene, C.H. 2016. Wading in the footsteps of an ecological giant. Oceanography 29(2):5–6, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.25.

FROM THE PRESIDENT • Oceanographers at the Beach
Lozier, M.S. 2016. Oceanographers at the beach. Oceanography 29(2):8–9, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.26.

RIP CURRENT – NEWS IN OCEANOGRAPHY • First Evidence of Bioluminescence on a “Black Smoker” Hydrothermal Chimney
Phillips, B.T., D.F. Gruber, G. Vasan, V.A. Pieribone, J.S. Sparks, and C.N. Roman. 2016. First evidence of bioluminescence on a “black smoker” hydrothermal chimney. Oceanography 29(2):10–11, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.27.

RIPPLE MARKS • It’s Catching: Leukemia, Third Known Transmissible Cancer, Infects Soft-Shell Clams
Dybas, C.L. 2016. Ripple marks—The story behind the story. Oceanography 29(2):12–13, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.28.

THE OCEANOGRAPHY CLASSROOM • Polar Oceanography: Engendering Students with a Sense of Place and a Sense of Time
Roesler, C.S. 2016. Polar oceanography: Engendering students with a sense of place and a sense of time. Oceanography 29(2):293–295, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.29.

CAREER PROFILES • Options and Insights
Career profiles—Options and insights. 2016. Oceanography 29(2):296–299.

Special Issue Guest Editors

Amala Mahadevan, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Theresa Paluszkiewicz, Office of Naval Research
M. Ravichandran, Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services
Debasis Sengupta, Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Indian Institute of Science
Amit Tandon, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth


Production of this issue of Oceanography was supported by the US Office of Naval Research through a grant to Scripps Institution of Oceanography.