Oceanography The Official Magazine of
The Oceanography Society

Volume 24 | Number 3 | September 2011

The Changing Arctic Ocean: Special Issue on the International Polar Year (2007–2009)

On the Cover: BACKGROUND PHOTO:  Sea ice melt ponds in the Beaufort Sea in August 2011 (Photo credit: Carlton D. Rauschenberg). TOP ROW: (left) Sea ice extent in September 2007; the magenta line shows the median monthly ice extent for September from 1979 to 2000 (NSIDC). (middle) Deployment of acoustic Doppler current profiling moorings from the UCCGC Healy into Nares Strait in 2003 (Münchow et al., p. 114). (right) Sea ice algae from first-year sea ice in the Bering Sea (Photo credit: Rolf Gradinger). MIDDLE ROW: (left) Ice-Tethered Buoy (Toole et al., p. 126). (middle) Three icebreakers used during the Arctic Coring Expedition of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (Photo courtesy of IODP/ECORD). (right) Sea ice extent in September 2008 (NSIDC). BOTTOM ROW: (left) Yup'ik elder Simeon Agnus sharing qanruyutet (instructions) during a trip with youth and elders (Fienup-Riordan and Carmack, p. 266). (middle) Vertical Microstructure Profiler being deployed from the icebreaker Oden near the North Pole during the Beringia 2005 expedition (Rainville et al., p. 136). (right) Sea ice extent in September 2009 (NSIDC).
Cover PDF
Volume 24 Issue 03

The Changing Arctic Ocean: An Introduction to the Special Issue on the International Polar Year (2007–2008)
Ortiz, J.D., K.K. Falkner, P.A. Matrai, and R.A. Woodgate. 2011. The changing Arctic Ocean: An introduction to the special issue on the International Polar Year (2007–2008). Oceanography 24(3):14–16, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.49.

SIDEBAR • Arctic Ocean Science and Outreach: A Perspective from the International Polar Year Programme Office
Carlson, D. 2011. Arctic ocean science and outreach: A perspective from the International Polar Year Programme Office. Oceanography 24(3):17, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.50.

US Arctic Research Policy
Moran, K., and J.W. Farrell. 2011. US Arctic research policy. Oceanography 24(3):18–25, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.51.

The Holocene History of Nares Strait: Transition from Glacial Bay to Arctic-Atlantic Throughflow
Jennings, A.E., C. Sheldon, T.M. Cronin, P. Francus, J. Stoner, and J. Andrews. 2011. The Holocene history of Nares Strait: Transition from glacial bay to Arctic-Atlantic throughflow. Oceanography 24(3):26–41, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.52.

Paleomagnetism Near the North Magnetic Pole: A Unique Vantage Point for Understanding the Dynamics of the Geomagnetic Field and Its Secular Variations
St-Onge, G., and J.S. Stoner. 2011. Paleomagnetism near the North Magnetic Pole: A unique vantage point for understanding the dynamics of the geomagnetic field and its secular variations. Oceanography 24(3):42–50, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.53.

SIDEBAR • The Svalbard REU Program: A High-Latitude Undergraduate Research Experience in Glacial, Marine, and Lacustrine Processes Relevant to Arctic Climate Change
Roof, S., A. Werner, J. Brigham-Grette, R. Powell, and M. Retelle. 2011. The Svalbard REU Program: A high-latitude undergraduate research experience in glacial, marine, and lacustrine processes relevant to Arctic climate change. Oceanography 24(3):51, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.54.

Quaternary Sedimentation in the Arctic Ocean: Recent Advances and Further Challenges
Polyak, L., and M. Jakobsson. 2011. Quaternary sedimentation in the Arctic Ocean: Recent advances and further challenges. Oceanography 24(3):52–64, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.55.

SIDEBAR • Research Vessel Sikuliaq
Edwards, M., and D. Oliver. 2011. Research Vessel Sikuliaq. Oceanography 24(3):65, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.56.

A Synthesis of the Long-Term Paleoclimatic Evolution of the Arctic
O’Regan, M., C.J. Williams, K.E. Frey, and M. Jakobsson. 2011. A synthesis of the long-term paleoclimatic evolution of the Arctic. Oceanography 24(3):66–80, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.57.

SIDEBAR • Millennial-Scale Arctic Climate Change of the Last 3.6 Million Years: Scientific Drilling at Lake El'gygytgyn, Northeast Russia
Brigham-Grette, J., M. Melles, P. Minyuk, and C. Koeberl. 2011. Millennial-scale Arctic climate change of the last 3.6 million years: Scientific drilling at Lake El’gygytgyn, Northeast Russia. Oceanography 24(3):80–81, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.58.

A Synthesis of Exchanges Through the Main Oceanic Gateways to the Arctic Ocean
Beszczynska-Möller, A., R.A. Woodgate, C. Lee, H. Melling, and M. Karcher. 2011. A synthesis of exchanges through the main oceanic gateways to the Arctic Ocean. Oceanography 24(3):82–99, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.59.

SIDEBAR • The North Pole Environmental Observatory Mooring
Aagaard, K., and J.M. Johnson. 2011. The North Pole Environmental Observatory mooring. Oceanography 24(3):100–101, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.60.

Recent Advances in Arctic Ocean Studies Employing Models from the Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project
Proshutinsky, A., Y. Aksenov, J. Clement Kinney, R. Gerdes, E. Golubeva, D. Holland, G. Holloway, A. Jahn, M. Johnson, E. Popova, M. Steele, and E. Watanabe. 2011. Recent advances in Arctic ocean studies employing models from the Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project. Oceanography 24(3):102–113, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.61.

Ocean Warming of Nares Strait Bottom Waters Off Northwest Greenland, 2003–2009
Münchow, A., K.K. Falkner, H. Melling, B. Rabe, and H.L. Johnson. 2011. Ocean warming of Nares Strait bottom waters off Northwest Greenland, 2003–2009. Oceanography 24(3):114–123, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.62.

SIDEBAR • The Best Laid Schemes: A Nares Strait Adventure
Melling, H. 2011. The best laid schemes: A Nares Strait adventure. Oceanography 24(3):124–125, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.63.

The Ice-Tethered Profiler: Argo of the Arctic
Toole, J.M., R.A. Krishfield, M.-L. Timmermans, and A. Proshutinsky. 2011. The Ice-Tethered Profiler: Argo of the Arctic. Oceanography 24(3):126–135, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.64.

Impact of Wind-Driven Mixing in the Arctic Ocean
Rainville, L., C.M. Lee, and R.A. Woodgate. 2011. Impact of wind-driven mixing in the Arctic Ocean. Oceanography 24(3):136–145, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.65.

The Rapid Response of the Canada Basin to Climate Forcing: From Bellwether to Alarm Bells
McLaughlin, F., E. Carmack, A. Proshutinsky, R.A. Krishfield, C. Guay, M. Yamamoto-Kawai, J.M. Jackson, and B. Williams. 2011. The rapid response of the Canada Basin to climate forcing: From bellwether to alarm bells. Oceanography 24(3):146–159, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.66.

SIDEBAR • A Rosette for Sampling Ice-Covered Water
Smethie, W.M. Jr., D. Chayes, R. Perry, P. Schlosser, and R. Friedrich. 2011. A rosette for sampling ice-covered water. Oceanography 24(3):160–161, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.67.

The Changing Arctic Sea Ice Cover
Perovich, D.K. 2011. The changing Arctic sea ice cover. Oceanography 24(3):162–173, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.68.

SIDEBAR • Steps Toward an Integrated Arctic Ocean Observational System
Gascard, J.C. 2011. Steps toward an integrated Arctic Ocean Observational System. Oceanography 24(3):174–175, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.69.

Potential Arctic Change Through Climate Amplification Processes
Overland, J.E. 2011. Potential Arctic change through climate amplification processes. Oceanography 24(3):176–185, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.70.

The Ocean Carbon Cycle in the Western Arctic Ocean: Distributions and Air-Sea Fluxes of Carbon Dioxide
Bates, N.R., W.-J. Cai, and J.T. Mathis. 2011. The ocean carbon cycle in the western Arctic Ocean: Distributions and air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide. Oceanography 24(3):186–201, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.71.

Sea Ice Biogeochemistry and Material Transport Across the Frozen Interface
Loose, B., L.A. Miller, S. Elliott, and T. Papakyriakou. 2011. Sea ice biogeochemistry and material transport across the frozen interface. Oceanography 24(3):202–218, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.72.

SIDEBAR • APECS: Nurturing a New Generation of Polar Researchers
Baeseman, J., and A. Pope. 2011. APECS: Nurturing a new generation of polar researchers. Oceanography 24(3):219, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.73.

Future Arctic Ocean Seasonal Ice Zones and Implications for Pelagic-Benthic Coupling
Wassmann, P., and M. Reigstad. 2011. Future Arctic Ocean seasonal ice zones and implications for pelagic-benthic coupling. Oceanography 24(3):220–231, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.74.

Arctic Marine Biodiversity: An Update of Species Richness and Examples of Biodiversity Change
Bluhm, B.A., A.V. Gebruk, R. Gradinger, R.R. Hopcroft, F. Huettmann, K.N. Kosobokova, B.I. Sirenko, and J.M. Weslawski. 2011. Arctic marine biodiversity: An update of species richness and examples of biodiversity change. Oceanography 24(3):232–248, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.75.

SIDEBAR • POLAR-PALOOZA: An International Polar Year Community Outreach Project
Richter-Menge, J. 2011. POLAR-PALOOZA: An International Polar Year community outreach project. Oceanography 24(3):249, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.76.

Fluxes, Fins, and Feathers: Relationships Among the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas in a Time of Climate Change
Sigler, M.F., M. Renner, S.L. Danielson, L.B. Eisner, R.R. Lauth, K.J. Kuletz, E.A. Logerwell, and G.L. Hunt Jr. 2011. Fluxes, fins, and feathers: Relationships among the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas in a time of climate change. Oceanography 24(3):250–265, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.77.

"The Ocean is Always Changing": Nearshore and Farshore Perspectives on Arctic Coastal Seas
Fienup-Riordan, A., and E. Carmack. 2011. “The ocean is always changing”: Nearshore and farshore perspectives on Arctic coastal seas. Oceanography 24(3):266–279, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.78.


A 20-Year Hydroacoustic Time Series of Seismic and Volcanic Events in the Northeast Pacific Ocean
Dziak, R.P., S.R. Hammond, and C.G. Fox. 2011. A 20-year hydroacoustic time series of seismic and volcanic events in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Oceanography 24(3):280–293, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.79.

Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Review of the Planktonic Response
Abbriano, R.M., M.M. Carranza, S.L. Hogle, R.A. Levin, A.N. Netburn, K.L. Seto, S.M. Snyder, SIO280, and P.J.S. Franks. 2011. Deepwater Horizon oil spill: A review of the planktonic response. Oceanography 24(3):294–301, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.80.


Holes in Progressively Thinning Arctic Sea Ice Lead to New Ice Algae Habitat
Lee, S.H., C.P. McRoy, H.M. Joo, R. Gradinger, X. Cui, M.S. Yun, K.H. Chung, S.-H. Kang, C.-K. Kang, E.J. Choy, S. Son, E. Carmack, and T.E. Whitledge. 2011. Holes in progressively thinning Arctic sea ice lead to new ice algae habitat. Oceanography 24(3):302–308, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.81.


QUARTERDECK • A Tribute to Thomas E. Pyle (October 31, 1941–May 28, 2011)
Kappel, E.S. 2011. Quarterdeck: A tribute to Thomas E. Pyle. Oceanography 24(3):5, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.82.

FROM THE PRESIDENT • Arctic Climate Change
Roman, M. 2011. From the President: Arctic climate change. Oceanography 24(3):7, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.83.

RIPPLE MARKS • The Gulf of Maine: Between a Rock and a Hard Place?
Dybas, C.L. 2011. Ripple marks—The story behind the story. Oceanography 24(3):8–13, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.84.

THE OCEANOGRAPHY CLASSROOM • In Praise of Teaching Assistants
Garrison, T. 2011. The oceanography classroom: In praise of teaching assistants. Oceanography 24(3):309, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.85.

Wadhams, P. 2011. Review of On Sea Ice, by W.F. Weeks. Oceanography 24(3):310–311, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.86.

BOOK REVIEW • Contemporary Issues in Estuarine Physics
Scully, M. 2011. Review of Contemporary Issues in Estuarine Physics, edited by A. Valle-Levinson. Oceanography 24(3):312–313, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.87.

BOOK REVIEW • Among Giants: A Life with Whales
Shelden, K. 2011. Review of Among Giants: A Life with Whales, by C. Nicklin. Oceanography 24(3):314, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.88.

CAREER PROFILES • Options and Insights
Career profiles—Options and insights. 2011. Oceanography 24(3):315–317.

OCEAN POLICY • Black Swans, Wicked Problems, and Science During Crises
Machlis, G.E., and M.K. McNutt. 2011. Ocean policy: Black swans, wicked problems, and science during crises. Oceanography 24(3):318–320, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.89.

Special Issue Guest Editors

Joseph Ortiz, Kent State University
Kelly Falkner, National Science Foundation
Patricia Matrai, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences
Rebecca Woodgate, University of Washington