Anderson, L.G., G. Bjork, O. Holby, E.P. Jones, G. Kattner, K.P. Koltermann, B. Liljeblad, R. Lindegren, B. Rudels, and J.H. Swift. 1994. Water masses and circulation in the Eurasian Basin: Results from the ODEN 91 expedition. Journal of Geophysical Research 99:3,273–3,283, https://doi.org/10.1029/93JC02977.
Belkin, I.M., S. Levitus, J. Antonov, and S.-A. Malmberg. 1998. “Great Salinity Anomalies” in the North Atlantic. Progress in Oceanography 41:1–68, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6611(98)00015-9.
Carmack, E.C. 1990. Large-scale physical oceanography of polar oceans. Pp. 171–222 in Polar Oceanography, Part A: Physical Science. W.O. Smith Jr., ed., Academic Press, San Diego.
Carmack, E., and D.C. Chapman. 2003. Wind-driven shelf/basin exchange on an Arctic shelf: The joint roles of ice cover extent and shelf-break bathymetry. Geophysical Research Letters 30, 1778, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003GL017526.
Carmack, E.C., K. Aagaard, J.H. Swift, R.W. Macdonald, F.A. McLaughlin, E.P. Jones, R.G. Perkin, J.N. Smith, K.M. Ellis, and L. Kilius. 1997. Changes in temperature and tracer distributions within the Arctic Ocean: Results from the 1994 Arctic Ocean Section. Deep-Sea Research Part II 44:1,487–1,502, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0645(97)00056-8.
Carmack, E.C., R.W. Macdonald, R.G. Perkin, F.A. McLaughlin, and R.J. Pearson. 1995. Evidence for warming of Atlantic water in the southern Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean: Results from the Larsen-93 expedition. Geophysical Research Letters 22:1,061–1,064, https://doi.org/10.1029/95GL00808.
Coachman, L.K., K. Aagaard, and R.B. Tripp. 1975. Bering Strait: The Regional Physical Oceanography. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA.
Cooper, L.W., J.W. McClelland, R.M. Holmes, P.A. Raymond, J.J. Gibson, C.K. Guay, and B.J. Peterson. 2008. Flow-weighted tracer content (δ18O, DOC, Ba, alkalinity) of the six largest Arctic rivers. Geophysical Research Letters 35, L18606, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL035007.
Dickson, R.R., J. Meincke, and P. Rhines. 2008. Arctic-subarctic ocean fluxes: Defining the role of the Northern Seas in climate, a general introduction. Pp. 1–13 in Arctic-Subarctic Ocean Fluxes: Defining the Role of the Northern Seas in Climate. R.R. Dickson, J. Meincke, and P. Rhines, eds, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
Fienup-Riordan, A., and E. Carmack. 2011. “The ocean is always changing”: Nearshore and farshore perspectives on Arctic coastal seas. Oceanography 24(3):266–279, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.78.
Guay, C.K., and K.K. Falkner. 1997. Barium as a tracer of Arctic halocline and river waters. Deep-Sea Research Part II 44:1,543–1,569, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0645(97)00066-0.
Guay, C.K., F.A. McLaughlin, and M. Yamamoto-Kawai. 2009. Differentiating fluvial components of upper Canada Basin waters on the basis of measurements of dissolved barium combined with other physical and chemical tracers. Journal of Geophysical Research 114, C00A09, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JC005099.
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2007. The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. S.D. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller, eds, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Jackson, J.M., S.E. Allen, F.A. McLaughlin, R.A. Woodgate, and E.C. Carmack. In press. Changes to the near-surface waters in the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean from 1993–2009: A basin in transition. Journal of Geophysical Research, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JC007069.
Jackson, J.M., E.C. Carmack, F.A. McLaughlin, S.E. Allen, and R.G. Ingram. 2010. Identification, characterization and change of the near-surface temperature maximum in the Canada Basin, 1993–2008. Journal of Geophysical Research 115, 05021, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JC005265.
Jones, E.P., and L.G. Anderson. 1986. On the origin of the chemical properties of the Arctic Ocean halocline. Journal of Geophysical Research 91:10,759–10,767, https://doi.org/10.1029/JC091iC09p10759.
Jones, E.P., D.M. Nelson, and P. Treguer. 1990. Chemical oceanography. Pp 406–476 in Polar Oceanography, Part A: Physical Science. W.O. Smith Jr., ed., Academic Press, San Diego.
Karcher, M., A. Beszczynska-Möller, F. Kauker, R. Gerdes, S. Heyen, B. Rudels, and U. Schauer. 2011. Arctic Ocean warming and its consequences for the Denmark Strait overflow. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116, C02037, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JC006265.
Kwok, R., and G.F. Cunningham. 2010. Contribution of melt in the Beaufort Sea to the decline in Arctic multiyear sea ice coverage: 1993–2009. Geophysical Research Letters 37, L20501, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL044678.
Kwok, R., G.F. Cunningham, M. Wensnahan, I. Rigor, H.J. Zwally, and D. Li. 2009. Thinning and volume loss of the Arctic Ocean sea ice cover: 2003–2008. Journal of Geophysical Research 114, C07005, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JC005312.
Li, W.K.W., F.A. McLaughlin, C. Lovejoy, and E.C. Carmack. 2009. Smallest algae thrive as the Arctic Ocean freshens. Science 326:539, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1179798.
Macdonald, R.W., E.C. Carmack, F.A. McLaughlin, and K.K. Falkner. 1999. Connections among ice, runoff and atmospheric forcing in the Beaufort Gyre. Geophysical Research Letters 26:2,223–2,226, https://doi.org/10.1029/1999GL900508.
Macdonald, R.W., F.A. McLaughlin, and E.C. Carmack. 2002. Fresh water and its sources during the SHEBA drift in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean. Deep-Sea Research Part I 49:1,769–1,785, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0637(02)00097-3.
Markus, T., J.C. Stroeve, and J. Miller. 2009. Recent changes in sea ice melt onset, freezeup and melt season length. Journal of Geophysical Research 114, C12024, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JC005436.
Mauritzen, C. 1996. Production of dense overflow waters feeding the North Atlantic across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge. Part 1: Evidence for a revised circulation scheme. Deep-Sea Research Part I 43:769–806, https://doi.org/10.1016/0967-0637(96)00037-4.
McLaughlin, F.A., and E.C. Carmack. 2010. Deepening of the nutricline and chlorophyll maximum in the Canada Basin interior, 2003–2009. Geophysical Research Letters 37, L24602, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL045459.
McLaughlin, F.A., E.C. Carmack, R.W. Macdonald, and J.K.B. Bishop. 1996. Physical and geochemical properties across the Atlantic/Pacific water mass front in the southern Canadian Basin. Journal of Geophysical Research 101:1,183–1,197, https://doi.org/10.1029/95JC02634.
McLaughlin, F.A., E.C. Carmack, R.W. Macdonald, H. Melling, J.H. Swift, P.A. Wheeler, B.F. Sherr, and E.B. Sherr. 2004. The joint roles of Pacific and Atlantic-origin waters in the Canada Basin, 1997–1998. Deep-Sea Research Part I 51:107–128, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2003.09.010.
McLaughlin, F., E. Carmack, R. Macdonald, A.J. Weaver, and J. Smith. 2002. The Canada Basin, 1989–1995: Upstream events and far-field effects of the Barents Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research 107, C7, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JC000904.
McLaughlin, F.A., E.C. Carmack, W.J. Williams, S. Zimmermann, K. Shimada, and M. Itoh. 2009. Joint effects of boundary currents and thermohaline intrusions on the warming of Atlantic water in the Canada Basin, 1993–2007. Journal of Geophysical Research 114 C00A12, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JC005001.
Morison, J., M. Steele, and R. Anderson. 1998. Hydrography of the upper Arctic Ocean measured from the nuclear submarine USS Pargo. Deep-Sea Research Part I 45:15–38, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0637(97)00025-3.
National Snow and Ice Data Center. 2010. Arctic sea ice falls to third-lowest extent; Downward trend persists. http://nsidc.org/news/press/20101004_minimumpr.html, Boulder, CO.
Nikolopoulos, A., R.S. Pickart, P.S. Fratantoni, K. Shimada, D.J. Torres, and E.P. Jones. 2009. The western Arctic boundary current at 152°W: Structure, variability, and transport. Deep-Sea Research Part I 56:1,164–1,181, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.10.014.
Nishino, S., T. Kikuchi, M. Yamamoto-Kawai, Y. Kawaguchi, T. Hirawake, and M. Itoh. 2011. Enhancement/reduction of biological pump depends on ocean circulation in the sea-ice reduction regions of the Arctic Ocean. Journal of Oceanography 67:305–314, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10872-011-0030-7.
Perovich, D.K., E.L. Andreas, J.A. Curry, H. Eiken, C.W. Fairall, T.C. Grenfell, P.S. Guest, J. Intrieri, D. Kadko, R.W. Lindsay, and others. 1999. Year on ice gives climate insights. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 80:481, 485–486.
Pickart, R.S., T.J. Weingartner, S. Zimmermann, D.J. Torres, and L.J. Pratt. 2005. Flow of winter-transformed water into the western arctic. Deep-Sea Research Part II 52:3,175–3,198, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2005.10.009.
Pounder, E.R. 1986. Physical oceanography near the North Pole. Journal of Geophysical Research 91:11,763–11,773, https://doi.org/10.1029/JC091iC10p11763.
Proshutinsky, A.Y., and M.A. Johnson. 1997. Two circulation regimes of the wind-driven Arctic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research 102:12,493–12,514, https://doi.org/10.1029/97JC00738.
Proshutinsky, A.Y., and M. Johnson. 2010. Decadal variability of Arctic climate: Cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation regimes. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA, December 13–17, 2010, Abstract GC12B-09.
Proshutinsky, A., R.H. Bourke, and F.A. McLaughlin. 2002. The role of the Beaufort Gyre in Arctic climate variability: Seasonal to decadal climate scales. Geophysical Research Letters 29:2,100–2,105, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002GL015847.
Proshutinsky, A., R. Krishfield, M.-L. Timmermans, J. Toole, E. Carmack, F. McLaughlin, W.J. Williams, S. Zimmermann, M. Itoh, and K. Shimada. 2009. Beaufort Gyre freshwater reservoir: State and variability from observations. Journal of Geophysical Research 114, C00A10, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JC005104.
Proshutinsky, A.Y., I.V. Polyakov, and M.A. Johnson. 1999. Climate states and variability of Arctic ice and water dynamics during 1946–1997. Polar Research 18:135–142, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-8369.1999.tb00285.x.
Quadfasel, D., A. Sy, D. Wells, and A. Tunik. 1991. Warming in the Arctic. Nature 350:385, https://doi.org/10.1038/350385a0.
Rampal, P., J. Weiss, and D. Marsan. 2009. Positive trend in the mean speed and deformation rate of Arctic sea ice. Journal of Geophysical Research 114, C05013, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JC005066.
Rigor, I., and J.M. Wallace. 2004. Variations in the age of Arctic sea-ice and summer sea-ice extent. Geophysical Research Letters 31, L09401, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GL019492.
Serreze, M.C., J.A. Maslanik, J.R. Rey, and R.F. Kokaly. 1995. Diagnosis of the record minimum in Arctic sea ice area during 1990 and associated snow cover extremes. Geophysical Research Letters 22:2,183–2,186, https://doi.org/10.1029/95GL02068.
Shimada, K., E.C. Carmack, K. Hatakeyama, and T. Takizawa. 2001. Varieties of shallow temperature maximum waters in the Western Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters 28:3,441–3,444, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001GL013168.
Shimada, K., M. Itoh, S. Nishino, F. McLaughlin, E. Carmack, and A. Proshutinsky. 2005. Halocline structure in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters 32, L03605, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GL021358.
Shimada, K., T. Kamoshida, M. Itoh, S. Nishino, E. Carmack, F. McLaughlin, S. Zimmermann, and A. Proshutinsky. 2006. Pacific Ocean inflow: Influence on catastrophic reduction of sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters 33, L08605, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL025624.
Shimada, K., F. McLaughlin, E. Carmack, A. Proshutinsky, S. Nishino, and M. Itoh. 2004. Penetration of the 1990s warm temperature anomaly of Atlantic Water in the Canada Basin. Geophysical Research Letters 31, L20301, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GL020860.
Steele, M., J. Morison, W. Ermold, I. Rigor, M. Ortmeyer, and K. Shimada. 2004. Circulation of summer Pacific halocline water in the Arctic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research 109, C02027, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JC002009.
Stigebrandt, A. 1984. The North Pacific: A global-scale estuary. Journal of Physical Oceanography 14:464–470, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1984)014<0464:TNPAGS>2.0.CO;2.
Swift, J.H., K. Aagaard, L. Timokhov, and E.G. Nikiforov. 2005. Long-term variability of Arctic Ocean waters: Evidence from a reanalysis of the EWG data set. Journal of Geophysical Research 110, C03012, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JC002312.
Swift, J.H., E.P. Jones, K. Aagaard, E.C. Carmack, M. Hingston, R.W. Macdonald, F.A. McLaughlin, and R.G. Perkin. 1997. Waters of the Makarov and Canada basins. Deep-Sea Research Part II 44:1,503–1,529, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0645(97)00055-6.
Taylor, J.R., K.K. Falkner, U. Schauer, and M. Meredith. 2003. Quantitative considerations of dissolved barium as a tracer in the Arctic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research 108, 3374, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JC001635.
Thompson, D.W.J., and J.M. Wallace. 1998. The Arctic Oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophysical Research Letters 25:1,297–1,300, https://doi.org/10.1029/98gl00950.
Toole, J.M., M.-L. Timmermans, D.K. Perovich, R.A. Krishfield, A. Proshutinsky, and J.A. Richter-Menge. 2010. Influences of the ocean surface mixed layer and thermohaline stratification on Arctic sea ice in the central Canada Basin. Journal of Geophysical Research 115, C10018, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JC005660.
Weingartner, T., K. Aagaard, R. Woodgate, S. Danielson, Y. Sasaki, and D. Cavalieri. 2005. Circulation on the north central Chukchi Sea shelf. Deep-Sea Research Part II 52:3,150–3,174, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2005.10.015.
Weingartner, T.J., D.J. Cavalieri, K. Aagaard, and Y. Sasaki. 1998. Circulation, dense water formation, and outflow on the northeast Chukchi shelf. Journal of Geophysical Research 103:7,647–7,661, https://doi.org/10.1029/98jc00374.
Williams, W.J., E.C. Carmack, K. Shimada, H. Melling, K. Aagaard, R.W. Macdonald, and R.G. Ingram. 2006. Joint effects of wind and ice motion in forcing upwelling in Mackenzie Trough, Beaufort Sea. Continental Shelf Research 26:2,352–2,366, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2006.06.012.
Woodgate, R.A, K. Aagaard and T. Weingartner. 2005a. A year in the physical oceanography of the Chukchi Sea. Moored measurements from autumn 1990–1991. Deep-Sea Research Part II 52:3,116–3,149, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2005.10.016.
Woodgate, R.A., K. Aagaard, J.H. Swift, K.K. Falkner, and W.M. Smethie. 2005b. Pacific ventilation of the Arctic Ocean’s lower halocline by upwelling and diapycnal mixing over the continental margin. Geophysical Research Letters 32, L18609, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL023999.
Woodgate, R.A., K. Aagaard, J.H. Swift, W.M. Smethie Jr., and K.K. Falkner. 2007. Atlantic water circulation over the Mendeleev Ridge and Chukchi Borderland from thermohaline intrusions and water mass properties. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, C02005, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JC003416.
Woodgate, R.A, T. Weingartner, and R. Lindsay. 2010. The 2007 Bering Strait oceanic heat flux and anomalous Arctic sea-ice retreat. Geophysical Research Letters 37, L01602, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL041621.
Yamamoto-Kawai, M., F.A. McLaughlin, E.C. Carmack, S. Nishino, K. Shimada, and N. Kurita. 2009a. Surface freshening of the Canada Basin, 2003–2007: River runoff versus sea ice meltwater. Journal of Geophysical Research 114, C00A05, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JC005000.
Yamamoto-Kawai, M., F.A. McLaughlin, E. Carmack, S. Nishino, and K. Shimada. 2009b. Aragonite undersaturation in the Arctic Ocean: Effects of ocean acidification and sea ice melt. Science 326:1,098–1,100, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1174190.
Yang, J. 2009. Seasonal and interannual variability of downwelling in the Beaufort Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research 114, C00A14, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JC005084.