Oceanography The Official Magazine of
The Oceanography Society
Volume 24 Issue 03

View Issue TOC
Volume 24, No. 3
Pages 82 - 99


A Synthesis of Exchanges Through the Main Oceanic Gateways to the Arctic Ocean

By Agnieszka Beszczynska-Möller , Rebecca A. Woodgate , Craig M. Lee , Humfrey Melling, and Michael Karcher 
Jump to
Article Abstract Citation References Copyright & Usage
Article Abstract

In recent decades, the Arctic Ocean has changed dramatically. Exchanges through the main oceanic gateways indicate two main processes of global climatic importance—poleward oceanic heat flux into the Arctic Ocean and export of freshwater toward the North Atlantic. Since the 1990s, in particular during the International Polar Year (2007–2009), extensive observational efforts were undertaken to monitor volume, heat, and freshwater fluxes between the Arctic Ocean and the subpolar seas on scales from daily to multiyear. This paper reviews present-day estimates of oceanic fluxes and reports on technological advances and existing challenges in measuring exchanges through the main oceanic gateways to the Arctic.


Beszczynska-Möller, A., R.A. Woodgate, C. Lee, H. Melling, and M. Karcher. 2011. A synthesis of exchanges through the main oceanic gateways to the Arctic Ocean. Oceanography 24(3):82–99, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.59.


Aagaard, K., C. Darnall, and P. Greisman. 1973. Year-long measurements in the Greenland-Spitsbergen passage. Deep-Sea Research Part I 20:743–746, https://doi.org/10.1016/0011-7471(73)90090-9.

Aagaard, K., T.J. Weingartner, S.L. Danielson, R.A. Woodgate, G.C. Johnson, and T.E. Whitledge. 2006. Some controls on flow and salinity in Bering Strait. Geophysical Research Letters 33, L19602, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL026612.

Aksenov, Y., S. Bacon, A. Coward, A. Nurser. 2010. The North Atlantic inflow to the Arctic Ocean: High-resolution model study. Journal of Marine Systems 79(1–2):1–22, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2009.05.003.

Belkin, I.M, S. Levitus, J. Antonov, S.-A. Malmberg. 1998. “Great Salinity Anomalies” in the North Atlantic. Progress In Oceanography 41(1):1–68, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6611(98)00015-9.

Coachman, L.K., and K. Aagaard. 1966. On the water exchange through Bering Strait. Limnology and Oceanography 11:44–59, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1966.11.1.0044.

Cuny, J., P. Rhines, and R. Kwok. 2005. Davis Strait volume, freshwater and heat fluxes. Deep-Sea Research Part I 52(3):519–542, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2004.10.006.

Curry, B., C.M. Lee, and B. Petrie. 2011. Volume, freshwater, and heat fluxes through Davis Strait, 2004–05. Journal of Physical Oceanography 41:429–436, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JPO4536.1.

de Steur, L., E. Hansen, R. Gerdes, M. Karcher, E. Fahrbach, and J. Holfort. 2009. Freshwater fluxes in the East Greenland Current: A decade of observations. Geophysical Research Letters 36, L23611, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL041278.

Dmitrenko, I.A., S.A. Kirillov, L.B. Tremblay, D. Bauch, J.A. Hölemann, T. Krumpen, H. Kassens, C. Wegner, G. Heinemann, and D. Schröder. 2010. Impact of the Arctic Ocean Atlantic water layer on Siberian shelf hydrography. Journal of Geophysical Research 115, C08010, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JC006020.

Dmitrenko, I.A., I.V. Polyakov, S.A. Kirillov, L.A. Timokhov, I.E. Frolov, V.T. Sokolov, H.L. Simmons, V.V. Ivanov, and D. Walsh. 2008. Toward a warmer Arctic Ocean: Spreading of the early 21st century Atlantic Water warm anomaly along the Eurasian Basin margins. Journal of Geophysical Research 113, C05023, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JC004158.

Dodd, P.A., K.J. Heywood, M.P. Meredith, A.C. Naveira-Garabato, A.D. Marca, and K.K. Falkner. 2009. Sources and fate of freshwater exported in the East Greenland Current. Geophysical Research Letters 36, L19608, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL039663.

Foldvik, A., K. Aagaard, and T. Törresen. 1988. On the velocity field of the East Greenland Current. Deep-Sea Research Part I 35:1,335–1,354, https://doi.org/10.1016/0198-0149(88)90086-6.

Fowler, G.A., G.R. Siddall, and S.J. Prinsenberg. 2004. An energy-conserving oceanographic profiler for use under mobile ice cover: ICYCLER. International Journal of Offshore and Polar Engineering 14(3):176–181.

Gammelsrød, T., Ø. Leikvin, V. Lien, W.P. Budgell, H. Loeng, and W. Maslowski. 2009. Mass and heat transports in the NE Barents Sea: Observations and models. Journal of Marine Systems 75:56–69.

Gerdes, R., M. Karcher, C. Köberle. and K. Fieg. 2008. Simulating the long-term variability of liquid freshwater export from the Arctic Ocean. Pp. 405–425 in Arctic-Subarctic Ocean Fluxes. R.R. Dickson, J. Meincke, and P. Rhines, eds, Springer, Dordrecht.

Haak, H., J. Jungclaus, U. Mikolajewicz, and M. Latif. 2003. Formation and propagation of great salinity anomalies. Geophysical Research Letters 30(9), 1473, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003GL017065.

Häkkinen, S., and C.A. Geiger. 2000. Simulated low-frequency modes of circulation in the Arctic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research 105(C3):6,549–6,564, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JC900003.

Harms, I.H., C. Schrum, and K. Hatten. 2005. Numerical sensitivity studies on the variability of climate-relevant processes in the Barents Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research 110, C06002, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JC002559.

Holfort, J., E. Hansen, S. Østerhus, S. Dye, S. Jonsson, J. Meincke, J. Mortensen, and M. Meredith. 2008. Freshwater fluxes east of Greenland. Pp. 263–288 in Arctic-Subarctic Ocean Fluxes. R.R. Dickson, J. Meincke, and P. Rhines, eds, Springer, Dordrecht.

Holland, M.M., C.M. Bitz, M. Eby, and A.J. Weaver. 2001. The role of ice-ocean interactions in the variability of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Journal of Climate 14:656–675, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<0656:TROIOI>2.0.CO;2.

Holland, M.M., J. Finnis, A.P. Barrett, and M.C. Serreze. 2007. Projected changes in Arctic Ocean freshwater budgets. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, G04S55, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JG000354.

Holland, D.M., R.H. Thomas, B. DeYoung, M.H. Ribergaard, and B. Nyberth. 2008. Acceleration of Jakobshavn Isbrae triggered by warm subsurface ocean waters. Nature Geosciences 1:659–664, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo316.

Holliday, N.P., S.L. Hughes, S. Bacon, A. Beszczynksa-Möller, B. Hansen, A. Lavin, H. Loeng, K.A. Mork, S. Østerhus, T. Sherwin, and W. Walczowski. 2008. Reversal of the 1960s to 1990s freshening trend in the Northeast North Atlantic and Nordic Seas. Geophysical Research Letters 35, L03614, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL032675.

Houssais, M.-N., and C. Herbaut. 2011. Atmospheric forcing on the Canadian Arctic Archipelago freshwater outflow and implications for the Labrador Sea variability. Journal of Geophysical Research 116, C00D02, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JC006323.

Ingvaldsen, R.B., L. Asplin, and H. Loeng. 2004a. Velocity field of the western entrance to the Barents Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research 109, C03021, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JC001811.

Ingvaldsen, R.B., L. Asplin, and H. Loeng. 2004b. The seasonal cycle in the Atlantic transport to the Barents Sea during the years 1997–2001. Continental Shelf Research 24(9):1,015–1,032, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2004.02.011.

Jahn, A., L.B. Tremblay, R. Newton, M.M. Holland, L.A. Mysak, and I.A. Dmitrenko. 2010. A tracer study of the Arctic Ocean’s liquid freshwater export variability. Journal of Geophysical Research 115, C07015, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JC005873.

Jakobsson, M., A. Grantz, Y. Kristoffersen, and R. Macnab. 2003. Physiographic provinces of the Arctic Ocean. GSA Bulletin 115(12):1,443–1,455, https://doi.org/10.1130/B25216.1.

Jones, E.P. 2001. Circulation in the Arctic Ocean. Polar Research 20:139–146, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-8369.2001.tb00049.x.

Karcher, M., A. Beszczynska-Möller, F. Kauker, R. Gerdes, S. Heyen, B. Rudels, and U. Schauer. 2011. Arctic Ocean warming and its consequences for the Denmark Strait overflow. Journal of Geophysical Research 116, C02037, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JC006265.

Karcher, M., R. Gerdes, and F. Kauker. 2008. Long-term variability of Atlantic water inflow to the Northern Seas: Insights from model experiments. Pp. 111–130 in Arctic-Subarctic Ocean Fluxes. R.R. Dickson, J. Meincke, and P. Rhines, eds, Springer, Dordrecht.

Karcher, M., R. Gerdes, F. Kauker, and C. Köberle. 2003. Arctic warming: Evolution and spreading of the 1990s warm event in the Nordic seas and the Arctic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research 108(C2), 3034, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JC001265.

Karcher M., R. Gerdes, F. Kauker, C. Köberle, and I. Yashayev. 2005. Arctic Ocean change heralds North Atlantic freshening. Geophysical Research Letters 32, L21606, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL023861.

Koenigk, T., U. Mikolajewicz, H. Haak, and J. Jungclaus. 2007. Arctic freshwater export in the 20th and 21st centuries. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, G04S41, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JG000274.

Kowalik, Z., and A.Y. Proshutinsky. 1994. The Arctic Ocean tides. Pp. 137–158 in The Polar Oceans and Their Role in Shaping the Global Environment. Geophysical Monograph 85, O.M. Johannessen, R.D. Muench, and J.E. Overland, eds, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.

Kurtz, N.T., T. Markus, S.L. Farrell, D.L. Worthen, and L.N. Boisvert. 2011. Observations of recent Arctic sea ice volume loss and its impact on ocean-atmosphere energy exchange and ice production. Journal of Geophysical Research 116, C04015, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JC006235.

Kwok, R. 2009. Outflow of Arctic Ocean sea ice into the Greenland and Barents Seas: 1979–2007. Journal of Climate 22:2,438–2,457, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2819.1.

Kwok, R., G.F. Cunningham, M. Wensnahan, I. Rigor, H.J. Zwally, and D. Yi. 2009. Thinning and volume loss of the Arctic Ocean sea ice cover: 2003–2008. Journal of Geophysical Research 114, C07005, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JC005312.

Latif, M., C. Böning, J. Willebrand, A. Biastoch, J. Dengg, N. Keenlyside, G. Madec, and U. Schweckendiek. 2006. Is the thermohaline circulation changing? Journal of Climate 19:4,631–4,637, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3876.1.

Lee, C.M., H. Melling, H. Eicken, P. Schlosser, J.-C. Gascard, A. Proshutinsky, E. Fahrbach, C. Maurtizen, J. Morison, and I. Polyakov. 2010. Autonomous platforms in the Arctic Observing Network. In Proceedings of OceanObs ’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society, vol. 2. Venice, Italy, September 21–25, 2009, J. Hall, D.E. Harrison, and D. Stammer, eds, ESA Publication WPP-306.

Loder, J., B. Petrie, and G. Gawarkiewicz. 1998. The coastal ocean off northeastern North America: A large-scale view. Pp. 105–133 in The Global Coastal Ocean: Regional Studies and Syntheses. A. Robinson and K. Brink, eds, The Sea, vol. 11, Harvard University Press.

Mauritzen, C., and S. Hakkinen. 1997. Influence of sea ice on the thermohaline circulation in the Arctic-North Atlantic Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters 24:3,257–3,260, https://doi.org/10.1029/97GL03192.

McLaughlin, F.A., E.C. Carmack, W.J. Williams, S. Zimmermann, K. Shimada, and M. Itoh. 2009. Joint effects of boundary currents and thermohaline intrusions on the warming of Atlantic water in the Canada Basin, 1993–2007. Journal of Geophysical Research 114, C00A12, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JC005001.

Melling, H. 2000. Exchanges of freshwater through the shallow straits of the North American Arctic. Pp. 479–502 in Freshwater Budget of the Arctic Ocean. E.L. Lewis, ed., NATO/WCRP/AOSB, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.

Melling, H., T.A. Agnew, K.K. Falkner, D.A. Greenberg, C.M. Lee, A. Münchow, B. Petrie, S.J. Prinsenberg, R.M. Samelson, and R.A. Woodgate. 2008. Fresh-water fluxes via Pacific and Arctic outflows across the Canadian polar shelf. Pp. 193–247 in Arctic-Subarctic Ocean Fluxes. R.R. Dickson, J. Meincke, and P. Rhines, eds, Springer, Dordrecht.

Mork, K.A., and Ø. Skagseth. 2010. A quantitative description of the Norwegian Atlantic Current by combining altimetry and hydrography. Ocean Science 6:901–911, https://doi.org/10.5194/os-6-901-2010.

Münchow, A., and H. Melling. 2008. Ocean current observations from Nares Strait to the west of Greenland: Interannual to tidal variability and forcing. Journal of Marine Research 66(6):801–833.

Münchow, A., K.K. Falkner, and H. Melling. 2007. Spatial continuity of measured seawater and tracer fluxes through Nares Strait, a dynamically wide channel bordering the Canadian Archipelago. Journal of Marine Research 65(6):759–788, https://doi.org/10.1357/002224007784219048.

Münchow, A., H. Melling, and K.K. Falkner. 2006. An observational estimate of volume and freshwater flux leaving the Arctic Ocean through Nares Strait. Journal of Physical Oceanography 36:2,025–2,041, https://doi.org/10.1175/JPO2962.1.

Orvik, K.A., and P. Niiler. 2002. Major pathways of Atlantic water in the northern North Atlantic and Nordic Seas toward Arctic. Geophysical Research Letters 29, 1896, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002GL015002.

Orvik, K.A., and Ø. Skagseth. 2005. Heat flux variations in the eastern Norwegian Atlantic Current toward the Arctic from moored instruments, 1995–2005. Geophysical Research Letters 32, L14610, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL023487.

Østerhus, S., W.R. Turrell, S. Jónsson, and B. Hansen. 2005. Measured volume, heat, and salt fluxes from the Atlantic to the Arctic Mediterranean. Geophysical Research Letters 32, L07603, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GL022188.

Panteleev, G.G., D.A. Nechaev, and M. Ikeda. 2006. Reconstruction of summer Barents Sea circulation from climatological data. Atmosphere-Ocean 44(2):111–132, https://doi.org/10.3137/ao.440201.

Panteleev, G.G., D.A. Nechaev, A. Proshutinsky, R. Woodgate, and J. Zhang. 2010. Reconstruction and analysis of the Chukchi Sea circulation in 1990–1991. Journal of Geophysical Research 115, C08023, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JC005453.

Peterson, B., J. McClelland, R. Curry, R.M. Holmes, J.E. Walsh, and K. Aagaard. 2006. Trajectory shifts in the Arctic and subarctic freshwater cycle. Science 313:1,061, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1122593.

Polyakov, I.V., V.A. Alexeev, G.I. Belchansky, I.A. Dmitrenko, V.V. Ivanov, S.A. Kirillov, A.A. Korablev, M. Steele, L.A. Timokhov, and I. Yashayaev. 2008. Arctic Ocean freshwater changes over the past 100 years and their causes. Journal of Climate 21:364–384, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JCLI1748.1.

Polyakov, I.V., A. Beszczynska, E.C. Carmack, I.A. Dmitrenko, E. Fahrbach, I.E. Frolov, R. Gerdes, E. Hansen, J. Holfort, V.V. Ivanov, and others. 2005. One more step toward a warmer Arctic. Geophysical Research Letters 32, L17605, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL023740.

Prinsenberg, S.J., and J. Hamilton. 2005. Monitoring the volume, freshwater and heat fluxes passing through Lancaster Sound in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Atmosphere-Ocean 43(1), https://doi.org/10.3137/ao.430101.

Prinsenberg, S., J. Hamilton, I. Peterson, and R. Pettipas. 2009. Observing and interpreting the seasonal variability of the oceanographic fluxes passing through Lancaster Sound of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Pp. 125–143 in Influence of Climate Change on the Changing Arctic and Sub-Arctic Conditions. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-9460-6_10.

Proshutinsky, A., Y. Aksenov, J. Clement Kinney, R. Gerdes, E. Golubeva, D. Holland, G. Holloway, A. Jahn, M. Johnson, E. Popova, M. Steele, and E. Watanabe. 2011. Recent advances in Arctic Ocean studies employing models from the Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project. Oceanography 24(3):102–113, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.61.

Quadfasel, Q., A. Sy, D. Wells, and A. Tunik. 1991. Warming in the Arctic. Nature 350:385, https://doi.org/10.1038/350385a0.

Rabe, B., M. Karcher, U. Schauer, J.M. Toole, R.A. Krishfield, S. Pisarev, F. Kauker, R. Gerdes, and T. Kikuchi. 2011. An assessment of Arctic Ocean freshwater content changes from the 1990s to the 2006–2008 period. Deep-Sea Research Part I 58:173–185, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2010.12.002.

Rabe, B., A. Münchow, H.L. Johnson, and H. Melling. 2010. Nares Strait hydrography and salinity field from a 3-year moored array. Journal of Geophysical Research 115, C07010, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JC005966.

Rabe, B., U. Schauer, A. Mackensen, M. Karcher, E. Hansen, and A. Beszczynska-Möller. 2009. Freshwater components and transports in the Fram Strait: Recent observations and changes since the late 1990s. Ocean Science 5:219–233, https://doi.org/10.5194/os-5-219-2009.

Rennermalm, A.K., E.F. Wood, A.J. Weaver, M. Eby, and S.J. Dery. 2007. Relative sensitivity of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation to river discharge into Hudson Bay and the Arctic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, G04S48, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JG000330.

Rigor, I.G., J.M. Wallace, and R.L. Colony. 2002. On the response of sea ice to the Arctic Oscillation. Journal of Climate 15(18):2,546–2,663, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<2648:ROSITT>2.0.CO;2.

Roach, A., K. Aagaard, C. Pease, S. Salo, T. Weingartner, V. Pavlov, and M. Kulakov. 1995. Direct measurements of transport and water properties through the Bering Strait. Journal of Geophysical Research 100(C9):18,443–18,457, https://doi.org/10.1029/95JC01673.

Ross, C. 1992. Moored current meter measurements across the Davis Strait. Technical Report 92/70. Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO) Research Document.

Rudels, B. 1986. The outflow of polar water through the Arctic Archipelago and the oceanographic conditions in Baffin Bay. Polar Research 4:161–180, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-8369.1986.tb00528.x.

Rudels, B. 1987. On the mass balance of the Polar Ocean, with special emphasis on the Fram Strait. Norsk Polarinstitutt Skrifter 188, 53 pp.

Rudels, B., E. Jones, U. Schauer, and P. Eriksson. 2004. Atlantic sources of the Arctic Ocean surface and halocline waters. Polar Research 23(2):181–208, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-8369.2004.tb00007.x.

Rudels, B., M. Marnela, and P. Eriksson. 2008. Constraints on estimating mass, heat and freshwater transports in the Arctic Ocean: An exercise. Pp. 315–341 in Arctic-Subarctic Ocean Fluxes. R.R. Dickson, J. Meincke, and P. Rhines, eds, Springer, Dordrecht, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-6774-7_14.

Sagen, H., S. Sandven, A. Beszczynska-Möller, O. Boebel, T.F. Duda, L. Freitag, J.C. Gascard, A. Gavrilov, C.M. Lee, D.K. Mellinger, and others. 2010. Acoustic technologies for observing the interior of the Arctic Ocean. Pp. 146–147 in Proceedings of the OceanObs´09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society Conference (Annex). Venice, Italy, September 21–25, 2009, J. Hall, D.E. Harrison, and D. Stammer, eds, ESA Publication WPP-306, Abstract AC-5B-19.

Samelson, R.M., T. Agnew, H. Melling, and A. Münchow. 2006. Evidence for atmospheric control of sea-ice motion through Nares Strait. Geophysical Research Letters 33, L02506, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL025016.

Schauer, U., and A. Beszczynska-Möller. 2009. Problems with estimation and interpretation of oceanic heat transport: Conceptual remarks for the case of Fram Strait in the Arctic Ocean. Ocean Science 5:487–494, https://doi.org/10.5194/os-5-487-2009.

Schauer, U., A. Beszczynska-Möller, W. Walczowski, E. Fahrbach, J. Piechura, and E. Hansen. 2008. Variation of measured heat flow through the Fram Strait between 1997 and 2006. Pp. 65–85 in Arctic-Subarctic Ocean Fluxes. R.R. Dickson, J. Meincke, and P. Rhines, eds, Springer, Dordrecht.

Schauer, U., E. Fahrbach, S. Osterhus, and G. Rohardt. 2004. Arctic warming through the Fram Strait: Oceanic heat transport from 3 years of measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research 109, C06026, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JC001823.

Schauer, U., H. Loeng, B. Rudels, V.K. Ozhigin, and W. Dieck. 2002. Atlantic water inflow through the Barents and Kara Seas. Deep-Sea Research Part I 49(12):2,281–2,298, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0637(02)00125-5.

Serreze, M.C., A.P. Barrett, A.G. Slater, R.A. Woodgate, K. Aagaard, R.B. Lammers, M. Steele, R. Moritz, M. Meredith, and C.M. Lee. 2006. The large‐scale freshwater cycle of the Arctic. Journal of Geophysical Research 111, C11010, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JC003424.

Skagseth, Ø., K. Drinkwater, and E. Terrile. In press. Wind and buoyancy induced transport of the Norwegian Coastal Current in the Barents Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JC006996.

Skagseth, Ø., T. Furevik, R. Ingvaldsen, H. Loeng, K.A. Mork, K.A. Orvik, and V. Ozhigin. 2008. Volume and heat transports to the Arctic Ocean via the Norwegian and Barents seas. Pp. 45–64 in Arctic-Subarctic Ocean Fluxes. R.R. Dickson, J. Meincke, and P. Rhines, eds, Springer, Dordrecht.

Smedsrud, L.H., R. Ingvaldsen, J.E.Ø. Nilsen, and Ø. Skagseth. 2010. Heat in the Barents Sea: Transport, storage, and surface fluxes. Ocean Science 6:219–234, https://doi.org/10.5194/os-6-219-2010.

Stigebrandt, A. 1984. The North Pacific: A global estuary. Journal of Physical Oceanography 14:464–470, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1984)014<0464:TNPAGS>2.0.CO;2.

Stroeve, J., M. Serreze, S. Drobot, S. Gearheard, M. Holland, J. Maslanik, W. Meier, and T. Scambos. 2008. Arctic sea ice extent plummets in 2007. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 89(2), https://doi.org/10.1029/2008EO020001.

Tang, C., C. Ross, T. Yao, B. Petrie, B. DeTracey, and E. Dunlap. 2004. The circulation, water masses and sea-ice of Baffin Bay. Progress in Oceanography 63(4):183–228, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2004.09.005.

Vellinga, M., B. Dickson, and R. Curry. 2008. The changing view on how freshwater impacts the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Pp. 289–314 in Arctic-Subarctic Ocean Fluxes. R.R. Dickson, J. Meincke, and P. Rhines, eds, Springer, Dordrecht, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-6774-7_13.

Wadley, M.R., and G.R. Bigg. 2002. Impact of flow through the Canadian Archipelago on the North Atlantic and Arctic thermohaline circulation: An ocean modelling study. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 128(585):2,187–2,203, https://doi.org/10.1256/qj.00.35.

Walsh, J.J., C.P. McRoy, T.H. Blackburn, L.K. Coachman, J.J. Goering, K. Henriksen, P. Andersen, J.J. Nihoul, P.L. Parker, A.M. Springer, and others. 1989. The role of Bering Strait in the carbon/nitrogen fluxes of polar marine ecosystems. Pp. 90–120 in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference of the Comité Arctique International. I. Ecosystems of Northern Seas. L. Rey, V. Alexander, and E.J. Brill, eds, Leiden, Netherlands.

Woodgate, R.A. 2008. Mooring Cruise Report for RUSALCA Sever Cruise to the Bering Strait, Aug/Sept 2007. University of Washington, 17 pp. Available online at: http://psc.apl.washington.edu/BeringStrait.html.

Woodgate, R.A., and K. Aagaard. 2005. Revising the Bering Strait freshwater flux into the Arctic Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters 32, L02602, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GL021747.

Woodgate, R.A., K. Aagaard, R.D. Muench, J. Gunn, G. Bjork, B. Rudels, A.T. Roach, and U. Schauer. 2001. The Arctic Ocean boundary current along the Eurasian slope and the adjacent Lomonosov Ridge: Water mass properties, transports and transformations from moored instruments. Deep-Sea Research Part I 48:1,757–1,792, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0637(00)00091-1.

Woodgate, R.A., K. Aagaard, J.H. Swift, W.M. Smethie, and K.K. Falkner. 2007. Atlantic water circulation over the Mendeleev Ridge and Chukchi Borderland from thermohaline intrusions and water mass properties. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, C02005, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JC003416.

Woodgate R.A., K. Aagaard, and T.J. Weingartner. 2005a. Monthly temperature, salinity, and transport variability of the Bering Strait throughflow. Geophysical Research Letters 32, L04601, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GL021880.

Woodgate, R.A., K. Aagaard, and T.J. Weingartner. 2005b. A year in the physical oceanography of the Chukchi Sea: Moored measurements from autumn 1990–1991. Deep-Sea Research Part II 52(24–26), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2005.10.016.

Woodgate, R.A., K. Aagaard, and T.J. Weingartner. 2006. Interannual changes in the Bering Strait fluxes of volume, heat and freshwater between 1991 and 2004. Geophysical Research Letters 33, L15609, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL026931.

Woodgate, R.A., T. Weingartner, and R. Lindsay. 2010. The 2007 Bering Strait oceanic heat flux and anomalous Arctic sea‐ice retreat. Geophysical Research Letters 37, L01602, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL041621.

Copyright & Usage

This is an open access article made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format as long as users cite the materials appropriately, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate the changes that were made to the original content. Images, animations, videos, or other third-party material used in articles are included in the Creative Commons license unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If the material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission directly from the license holder to reproduce the material.