Oceanography The Official Magazine of
The Oceanography Society
Volume 25 Issue 03

View Issue TOC
Volume 25, No. 3
Pages 24 - 25


SIDEBAR • CO2 Transport in Deep Waters Off Wilkes Land

By Taro Takahashi  and David W. Chipman 
Jump to
Citation References Copyright & Usage
First Paragraph

The densest waters in the world ocean are formed on the continental shelf areas around Antarctica by ice formation and by the loss of heat and water to the air. The Weddell Sea (e.g., Gordon, 1971; Carmack and Foster, 1975; Foldvik et al., 1985), the Ross Sea (e.g., Jacobs et al., 1970, 1985) and other continental margin areas such as the coasts of the Adélie and Wilkes Lands (e.g., Gordon and Tchernia, 1972; Carmack and Killworth, 1978; Foster, 1995) are known to be the major producers of these dense waters. These waters spill over the shelf edge and, during their descent, mix with components of Circumpolar Deep Water (CPDW) to form the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) that fills the major abyssal basins of the world ocean. This process constitutes an important pathway between the atmosphere and the abyssal ocean for long-term storage of CO2. However, the CO2 transport processes associated with bottom-water formation have not been well documented. Here, we present observations made during the 1992 World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) S4P cruise showing that atmospheric CO2 taken up by Wilkes Land shelf waters is transported into the upper AABW.


Takahashi, T., and D.W. Chipman. 2012. CO2 transport in deep waters off Wilkes Land. Oceanography 25(3):24–25, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2012.70.


Bates, N.R., D.A. Hansell, C.A. Carlson, and L.I. Gordon. 1998. Distribution of CO2 species, estimates of net community production, and air-sea CO2 exchange in the Ross Sea Polynya. Journal of Geophysical Research 103:2,883–2,896, https://doi.org/10.1029/97JC02473.

Carmack, E.C., and T.D. Foster. 1975. On the flow of water out of the Weddell Sea. Deep Sea Research 22:711–724, https://doi.org/10.1016/0011-7471(75)90077-7.

Carmack, E.C., and P.D. Killworth. 1978. Formation and interleaving of abyssal water masses off Wilkes Land, Antarctica. Deep Sea Research 25:357–369, https://doi.org/10.1016/0146-6291(78)90563-5.

Chipman, D.W., T. Takahashi, S.I. Rubin, S.C. Sutherland, and M.H. Koshlyakov. 1997. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained during the R/V Akademik Ioffe Cruise in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section S4P, February–April, 1992). Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN ORNL/CDIAC-100, NDP-063, 134 pp. Available online at: http://cdiac.ornl.gov/oceans/ndp_063.

Foldvik, A., T. Gammelsrød, and T. Tørresen. 1985. Circulation and water masses on the southern Weddell Sea shelf. Pp. 5–20 in Oceanology of the Antarctic Continental Shelf. Antarctic Research Series 43, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.

Foster, T.D. 1995. Abyssal water mass formation off the eastern Wilkes Land coast of Antarctica. Deep Sea Research Part I 42(4):501–522, https://doi.org/10.1016/0967-0637(95)00002-N.

Gordon, A.L. 1971. Oceanography of Antarctic waters. Pp. 169–203 in Antarctic Oceanography. J.L. Reid, ed., Antarctic Research Series 15, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.

Gordon, A.L., and P. Tchernia. 1972. Waters of the continental margin off Adélie Coast, Antarctica. Pp. 59–69 in Antarctic Oceanology II: The Australian–New Zealand Sector. D.E. Hayes, ed., Antarctic Research Series 19, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.

Hales, B., and T. Takahashi. 2004. High-resolution biogeochemical investigation of the Ross Sea, Antarctica, during the AESOPS (U.S. JGOFS) Program. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 18, GB3006, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003GB002165.

Jacobs, S.S., A.F. Amos, and P.M. Bruchhausen. 1970. Ross Sea oceanography and Antarctic bottom water formation. Deep Sea Research 17:935–962, https://doi.org/10.1016/0011-7471(70)90046-X.

Jacobs, S.S., R.G. Fairbanks, and Y. Horibe. 1985. Origin and evolution of water masses near the Antarctic continental margin: Evidence from H218O/H216O ratios in seawater. Pp. 59–85 in Oceanology of the Antarctic Continental Shelf. S.S. Jacobs, ed., Antarctic Research Series 43, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.

Copyright & Usage

This is an open access article made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format as long as users cite the materials appropriately, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate the changes that were made to the original content. Images, animations, videos, or other third-party material used in articles are included in the Creative Commons license unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If the material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission directly from the license holder to reproduce the material.