Oceanography The Official Magazine of
The Oceanography Society

Volume 20 | Number 2 | June 2007

Special Issue: A Sea of Microbes

On the Cover: The genome to biome collage represents the key elements that make up the science of microbial oceanography. Groupings from top to bottom: The genome represents microbial oceanography today and the study of the very language of cells to understand how they have adapted to life in the ocean. The “Sea of Microbes” depicted here in a virus (right, courtesy of John Waterbury), a bacterial assemblage (lower left, courtesy of Stephen Giovannoni), and a microeukaryote (diatom, top, courtesy of Mark Webber in collaboration with Elaine Humphrey) represent the linchpin of the ocean’s food web and the top of this special issue. A wide variety of instruments (e.g., top, see p. 77 in this issue) are required to comb the seas for these microbes and to study them in their native habitats. These microbes inhabit diverse environments in the global ocean—represented by the North Pacific Gyre, a coral reef, and a polar ice-covered habitat (courtesy of T. Hollibaugh)—and play crucial roles in the health and functioning of all habitats in the ocean. Behind all of this science are the students and scientists (no shown) who set out to decipher what the microbes have to say and how they will respond to global changes.
Cover PDF
Volume 20 Issue 02

Foundations of Microbial Oceanography
Karl, D.M., and L.M. Proctor. 2007. Foundations of microbial oceanography. Oceanography 20(2):16–27, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.44.

The Microbial Loop
Pomeroy, L.R., P.J. leB. Williams, F. Azam, and J.E. Hobbie. 2007. The microbial loop. Oceanography 20(2):28–33, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.45.

Patterns and Prediction in Microbial Oceanography
Cullen, J.J., W.F. Doolittle, S.A. Levin, and W.K.W. Li. 2007. Patterns and prediction in microbial oceanography. Oceanography 20(2):34–46, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.46.

Genomes of Sea Microbes
Moran, M.A., and E.V. Armbrust. 2007. Genomes of sea microbes. Oceanography 20(2):47–55, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.47.

Marine Environmental Genomics: Unlocking the Ocean's Secrets
Edwards, R.A., and E.A. Dinsdale. 2007. Marine environmental genomics: Unlocking the ocean’s secrets. Oceanography 20(2):56–61, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.48.

New Cultivation Strategies Bring More Microbial Plankton Species into the Laboratory
Giovannoni, S.J., R. Foster, M.S. Rappé, and S. Epstein. 2007. New cultivation strategies bring more microbial plankton species into the laboratory. Oceanography 20(2):62–69, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.49.

In Situ Instrumentation
Paul, J., C. Scholin, G. van den Engh, and M.J. Perry. 2007. In situ instrumentation. Oceanography 20(2):70–78, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.50.

Energy Cycle in the Ocean: Powering the Microbial World
Kolber, Z. 2007. Energy cycle in the ocean: Powering the microbial world. Oceanography 20(2):79–88, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.51.

Microbes and the Dissipation of Energy and Respiration: From Cells to Ecosystems
Carlson, C.A., P.A. del Giorgio, and G.J. Herndl. 2007. Microbes and the dissipation of energy and respiration: From cells to ecosystems. Oceanography 20(2):89–100, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.52.

What's New in the Nitrogen Cycle?
Ward, B.B., D.G. Capone, and J.P. Zehr. 2007. What’s new in the nitrogen cycle? Oceanography 20(2):101–109, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.53.

Microbes and the Marine Phosphorus Cycle
Dyhrman, S.T., J.W. Ammerman, and B.A.S. Van Mooy. 2007. Microbes and the marine phosphorus cycle. Oceanography 20(2):110–116, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.54.

The Sulfur Cycle
Sievert, S.M., R.P. Kiene, and H.N. Schulz-Vogt. 2007. The sulfur cycle. Oceanography 20(2):117–123, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.55.

Microbial Domains in the Ocean: A Lesson from the Archaea
DeLong, E.F. 2007. Microbial domains in the ocean: A lesson from the archaea. Oceanography 20(2):124–129, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.56.

Oceanic Protists
Sherr, B.F., E.B. Sherr, D.A. Caron, D. Vaulot, and A.Z. Worden. 2007. Oceanic protists. Oceanography 20(2):130–134, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.57.

Exploring the Vast Diversity of Marine Viruses
Breitbart, M., L.R. Thompson, C.A. Suttle, and M.B. Sullivan. 2007. Exploring the vast diversity of marine viruses. Oceanography 20(2):135–139, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.58.

Microbiology in Polar Oceans
Hollibaugh, J.T., C. Lovejoy, and A.E. Murray. 2007. Microbiology in polar oceans. Oceanography 20(2):140–145, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.59.

Coral Microbiology
Rosenberg, E., C.A. Kellogg, and F. Rohwer. 2007. Coral microbiology. Oceanography 20(2):146–154, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.60.

Modeling and Prediction of Marine Microbial Populations in the Genomic Era
Hood, R.R., E.A. Laws, M.J. Follows, and D.A. Siegel. 2007. Modeling and prediction of marine microbial populations in the genomic era. Oceanography 20(2):155–165, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.61.

Predictions for the Future of Microbial Oceanography
Kirchman, D.L., and C. Pedrós-Alió. 2007. Predictions for the future of microbial oceanography. Oceanography 20(2):166–171, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.62.


RAPID: Research on Automated Plankton Identification
Benfield, M.C., P. Grosjean, P.F. Culverhouse, X. Irigoien, M.E. Sieracki, A. Lopez-Urrutia, H.G. Dam, Q. Hu, C.S. Davis, A. Hansen, C.H. Pilskaln, E.M. Riseman, H. Schultz, P.E. Utgoff, and G. Gorsky. 2007. RAPID: Research on Automated Plankton Identification. Oceanography 20(2):172–187, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.63.


What Corals are Dying to Tell Us About CO2 and Ocean Acidification
Caldeira, K. 2007. Roger Revelle Commemorative Lecture: What corals are dying to tell us about CO2 and ocean acidification. Oceanography 20(2):188–195, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.69.


QUARTERDECK • Solitary or Social?
Proctor, L.M. 2007. Quarterdeck: Solitary or social? Oceanography 20(2):5, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.64.

FROM THE PRESIDENT • How'd They Do That?
Spinrad, R. 2007. From the President: How’d they do that? Oceanography 20(2):7, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.65.

A Tribute to Melbourne Briscoe
R. Spinrad. 2007. A tribute to Melbourne Briscoe. Oceanography 20(2):9, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.66.

RIPPLE MARKS • Double, Double, Toil and Trouble | Cockles and Mussels: Alive Alive Oh? | It's "Jellyfish Season" | These Fish Are Hot
Dybas, C.L. 2007. Ripple marks—The story behind the story. Oceanography 20(2):10–13, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.67.

FROM THE GUEST EDITORS • Introduction to "A Sea of Microbes" Special Issue
Proctor, L.M., and D.M. Karl. 2007. From the Guest Editors: Introduction to “A Sea of Microbes” special issue. Oceanography 20(2):14–15, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.68.

THE OCEANOGRAPHY CLASSROOM • Teaching Environmental Sciences in an Evolving World
Tomczak, M. 2007. Education: Teaching environmental sciences in an evolving world. Oceanography 20(2):196–198, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.70.

HANDS-ON OCEANOGRAPHY • Phosphorus in Our Waters
Paytan, A., and K. McLaughlin. 2007. Hands-on oceanography: Phosphorus in our waters. Oceanography 20(2):200–206, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.71.

BOOK REVIEW • The Deep: The Extraordinary Creatures of the Abyss
Kappel, E. 2007. Review of The Deep: The Extraordinary Creatures of the Abyss, by C. Nouvian. Oceanography 20(2):207–208, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.72.

BOOK REVIEW • The Equations of Oceanic Motions
de Szoeke, R. 2007. Review of The Equations of Oceanic Motions, by P. Müller. Oceanography 20(2):208–210, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.73.

BOOK REVIEW • The Gulf Stream
Warren, B.A. 2007. Review of The Gulf Stream, by B. Voituriez. Oceanography 20(2):211–212, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.74.

Special Issue Guest Editors

Lita M. Proctor, University of California, Santa Cruz
David M. Karl, University of Hawaii


This issue received generous support from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Agouron Institute, and the National Science Foundation (EF-0424599).