Allen, R.J., and C.S. Zender. 2011. Forcing of the Arctic Oscillation by Eurasian snow cover. Journal of Climate 24:6,528–6,539, https://doi.org/10.1175/2011JCLI4157.1.
Barnston, A.G., A. Leetmaa, V.E. Kousky, R.E. Livezey, E. O’Lenic, H. van den Dool, A.J. Wagner, and D.A. Unger. 1999. NCEP forecasts of the El Niño of 1997–98 and its US impacts. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 80:1,829–1,852, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1999)080<1829:NFOTEN>2.0.CO;2.
Barnston, A.G., M.K. Tippett, M.L. L’Heureux, S. Li, and D.G. DeWitt. 2012. Skill of real-time seasonal ENSO model predictions during 2002–11: Is our capability increasing? Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 93:631–651, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00111.1.
Brands, S., R. Manzanas, J.M. Gutiérrez, and J. Cohen. 2012. Seasonal predictability of wintertime precipitation in Europe using the snow advance index. Journal of Climate 25:4,023–4,028, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00083.1.
Brown, R.D., and C. Derksen. 2013. Is Eurasian October snow cover extent increasing? Environmental Research Letters 8:024006, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/8/2/024006.
Cohen, J. 2016. An observational analysis: Tropical relative to Arctic influence on mid-latitude weather in the era of Arctic amplification. Geophysical Research Letters 43:5,287–5,294, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL069102.
Cohen, J., M. Barlow, P. Kushner, and K. Saito. 2007. Stratosphere-troposphere coupling and links with Eurasian land-surface variability. Journal of Climate 20:5,335–5,343, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JCLI1725.1.
Cohen, J., and D. Entekhabi. 1999. Eurasian snow cover variability and Northern Hemisphere climate predictability. Geophysical Research Letters 26:345–348, https://doi.org/10.1029/1998GL900321.
Cohen, J., J. Furtado, J. Jones, M. Barlow, D. Whittleston, and D. Entekhabi. 2014a. Linking Siberian snow cover to precursors of stratospheric variability. Journal of Climate 27:5,422–5,432, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00779.1.
Cohen, J., and J. Jones. 2011. A new index for more accurate winter predictions. Geophysical Research Letters 38, L21701, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL049626.
Cohen, J., J. Jones, J.C. Furtado, and E. Tziperman. 2013. Warm Arctic, cold continents: A common pattern related to Arctic sea ice melt, snow advance, and extreme winter weather. Oceanography 26(4):150–160, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2013.70.
Cohen, J., and D. Rind. 1991. The effect of snow cover on the climate. Journal of Climate 4:689–706, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1991)004<0689:TEOSCO>2.0.CO;2.
Cohen, J., J. Screen, J.C. Furtado, M. Barlow, D. Whittelston, D. Coumou, J. Francis, K. Dethloff, D. Entekhabi, J. Overland, and J. Jones. 2014b. Recent Arctic amplification and extreme mid-latitude weather. Nature Geoscience 7:627–637, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2234.
Eade, R., D. Smith, A. Scaife, E. Wallace, N. Dunstone, L. Hermanson, and N. Robinson. 2014. Do seasonal-to-decadal climate predictions underestimate the predictability of the real world? Geophysical Research Letters 41:5,620–5,628, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014GL061146.
Feldstein, S.B., and S. Lee. 2014. Intraseasonal and interdecadal jet shifts in the Northern Hemisphere: The role of warm pool tropical convection and sea ice. Journal of Climate 27:6,497–6,518, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00057.1.
Furtado, J.C., J.L. Cohen, A.H. Butler, E.E. Riddle, and A. Kumar. 2015. Eurasian snow cover variability, winter climate, and stratosphere-troposphere coupling in the CMIP5 models. Climate Dynamics 45:2,591–2,605, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2494-4.
Furtado, J.C., J. Cohen, and E. Tziperman. 2016. The combined impact of autumnal Arctic snow and sea ice covers on the Northern Hemisphere wintertime circulation. Geophysical Research Letters 43:3,478–3,485, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL068108.
Gramling, C. 2015. Arctic impact. Science 347:818–821, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.347.6224.818.
Hardiman, S.C., P.J. Kushner, and J. Cohen. 2008. Investigating the ability of general circulation models to capture the effects of Eurasian snow cover on winter climate. Journal of Geophysical Research 113, D21123, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD010623.
Honda, M., J. Inue, and S. Yamane. 2009. Influence of low Arctic sea-ice minima on anomalously cold Eurasian winters. Geophysical Research Letters 36, L08707, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL037079.
Hoskins, B. 2013. The potential for skill across the range of the seamless weather-climate prediction problem: A stimulus for our science. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 139:573–584, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.1991.
Ineson, S., and A.A. Scaife. 2009. The role of the stratosphere in the European climate response to El Niño. Nature Geoscience 2:32–36, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo381.
Jaiser, R., K. Dethloff, D. Handorf, A. Rinke, and J. Cohen. 2012. Impact of sea ice cover changes on the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric winter circulation. Tellus 64:11595, https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v64i0.11595.
Janowiak, J., and P. Xie. 1999. CAMS–OPI: A global satellite-rain gauge merged product for real-time precipitation monitoring applications. Journal of Climate 12:3,335–3,342, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<3335:COAGSR>2.0.CO;2.
Kim, B.-M., S.-W. Son, S.-K. Min, J.-H. Jeong, S.-J. Kim, X. Zhang, T. Shim, and J.-H. Yoon. 2014. Weakening of the stratospheric polar vortex by Arctic sea-ice loss. Nature Communications 5:4646, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms5646.
Kintisch, E. 2014. Into the maelstrom. Science 344:250–253, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.344.6181.250.
Kirtman, B.P., D. Min, J. Infanti, J. Kinter, D. Paulino, Q. Zhang, H. van den Dool, S. Saha, M. Pena Mendez, E. Becker, and others. 2014. The North American multimodel ensemble: Phase-1 seasonal-to-interannual prediction; Phase-2 toward developing intraseasonal prediction. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 95:585–601, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00050.1.
MacLachlan, C., A. Arribas, K.A. Peterson, A. Maidens, D. Fereday, A.A. Scaife, M. Gordon, M. Vellinga, A. Williams, R.E. Comer, and others. 2015. Global Seasonal forecast system version 5 (GloSea5): A high-resolution seasonal forecast system. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 141:107–108, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2396.
Matthewman, N.J., J.G. Esler, A.J. Charlton-Perz, and L.M. Polvani. 2009. A new look at stratospheric sudden warmings: Part III. Polar vortex evolution and vertical structures. Journal of Climate 22:1,566–1,585, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2365.1.
McCusker, K.E., J.C. Fyfe, and M. Sigmond. 2016. Twenty-five winters of unexpected Eurasian cooling unlikely due to Arctic sea-ice loss. Nature Geoscience 9:838–842, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2820.
Met Office. 2015. 2016 global mean temperature forecast. http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/news/releases/2015/global-temperature.
NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2015. Strong El Niño sets the stage for 2015–2016 winter weather. NOAA News, October 15, 2015, http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2015/101515-noaa-strong-el-nino-sets-the-stage-for-2015-2016-winter-weather.html.
Overland, J.E., K. Dethloff, J.A. Francis, R.J. Hall, E. Hanna, S.-J. Kim, J.A. Screen, T.G. Shepherd, and T. Vihma. 2016. Nonlinear response of mid-latitude weather to the changing Arctic. Nature Climate Change 6:992–999, https://doi.org/10.1038/NCLIMATE3121.
Overland, J.E., K.R. Wood, and M. Wang. 2011. Warm Arctic–cold continents: Impacts of the newly open Arctic Sea. Polar Research 30:15787, https://doi.org/10.3402/polar.v30i0.15787.
Palmer, T. 2014. Record-breaking winters and global climate change. Science 344:803–804, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1255147.
Ropelewski, C.F., and M.S. Halpert. 1987. Global and regional scale precipitation patterns associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Monthly Weather Review 115:1,606–1,626, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1987)115<1606:GARSPP>2.0.CO;2.
Ropelewski, C.F., and M.S. Halpert. 1989. Precipitation patterns associated with the high index phase of the Southern Oscillation. Journal of Climate 2:268–284, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1989)002<0268:PPAWTH>2.0.CO;2.
Saha, S., S. Moorthi, X. Wu, J. Wang, S. Nadiga, P. Tripp, D. Behringer, Y.-T. Hou, H. Chuang, M. Iredell, and others. 2014. The NCEP climate forecast system version 2. Journal of Climate 27:2,185–2,208, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00823.1.
Scaife, A.A., A. Arribas, E. Blockley, A. Brookshaw, R.T. Clark, N. Dunstone, R. Eade, D. Fereday, C.K. Folland, M. Gordon, and others. 2014. Skillful long-range prediction of European and North American winters. Geophysical Research Letters 41:2,514–2,519, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014GL059637.
Shepherd, T.G. 2016. Effects of a warming Arctic. Science 353:989–990, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aag2349.
Simon, J.M., L. Goddard, N.E. Graham, E. Yulaeva, L. Sun, and P.A. Arkin. 1999. The IRI seasonal climate prediction system and the 1997/98 El Niño event. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 80:1,853–1,873, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1999)080<1853:TISCPS>2.0.CO;2.
Stevens, B., and S. Bony. 2013. What are climate models missing? Science 340:1,053–1,054, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1237554.
Sullivan, B.K. 2015. Siberian snow cover theory proves less than perfect this winter. Bloomberg, March 4, 2015, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-03-04/siberian-snow-cover-theory-proves-less-than-perfect-this-winter.
Sun, L., C. Deser, and R.A. Tomas. 2015. Mechanisms of stratospheric and tropospheric circulation response to projected Arctic sea ice loss. Journal of Climate 28(19):7,824–7,845, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0169.1.
Thompson, D.W.J., and J.M. Wallace. 1998. The Arctic Oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophysical Research Letters 25:1,297–1,300, https://doi.org/10.1029/98GL00950.
Vihma, T. 2014. Effects of Arctic sea ice decline on weather and climate: A review. Surveys in Geophysics 35:1175, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10712-014-9284-0.
Wallace, J.M., I.M. Held, D.W.J. Thompson, K.E. Trenberth, and J.E. Walsh. 2014. Global warming and winter weather. Science 343:729–730, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.343.6172.729.