Abbot, D.S., and E. Tziperman. 2008. Sea ice, high latitude convection, and equable climates. Geophysical Research Letters 35, L03702, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL032286.
Abbot, D.S., and E. Tziperman. 2009. Controls on the activation and strength of a high latitude convective-cloud feedback. Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 66:519–529, http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2008JAS2840.1.
Abbot, D.S., C. Walker, and E. Tziperman. 2009. Can a convective cloud feedback help to eliminate winter sea ice at high CO2 concentrations? Journal of Climate 22(21):5,719–5,731, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI2854.1.
Alexander, M.A., U.M. Bhatt, J.E. Walsh, M.S. Timlin, J.S. Miller, and J.D. Scott. 2004. The atmospheric response to realistic Arctic sea ice anomalies in an AGCM during winter. Journal of Climate 17:890–905, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<0890:TARTRA>2.0.CO;2.
Alexander, M.A., I. Blade, M. Newman, J.R. Lanzante, N.-C. Lau, and J.D. Scott. 2002. The atmospheric bridge: The influence of ENSO teleconnections on air-sea interaction over the global oceans. Journal of Climate 15:2,205–2,231, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<2205:TABTIO>2.0.CO;2.
Allen, R.J., and C.S. Zender. 2011. Forcing of the Arctic Oscillation by Eurasian snow cover. Journal of Climate 24:6,528–6,539, http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2011JCLI4157.1.
Barnston, A.G., M.K. Tippett, M.L. L’Hereux, S. Li, and D.G. DeWitt. 2012. Skill of real-time seasonal ENSO model predictions during 2002–11. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 93:631–651, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00111.1.
Cohen, J., M. Barlow, P. Kushner, and K. Saito. 2007. Stratosphere-troposphere coupling and links with Eurasian land-surface variability. Journal of Climate 20:5,335–5,343, http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2007JCLI1725.1.
Cohen, J., and D. Entekhabi. 1999. Eurasian snow cover variability and Northern Hemisphere climate predictability. Geophysical Research Letters 26:345–348, https://doi.org/10.1029/1998GL900321.
Cohen, J., and C. Fletcher. 2007. Improved skill for Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature predictions based on land-atmosphere fall anomalies. Journal of Climate 20:4,118–4,132, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI4241.1.
Cohen, J., J. Foster, M. Barlow, K. Saito, and J. Jones. 2010. Winter 2009/10: A case study of an extreme Arctic Oscillation event. Geophysical Research Letters 37, L17707, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL044256.
Cohen, J., J.C. Furtado, M. Barlow, V. Alexeev, and J. Cherry. 2012a. Increasing fall snow cover and widespread boreal winter cooling. Environmental Research Letters 7, 014007, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/7/1/014007.
Cohen, J., J.C. Furtado, M. Barlow, V. Alexeev, and J. Cherry. 2012b. Asymmetric seasonal temperature trends. Geophysical Research Letters 39, L04705, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL050582.
Cohen, J., and J. Jones. 2011. A new index for more accurate winter predictions. Geophysical Research Letters 38, L21701, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL049626.
Deser, C., G. Magnusdottir, R. Saravanan, and A. Phillips. 2004. The effects of North Atlantic SST and sea-ice anomalies on the winter circulation in CCM3. Part II. Direct and indirect components of the response. Journal of Climate 17:877–889, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<0877:TEONAS>2.0.CO;2.
Ewing, M., and W.L. Donn. 1956. A theory of ice ages. Science 123:1,061–1,066.
Fletcher, C., P. Kushner, and J. Cohen. 2007. Stratospheric control of the extratropical circulation response to surface forcing. Geophysical Research Letters 34, L21802, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL031626.
Francis, J.A., and S.J. Vavrus. 2012. Evidence linking Arctic amplification to extreme weather in mid-latitudes. Geophysical Research Letters 39, L06801, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL051000.
Gent, P.R., G. Danabasoglu, L.J. Donner, M.M. Holland, E.C. Hunke, S.R. Jayne, D.M. Lawrence, R.B. Neale, P.J. Rasch, M. Vertenstein, and others . 2011. The Community Climate System Model version 4. Journal of Climate 24:4,973–4,991, http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2011JCLI4083.1.
Ghatak, D., C. Deser, A. Frei, G. Gong, A. Phillips, D.A. Robinson, and J. Stroeve. 2012. Simulated Siberian snow cover response to observed Arctic sea ice loss, 1979–2008. Journal of Geophysical Research 117, D23108, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JD018047.
Ghatak, D., A. Frei, G. Gong, J. Stroeve, and D. Robinson. 2010. On the emergence of an Arctic amplification signal in terrestrial Arctic snow extent. Journal of Geophysical Research 115, D24105, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JD014007.
Gildor, H., and E. Tziperman. 2003. Sea-ice switches and abrupt climate change. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A 361(1810):1,935–1,942, http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2003.1244.
Goddard, L., J.W. Hurrell, B.P. Kirtman, J. Murphy, T. Stockdale, and C. Vera. 2012. Two time scales for the price of one (almost). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 93:621–629, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00220.1.
Gong, G., D. Entekhabi, and J. Cohen. 2002. A large-ensemble model study of the wintertime AO/NAO and the role of interannual snow perturbations. Journal of Climate 15:3,488–3,499, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<3488:ALEMSO>2.0.CO;2.
Greene, C.H., J.A. Francis, and B.C. Monger. 2013. Superstorm Sandy: A series of unfortunate events? Oceanography 26(1):8–9, http://dx.doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2013.11.
Greene, C.H., and B.C. Monger. 2012. An Arctic wild card in the weather. Oceanography 25(2):7–9, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2012.58.
Hardiman, S.C., P.J. Kushner, and J. Cohen. 2008. Investigating the ability of general circulation models to capture the effects of Eurasian snow cover on winter climate. Journal of Geophysical Research 113, D21123, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD010623.
Holland, M.M., C.M. Bitz, E.C. Hunke, W.H. Lipscomb, and J.L. Schramm. 2006. Influence of the sea ice thickness distribution on polar climate in CCSM3. Journal of Climate 19:2,398–2,414, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3751.1.
Holland, M.M., J. Finnis, A.P. Barrett, and M.C. Serreze. 2007. Projected changes in Arctic Ocean freshwater budgets. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, G04S55, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JG000354.
Honda, M., J. Inue, and S. Yamane. 2009. Influence of low Arctic sea-ice minima on anomalously cold Eurasian winters. Geophysical Research Letters 36, L08707, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL037079.
Hopsch, S., J. Cohen, and K. Dethloff. 2012. Analysis of a link between fall Arctic sea ice concentration and atmospheric patterns in the following winter. Tellus A 64, 18624, https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v64i0.18624.
Hoskins, B. 2013. The potential for skill across the range of the seamless weather-climate prediction problem: A stimulus for our science. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 139:573–584, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.1991.
Jaiser, R., K. Dethloff, D. Handorf, A. Rinke, and J. Cohen. 2012. Impact of sea ice cover changes on the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric winter circulation. Tellus 64, 11595, http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v64i0.11595.
Kalnay, E., M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, and others. 1996. The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 77:437–471, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2.
Lawrence, D.M., A.G. Slater, R.A. Tomas, M.M. Holland, and C. Deser. 2008. Accelerated Arctic land warming and permafrost degradation during rapid sea ice loss. Geophysical Research Letters 35, L11506, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL033985.
Le Treut, H., and M. Ghil. 1983. Orbital forcing, climatic interactions, and glaciation cycles. Journal of Geophysical Research 88:5,167–5,190, https://doi.org/10.1029/JC088iC09p05167.
Leibowicz, B.D., D.S. Abbot, K.A. Emanuel, and E. Tziperman. 2012. Correlation between present-day model simulation of Arctic cloud radiative forcing and sea ice consistent with positive winter convective cloud feedback. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 4, M07002, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012MS000153.
Liu, J., J.A. Curry, H. Wang, M. Song, and R. Horton. 2012. Impact of declining Arctic sea ice on winter snow. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109:4,074–4,079, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1114910109.
Magnusdottir, G., C. Deser, and R. Saravanan. 2004. The effects of North Atlantic SST and sea-ice anomalies on the winter circulation in CCM3. Part I: Main features and storm track characteristics of the response. Journal of Climate 17:857–876, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<0857:TEONAS>2.0.CO;2.
National Research Council. 2010. Building blocks of intraseasonal to interannual forecasting. Pp. 54–100 in Assessment of Intraseasonal to Interannual Climate Prediction and Predictability. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC.
Orsolini, Y.J., and N.G. Kvamsto. 2009. Role of Eurasian snow cover in wintertime circulation: Decadal simulations forced with satellite observations. Journal of Geophysical Research 114, D19108, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD012253.
Overland, J.E., J.A. Francis, E. Hanna, and M. Wang. 2012. The recent shift in early summer Arctic atmospheric circulation. Geophysical Research Letters 39, L19804, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL053268.
Overland, J.E., K.R. Wood, and M. Wang. 2011. Warm Arctic—cold continents: Climate impacts of the newly open Arctic Sea. Polar Research 30, 15787, https://doi.org/10.3402/polar.v30i0.15787.
Porter, D.F., J.J. Cassano, and M.C. Serreze. 2010. Local and large-scale atmospheric responses to reduced Arctic sea ice and ocean warming in the WRF model. Journal of Geophysical Research 117, D11115, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JD016969.
Ramsay, B.H. 1998. The interactive multisensory snow and ice mapping system. Hydrological Processes 12:1,537–1,546.
Rasmusson, E.M., and T.H. Carpenter. 1982. Variations in tropical sea surface temperature and surface wind fields associated with the Southern Oscillation/El Niño. Monthly Weather Review 110:354–384, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1982)110<0354:VITSST>2.0.CO;2.
Rayner, N.A., D.E. Parker, E.B. Horton, C.K. Folland, L.V. Alexander, D.P. Rowell, E.C. Kent, and A. Kaplan. 2003. Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century. Journal of Geophysical Research 108, 4407, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002670.
Rex, D.F. 1950. Blocking action in the middle troposphere and its effect upon regional climate. Tellus 2:196–211, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2153-3490.1950.tb00331.x.
Robinson, D.A., K.F. Dewey, and R.R. Heim Jr. 1993. Global snow cover monitoring: An update. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 74:1,689–1,696, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1993)074<1689:GSCMAU>2.0.CO;2.
Screen, J.A., C. Deser, and I. Simmonds. 2012. Local and remote controls on observed Arctic warming. Geophysical Research Letters 39, L10709, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL051598.
Screen, J.A., and I. Simmonds. 2010. The central role of diminishing sea ice in recent Arctic temperature amplification. Nature 464:1,334–1,337, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09051.
Serreze, M.C., and J.A. Francis. 2006. The Arctic amplification debate. Climatic Change 76(3–4):241–264, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-005-9017-y.
Serreze, M.C., M.M. Holland, and J. Stroeve. 2007. Perspectives on the Arctic’s shrinking sea-ice cover. Science 315:1,533–1,536, http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1139426.
Stokes, W.L. 1955. Another look at the ice age. Science 122:815–821, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.122.3174.815.
Strey, S.T., W.L. Chapman, and J.E. Walsh. 2010. The 2007 sea ice minimum: Impacts on the Northern Hemisphere atmosphere in late autumn and early winter. Journal of Geophysical Research 115, D23103, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD013294.
Stroeve, J., M.M. Holland, W. Meier, T. Scambos, and M. Serreze. 2007. Arctic sea ice decline: Faster than forecast. Geophysical Research Letters 34, L09501, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL029703.
Stroeve, J.C., V. Kattsov, A. Barrett, M. Serreze, T. Pavlova, M. Holland, and W.N. Meier. 2012. Trends in Arctic sea ice extent from CMIP5, CMIP3 and observations. Geophysical Research Letters 39, L16502, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL052676.
Stroeve, J.C., J.S. Maslanik, M.C. Serreze, I. Rigor, W. Meier, and C. Fowler. 2011. Sea ice response to an extreme negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation during winter 2009/2010. Geophysical Research Letters 38, L02502, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL045662.
Taylor, K.E., R.J. Stouffer, and G.A. Meehl. 2012. An overview of CMIP5 and the experiment design. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 93:485–498.
Thompson, D.W.J., and J.M. Wallace. 2001. Regional climate impacts of the Northern Hemisphere annular mode. Science 293:85–89, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1058958.