Oceanography The Official Magazine of
The Oceanography Society
Volume 32 Issue 02

View Issue TOC
Volume 32, No. 2
Pages 40 - 41

SIDEBAR. Upper-Ocean Salinity Stratification During SPURS-2

Janet Sprintall
First Paragraph

The SPURS-2 region beneath the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean is influenced by strong horizontal and vertical salinity gradients that result from numerous processes and features, including fronts, eddies, and filaments, freshening from local rainstorms, and advection of surface freshwater anomalies.


Sprintall, J. 2019. Upper ocean salinity stratification during SPURS-2. Oceanography 32(2):40–41, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2019.210.


Helber, R.W., A.B. Kara, J.G. Richman, M.R. Carnes, C.N. Barron, H.E. Hurlburt, and T. Boyer. 2012. Temperature versus salinity gradients below the ocean mixed layer. Journal of Geophysical Research 117(C5), https://doi.org/​10.1029/2011JC007382.

Lukas, R., and E. Lindstrom. 1991. The mixed layer of the western equatorial Pacific Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research 96(S01):3,343–3,357, https://doi.org/10.1029/90JC01951.

Mignot, J., A. Lazar, and M. Lacarra. 2012. On the formation of barrier layers and associated vertical temperature inversions: A focus on the northwestern tropical Atlantic. Journal of Geophysical Research 117, C02010, https://doi.org/​10.1029/​2011JC007435.

Roemmich, D., M. Morris, W.R. Young, and J.R. Donguy. 1994. Fresh equatorial jets. Journal of Physical Oceanography 24:540–558, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1994)024​<0540:FEJ>2.0.CO;2.

Sprintall, J., and M.J. McPhaden. 1994. Surface layer variations observed in multi-year time series measurements from the western equatorial Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research 99:963–979, https://doi.org/10.1029/93JC02809.

Sprintall, J., and D. Roemmich. 1999. Characterizing the structure of the surface layer in the Pacific Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research 104:23,297–23,311, https://doi.org/​10.1029/​1999JC900179.

Thadathil, P., V.V. Gopalakrishna, P.M. Muraleedharan, G.V. Reddy, N. Araligidad, and S. Shenoy. 2002. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal. Deep Sea Research Part I 49(10):1,801–1,818, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0637(02)00044-4.