Oceanography The Official Magazine of
The Oceanography Society
Volume 31 Issue 02

View Issue TOC
Volume 31, No. 2
Pages 32 - 40

The Ocean’s Role in Climate

Raymond W. Schmitt
Article Abstract

Oceanographers have arrived late to the climate problem. Continuous climate records longer than a century or more are available for many cities, but are unheard of for the ocean. In the last 30 years, there has been great progress in expanding ocean observations to the point that we can start to address climate problems, but the shortness of the records is a constant impediment to progress. Of course, we are also now in an era when the climate problem looms larger than ever. Once the unhurried domain of state climatologists, the rapid buildup of atmospheric CO2 in the industrial era has turned climate into one of the most critical of all research topics. While we remain limited by short time series, the basics physics of the climate system assures a significant place for the ocean because it dominates the planetary reservoirs of heat, water, and CO2. This article summarizes the ocean’s essential contributions to the maintenance of Earth’s climate and asserts the need for sustaining a high quality ocean observing system for the long durations necessary to observe
and understand climate.

Citation

Schmitt, R.W. 2018. The ocean’s role in climate. Oceanography 31(2):32–40, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2018.225.

References

Andersen, T.K., and J.M. Shepherd. 2014. A global spatiotemporal analysis of inland tropical cyclone maintenance or intensification. International Journal of Climatology 34(2):391–402, https://doi.org/​​10.1002/joc.3693.

Andersen, T. and M. Shepherd. 2017. Inland tropical cyclones and the “brown ocean” concept. Pages 117–134 in Hurricanes and Climate Change. J. Collins and K. Walsh, eds, Springer, https://doi.org/​10.1007/978-3-319-47594-3_5.

Baker, D.J., R.W. Schmitt, and C. Wunsch. 2007. Endowments and new institutions for long-term observation. Oceanography 20(4):10–14, https://doi.org/​10.5670/oceanog.2007.19.

Baumgartner, A., and E. Reichel. 1975. The World Water Balance: Mean Annual Global, Continental, and Maritime Precipitation, Evaporation and Run-off. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam.

Beeman, C.J., L. Gest, F. Parrenin, D. Raynaud, T.J. Fudge, C. Buizert, and E.J. Brook. 2018. Antarctic temperature and CO2: Near-synchrony yet variable phasing during the last deglaciation. Climate of the Past Discussions, https://doi.org/​10.5194/cp-2018-33.

Behrenfeld, M.J., R.T. O’Malley, D.A. Siegel, C.R. McClain, J.L. Sarmiento, G.C. Feldman, A.J. Milligan, P.G. Falkowski, R.M. Letelier, and E.S. Boss. 2006. Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity. Nature 444(7120):752–755, https://doi.org/​10.1038/​nature05317.

Benetti, M., G. Reverdin, G. Aloisi, and Á. Sveinbjörnsdóttir. 2017. Stable isotopes in surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean: Indicators of ocean-atmosphere water fluxes and oceanic mixing processes. Journal of Geophysical Research 122(6):4,723–4,742, https://doi.org/​10.1002/2017JC012712.

Bereiter, B., S. Eggleston, J. Schmitt, C. Nehrbass-Ahles, T.F. Stocker, H. Fischer, S. Kipfstuhl, and J. Chappellaz. 2015. Revision of the EPICA Dome C CO2 record from 800 to 600 kyr before present. Geophysical Research Letters 42(2):542–549, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014GL061957.

Bindoff, N.L., J. Willebrand, V. Artale, A. Cazenave, J. Gregory, S. Gulev, K. Hanawa, C. Le Quéré, S. Levitus, Y. Nojiri, and others. 2007. Observations: Oceanic climate change and sea level. Chapter 5 in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller, eds, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg1/ar4-wg1-chapter5.pdf.

Boyer, T.P., S. Levitus, J.I. Antonov, R.A. Locarnini, and H.E. Garcia. 2005. Linear trends in salinity for the world ocean, 1955–1998. Geophysical Research Letters 32, L01604, https://doi.org/​10.1029/​2004GL021791.

Charette, M.A., and W.H.F. Smith. 2010. The volume of Earth’s ocean. Oceanography 23(2):112–114, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2010.51.

Chen, X., X. Zhang, J.A. Church, C.S. Watson, M.A. King, D. Monselesan, B. Legresy, and C. Harig. 2017. The increasing rate of global mean sea-level rise during 1993–2014. Nature Climate Change 7(7):492–495, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3325.

Cheung, W.W., V.W. Lam, J.L. Sarmiento, K. Kearney, R.E.G. Watson, D. Zeller, and D. Pauly. 2010. Large-scale redistribution of maximum fisheries catch potential in the global ocean under climate change. Global Change Biology 16(1):24–35, https://doi.org/​10.1111/​j.1365-2486.2009.01995.x.

Church, J.A., P.U. Clark, A. Cazenave, J.M. Gregory, S. Jevrejeva, A. Levermann, M.A. Merrifield, G.A. Milne, R.S. Nerem, P.D. Nunn, and others. 2013. Sea level change. Pp. 1,137–1,216 in Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. T.F. Stocker, D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley, eds, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, https://doi.org/​10.1017/CBO9781107415324.026.

Colin, P. 2018. Ocean warming and the reefs of Palau. Oceanography 31(2), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2018.214.

Curry, R., B. Dickson, and I. Yashayaev. 2003. A change in the freshwater balance of the Atlantic Ocean over the past four decades. Nature 426(6968):826–829, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02206.

Dai, A., and K. Trenberth. 2002. Estimates of freshwater discharge from continents: Latitudinal and seasonal variations. Journal of Hydrometeorology 3(6):660–687, https://doi.org/​10.1175/1525-7541(2002)003​<0660:EOFDFC>​2.0.CO;2.

Dieng, H.B., A. Cazenave, B. Meyssignac, and M. Ablain. 2017. New estimate of the current rate of sea level rise from a sea level budget approach. Geophysical Research Letters 44(8):3,744–3,751, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL073308.

Doney, S.C., V.J. Fabry, R.A. Feely, and J.A. Kleypas, 2009. Ocean acidification: The other CO2 problem. Annual Reviews of Marine Science 1:169–192, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.marine.010908.163834.

Durack, P.J., and S.E. Wijffels. 2010. Fifty-year trends in global ocean salinities and their relationship to broad-scale warming. Journal of Climate 23:4,342–4,362, https://doi.org/​10.1175/2010JCLI3377.1.

Durack, P.J., S.E. Wijffels, and R.J. Matear. 2012. Ocean salinities reveal strong global water cycle intensification during 1950 to 2000. Science 336:455–458, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1212222.

Entekhabi, D., E.G. Njoku, P.E. O’Neill, K.H. Kellogg, W.T. Crow, W.N. Edelstein, J.K. Entin, S.D. Goodman, T.J. Jackson, J. Johnson, and J. Kimball. 2010. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. Proceedings of the IEEE 98(5):704–716, https://doi.org/​10.1109/JPROC.2010.2043918.

Farrar, J.T., L. Rainville, A.J. Plueddemann, W.S. Kessler, C. Lee, B.A. Hodges, R.W. Schmitt, J.B. Edson, S.C. Riser, C.C. Eriksen, and D.M. Fratantoni. 2015. Salinity and temperature balances at the SPURS central mooring during fall and winter. Oceanography 28(1):56–65, https://doi.org/​10.5670/​oceanog.2015.06.

Ferrari, R., M.F. Jansen, J.F. Adkins, A. Burke, A.L. Stewart, and A.F. Thompson. 2014. Antarctic sea ice control on ocean circulation in present and glacial climates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111(24):8,753–8,758, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1323922111.

Fischer, H., J. Schmitt, D. Lüthi, T.F. Stocker, T. Tschumi, P. Parekh, F. Joos, P. Köhler, C. Völker, R. Gersonde, and others. 2010. The role of Southern Ocean processes in orbital and millennial CO2 variations: A synthesis. Quaternary Science Review 29:193–205, https://doi.org/10.1016/​j.quascirev.2009.06.007.

Francis, J.A., W. Chan, D.J. Leathers, J.R. Miller, and D.E. Veron. 2009. Winter Northern Hemisphere weather patterns remember summer Arctic sea-ice extent. Geophysical Research Letters 36(7), https://doi.org/​10.1029/2009GL037274.

Gleick, P.H. 1993. Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World’s Fresh Water Resources. New York, Oxford University Press, 473 pp.

Helm, K.P., N.L. Bindoff, and J.A. Church. 2010. Changes in the global hydrological-cycle inferred from ocean salinity. Geophysical Research Letters 37(18), https://doi.org/​10.1029/​2010GL044222.

Hosoda, S., T. Suga, N. Shikama, and K. Mizuno. 2009. Global surface layer salinity change detected by Argo and its implication for hydrological cycle intensification. Journal of Oceanography 65:579–596, https://doi.org/​10.1007/​s10872-009-0049-1.

Hughes, T.P., J.T. Kerry, M. Alvarez-Noriega, J.G. Alvarez-Romero, K.D. Anderson, A.H. Baird, R.C. Babcock, M. Beger, D.R. Bellwood, R. Berkelmans, and others. 2017. Global warming and recurrent mass bleaching of corals. Nature 543:373–377, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature21707.

IPCC. 2013. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. T.F. Stocker, D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, and P.M. Midgley, eds, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1,535 pp., https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.

Ito, T., and M.J. Follows. 2003. Upper ocean control on the solubility pump of CO2. Journal of Marine Research 61(4):465–489, https://doi.org/​10.1357/002224003322384898.

Kerr, Y.H., P. Waldteufel, P. Richaume, J.P. Wigneron, P. Ferrazzoli, A. Mahmoodi, A. Al Bitar, F. Cabot, C. Gruhier, S.E. Juglea, and D. Leroux. 2012. The SMOS soil moisture retrieval algorithm. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 50(5):1,384–1,403, https://doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2012.2184548.

Keeling, R.F., and B.B. Stephens. 2001. Antarctic sea ice and the control of Pleistocene climate instability. Paleoceanography 16(1):112–131, https://doi.org/​10.1029/2000PA000529.

Konrad, H., A. Shepherd, L. Gilbert, A.E. Hogg, M. McMillan, A. Muir, and T. Slater. 2018. Net retreat of Antarctic glacier grounding lines. Nature Geoscience 11(4):258–262, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-018-0082-z.

Lagerloef, G., J. Boutin, Y. Chao, T. Delcroix, J. Font, P. Niiler, N. Reul, S.J. Riser, R.W. Schmitt, D. Stammer, and F. Wentz. 2010a. Resolving the global surface salinity field and variations by blending satellite and in situ observations. Pp. 587–597 in Proceedings of OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society, https://doi.org/​10.5270/​OceanObs09.cwp.51.

Lagerloef, G., F.R. Colomb, D. Le Vine, F. Wentz, S. Yueh, C. Ruf, J. Lilly, J. Gunn, Y.I. Chao, A. Decharon, and G. Feldman. 2008. The Aquarius/SAC-D mission: Designed to meet the salinity remote-sensing challenge. Oceanography 21(1):68–81, https://doi.org/​10.5670/oceanog.2008.68.

Lagerloef, G., R.W. Schmitt, J. Schanze, and H.Y. Kao. 2010b. The ocean and the global water cycle. Oceanography 23(4):82–93, https://doi.org/​10.5670/oceanog.2010.07.

Le Quéré, C., R.M. Andrew, P. Friedlingstein, S. Sitch, J. Pongratz, A.C. Manning, J.I. Korsbakken, G.P. Peters, J.G. Canadell, R.B. Jackson, and others. 2018. Global carbon budget 2017. Earth System Science Data 10(1):405–448, https://doi.org/​10.5194/​essd-10-405-2018.

Levang, S., and R.W. Schmitt. 2015. Centennial changes of the global water cycle in CMIP5 Models. Journal of Climate 28:6,489–6,502, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0143.1.

Li, L., R.W. Schmitt, C.C. Ummenhofer, and K.B. Karnauskas. 2016a. Implications of North Atlantic sea surface salinity for summer precipitation over the U.S. Midwest: Mechanisms and predictive value. Journal of Climate 29(9):3,143–3,159, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0520.1.

Li, L., R.W. Schmitt, C.C. Ummenhofer, and K.B. Karnauskas. 2016b. North Atlantic salinity as a predictor of Sahel precipitation. Science Advances 2, 5e1501588, https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.​1501588.

Li, L., R.W. Schmitt, and C.C. Ummenhofer. 2017. The role of the subtropical North Atlantic water cycle in the 2015 extreme precipitation events in the US. Climate Dynamics 50:1,291–1,305, https://doi.org/​10.1007/​s00382-017-3685-y.

Liu, T., R.W. Schmitt, and L. Li. 2018. Global search for autumn-lead sea surface salinity predictors of winter precipitation in southwestern United States. Geophysical Research Letters 45:8,445–8,454, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL079293.

Liu, W., and S.-P. Xie. 2018. An ocean view of the global surface warming hiatus. Oceanography 31(2), https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2018.217.

Lovelock, J.E., and C.G. Rapley. 2007. Ocean pipes could help the Earth to cure itself. Nature 449(7161):403, https://doi.org/​10.1038/​449403a.

Manno, C., N. Bednaršek, G.A. Tarling, V.L. Peck, S. Comeau, D. Adhikari, D.C.E. Bakker, E. Bauerfeind, A.J. Bergan, M.I. Berning, and others. 2017. Shelled pteropods in peril: Assessing vulnerability in a high CO2 ocean. Earth-Science Reviews 169:132–145, https://doi.org/10.1016/​j.earscirev.2017.04.005.

Marinov, I., M. Follows, A. Gnanadesikan, J.L. Sarmiento, and R.D. Slater. 2008. How does ocean biology affect atmospheric pCO2? Theory and models. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 113(C7), https://doi.org/​10.1029/​2007JC004598.

Martin, J.H. 1990. Glacial-interglacial CO2 change: The iron hypothesis. Paleoceanography 5(1):1–13, https://doi.org/10.1029/PA005i001p00001.

Martínez-García, A., D.M. Sigman, H. Ren, R.F. Anderson, M. Straub, D.A. Hodell, S.L. Jaccard, T.I. Eglinton, and G.H. Haug. 2014. Iron fertilization of the Subantarctic Ocean during the last ice age. Science 343(6177):1,347–1,350, https://doi.org/​10.1126/science.1246848.

Munk, W.H. 1966. Abyssal recipes. Deep Sea Research and Oceanographic Abstracts 13(4):707–730, https://doi.org/​10.1016/​0011-7471(66)90602-4.

Munk, W., and C. Wunsch. 1998. Abyssal recipes II: Energetics of tidal and wind mixing. Deep Sea Research 45(12):1,977–2,010, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0637(98)00070-3.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Sustaining Ocean Observations to Understand Future Changes in Earth’s Climate. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, https://doi.org/10.17226/24919.

NRC (National Research Council). 2010. Advancing the Science of Climate Change. National Academies Press, https://doi.org/10.17226/12782.

Parrenin, F., V. Masson-Delmotte, P. Köhler, D. Raynaud, D. Paillard, J. Schwander, C. Barbante, A. Landais, A. Wegner, and J. Jouzel. 2013. Synchronous change of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature during the last deglacial warming. Science 339:1,060–1,063, https://doi.org/​10.1126/​science.1226368.

Purkey, S.G., and G.C. Johnson. 2010. Warming of global abyssal and deep Southern Ocean waters between the 1990s and 2000s: Contributions to global heat and sea level rise budgets. Journal of Climate 23:6,336–6,351, https://doi.org/​10.1175/2010JCLI3682.1.

Rhein, M.A., S.R. Rintoul, S. Aoki, E. Campos, D. Chambers, R.A. Feely, S. Gulev, G.C. Johnson, S.A. Josey, A. Kostianoy, and others. 2013. Observations: Ocean. Pp. 255–316 in Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. T.F. Stocker, D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, and P.M. Midgley, eds, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, http://www.ipcc.ch/​pdf/​assessment-report/ar5/wg1/WG1AR5_Chapter03_FINAL.pdf.

Riser, S.C., H.J. Freeland, D. Roemmich, S. Wijffels, A. Troisi, M. Belbéoch, D. Gilbert, J. Xu, S. Pouliquen, A. Thresher, and others. 2016. Fifteen years of ocean observations with the global Argo array. Nature Climate Change 6(2):145–153, https://doi.org/​10.1038/nclimate2872.

Rodell, M., J.S. Famiglietti, D.N. Wiese, J.T. Reager, H.K. Beaudoing, F.W. Landerer, and M.-H. Lo. 2018. Emerging trends in global freshwater availability. Nature 557:651–659, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0123-1.

Roemmich, D., W.J. Gould, and J. Gilson. 2012. 135 years of global ocean warming between the Challenger expedition and the Argo Programme. Nature Climate Change 2:425–428, https://doi.org/​10.1038/nclimate1461.

Santer, B.D., C. Bonfils, J.F. Painter, M.D. Zelinka, C. Mears, S. Solomon, G.A. Schmidt, J.C. Fyfe, J.N. Cole, L. Nazarenko, and K.E. Taylor. 2014. Volcanic contribution to decadal changes in tropospheric temperature. Nature Geoscience 7(3):185–189, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2098.

Sarmiento, J.L., and J.C. Orr. 1991. Three-dimensional simulations of the impact of Southern Ocean nutrient depletion on atmospheric CO2 and ocean chemistry. Limnology and Oceanography 36(8):1,928–1,950, https://doi.org/​10.4319/lo.1991.36.8.1928.

Schanze, J.J., R.W. Schmitt, and L.L. Yu. 2010. The global oceanic freshwater cycle: A state-of-the-art quantification. Journal of Marine Research 68(3–4):569–595, https://doi.org/​10.1357/002224010794657164.

Schmitt R. 2008. Salinity and the global water cycle. Oceanography 21(1):12–19, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2008.63.

Schrag, D.P., R.A. Berner, P.F. Hoffman, and G.P. Halverson. 2002. On the initiation of a snowball Earth. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 3(6):1–21, https://doi.org/​10.1029/​2001GC000219.

Shen, J., A. Pearson, G.A. Henkes, Y.G. Zhang, K. Chen, D. Li, S.D. Wankel, S.C. Finney, and Y. Shen. 2018. Improved efficiency of the biological pump as a trigger for the Late Ordovician glaciation. Nature Geoscience 11:510–514, https://doi.org/​10.1038/​s41561-018-0141-5.

Slangen, A.B., J.A. Church, C. Agosta, X. Fettweis, B. Marzeion, and K. Richter. 2016. Anthropogenic forcing dominates global mean sea-level rise since 1970. Nature Climate Change 6(7):701–705, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2991.

Snyder, C.W. 2016. 2016. Evolution of global temperature over the past two million years. Nature 538(7625):226–228, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature19798.

Stephens, G.L., J. Li, M. Wild, C.A. Clayson, N. Loeb, S. Kato, T. L’Ecuyer, P.W. Stackhouse Jr., M. Lebsock, and T. Andrews. 2012. An update on Earth’s energy balance in light of the latest global observations. Nature Geoscience 5(10):691–696, https://doi.org/​10.1038/ngeo1580.

Stocker, T.F. 2013. The ocean as a component of the climate system. Pp. 3–30 in Ocean Circulation and Climate, A 21st Century Perspective. G. Siedler, S.M. Griffies, J. Gould, and J.A. Church, eds, Elsevier, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-​0-12-391851-​2.00001-5.

Stocker, T.F. 2015. The silent services of the world ocean. Science 350:764–765, https://doi.org/​10.1126/science.aac8720.

Straneo, F., G.S. Hamilton, D.A. Sutherland, L.A. Stearns, F. Davidson, M.O. Hammill, G.B. Stenson, and A. Rosing-Asvid. 2010. Rapid circulation of warm subtropical waters in a major glacial fjord in East Greenland. Nature Geoscience 3(3):182–186, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo764.

Talley, L.D. 2008. Freshwater transport estimates and the global overturning circulation: Shallow, deep and throughflow components. Progress in Oceanography 78(4):257–303, https://doi.org/​10.1016/​j.pocean.2008.05.001.

Trenberth, K.E., and J.T. Fasullo. 2013. Regional energy and water cycles: Transports from ocean to land. Journal of Climate 26(20):7,837–7,851, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00008.1.

Trenberth, K.E., J.T. Fasullo, and M.A. Balmaseda. 2014. Earth’s energy imbalance. Journal of Climate 27(9):3,129–3,144, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00294.1.

Trenberth, K.E., J.T. Fasullo, and J. Kiehl. 2009. Earth’s global energy budget. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 90(3):311–323, https://doi.org/​10.1175/2008BAMS2634.1.

Trenberth, K.E., and L. Smith. 2005. The mass of the atmosphere: A constraint on global analyses. Journal of Climate 18(6):864–875, https://doi.org/​10.1175/JCLI-3299.1.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. 2015. Paris Agreement: FCCC/CP/2015/L.9/Rev.1. https://unfccc.int/process-​and-meetings/the-paris-agreement/the-paris-​agreement.

Vihma, T. 2014. Effects of Arctic sea ice decline on weather and climate: A review. Surveys in Geophysics 35(5):1,175–1,214, https://doi.org/​10.1007/s10712-014-9284-0.

Watson, C.S., N.J. White, J.A. Church, M.A. King, R.J. Burgette, and B. Legresy. 2015. Unabated global mean sea-level rise over the satellite altimeter era. Nature Climate Change 5(6):565–568, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2635.

Wijffels, S., D. Roemmich, D. Monselesan, J. Church, and J. Gilson. 2016. Ocean temperatures chronicle the ongoing warming of Earth. Nature Climate Change 6(2):116–118, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2924.

Wild, M., D. Folini, M.Z. Hakuba, C. Schär, S.I. Seneviratne, S. Kato, D. Rutan, C. Ammann, E.F. Wood, and G. König-Langlo. 2015. The energy balance over land and oceans: An assessment based on direct observations and CMIP5 climate models. Climate Dynamics 44(11–12):3,393–3,429, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-014-2430-z.

Wunsch, C. 2005. The total meridional heat flux and its oceanic and atmospheric partition. Journal of Climate 18(21):4,374–4,380, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3539.1.

Wunsch, C., R.W. Schmitt, and D.J. Baker. 2013. Climate change as an intergenerational problem. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110(12):4,435–4,436, https://doi.org/​10.1073/​pnas.1302536110.

Yang, H., Q. Li, K.Y. Wang, Y. Sun, and D. Sun. 2015. Decomposing the meridional heat transport in the climate system. Climate Dynamics 44(9–10):2,751–2,768, https://doi.org/​10.1007/​s00382-014-2380-5.

Yu, L., and R.A. Weller. 2007. Objectively analyzed air–sea heat fluxes for the global ice-free oceans (1981–2005). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 88(4):527–539, https://doi.org/​10.1175/BAMS-88-4-527.