Oceanography The Official Magazine of
The Oceanography Society
Volume 23 Issue 03

View Issue TOC
Volume 23, No. 3
Pages 72 - 85

The IOC International Harmful Algal Bloom Program: History and Science Impacts

Donald M. Anderson Beatriz RegueraGrant C. PitcherHenrik O. Enevoldsen
Article Abstract

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have become an important subdiscipline within oceanography. Heightened attention to this topic as well as significant research advances reflect the global nature of the problem and the development of strong national and international programs for HAB research and management. The planning, communication, coordination, and capacity-building activities of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) have been a key factor in this growth. Here, we highlight selected advances in science and management capacity for HABs and document the impressive growth of the field in the context of activities supported directly or indirectly by IOC. As we look to the future, the field has significant momentum and stability. Nevertheless, it will require scientific guidance and coordination going forward. With an appropriate commitment of resources from member states, the IOC HAB program can continue to be a major factor in the sustained growth of this important scientific discipline and its delivery of improved observation and management systems.

Citation

Anderson, D.M., B. Reguera, G.C. Pitcher, and H.O. Enevoldsen. 2010. The IOC International Harmful Algal Bloom Program: History and science impacts. Oceanography 23(3):72–85, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2010.25.

References

Anderson, D.M. 1989. Toxic algal blooms and red tides: A global perspective. Pp. 11–16 in Red Tides: Biology, Environmental Science and Toxicology. T. Okaichi, D.M. Anderson, and T. Nemoto, eds, Elsevier.

Anderson, D.M. 1995. ECOHAB—The Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms: A National Research Agenda. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 66 pp.

Anderson, D.M., A.D. Cembella, and G.M. Hallegraeff, eds. 1998. The Physiological Ecology of Harmful Algal Blooms. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 662 pp.

Anderson, D.M., P.M. Glibert, and J.M. Burkholder. 2002. Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: Nutrient sources, composition, and consequences. Estuaries 25(4b):704–726. [CrossRef]

Anderson, D.M., D.M. Kulis, G.J. Doucette, J.C. Gallager, and E. Balech. 1994. Biogeography of toxic dinoflagellates in the genus Alexandrium from the northeast United States and Canada as determined by morphology, bioluminescence, toxin composition, and mating compatibility. Marine Biology 120:467–478. [CrossRef]

Anderson, D.M., D.M. Kulis, B.A. Keafer, K.E. Gribble, R. Marin, and C.A. Scholin. 2005a. Identification and enumeration of Alexandrium spp. from the Gulf of Maine using molecular probes. Deep-Sea Research Part II 52(19–21):2,467–2,490.

Anderson, D., D. McGillicuddy, D. Townsend, and J. Turner. 2005b. The ecology and oceanography of toxic Alexandrium fundyense blooms in the Gulf of Maine. Deep Sea Research Part II 52:2,365–2,836.

Babin, M., C.S. Roesler, and J.J. Cullen, eds. 2008. Real-time Coastal Observing Systems for Marine Ecosystem Dynamics and Harmful Algal Blooms. UNESCO, Paris, 807 pp.

Beam, C.A., and M. Himes. 1982. Distribution of members of the Crypthecondinium cohnii (Dinophyceae) species complex. Journal of Protozoology 29:8–15.

Bowers, H.A., C. Tomas, T. Tengs, J.W. Kempton, A.J. Lewitus, and D.W. Oldach. 2006. Raphidophyceae [Chadefaud ex Silva] systematics and rapid identification: Sequence analyses and real-time PCR assays. Journal of Phycology 2:1,333–1,348.

Brand, L.E. 1991. Review of genetic variation in marine phytoplankton species and the ecological implications. Biological Oceanography 6:397–409.

Coyne, K.J., S.M. Handy, E. Demir, E.B. Whereat, D.A. Hutchins, K.J. Portune, M.A. Doblin, and S.C. Cary. 2005. Improved quantitative real-time PCR assays for enumeration of harmful algal species in field samples using an exogenous DNA reference standard. Limnology and Oceanography Methods 3:381–391. [CrossRef]

Danovaro, R., S. Fonda-Umani, and A. Pusceddu. 2009. Climate change and the potential spreading of marine mucilage and microbial pathogens in the Mediterranean Sea. PLoS ONE 4(9):e7006. [CrossRef]

Fraga, S., S.M. Gallager, and D.M. Anderson. 1989. Chain-forming dinoflagellates: An adaptation to red tides. Pp. 281–284 in Red Tides: Biology, Environmental and Science and Toxicology. T. Okaichi, D.M. Anderson, and T. Nemoto, eds, Elsevier, New York.

Garcés, E., M. Montresor, D.M. Anderson, J. Lewis, and K. Rengefors, eds. 2010. Phytoplankton life cycles. Deep-Sea Research Part II 57:(3–4):159–322.

Garcés E., A. Zingone, M. Montresor, B. Reguera, B. Dale, eds. 2002. LIFEHAB: Life History of Microalgal Species Causing Harmful Blooms. European Commission. Research in Enclosed Seas Series No.12, Brussels, 214 pp.

Gentien, P. 1998. Bloom dynamics and ecophysiology of the Gymnodinium mikimotoi species complex. Pp. 155–173 in The Physiological Ecology of Harmful Algal Blooms. D.M. Anderson, A.D. Cembella, and G.M. Hallegraeff, eds, NATO ASI Series G41, Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.

GEOHAB. 2001. Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms, Science Plan. SCOR and IOC, Baltimore and Paris, 86 pp.

GEOHAB. 2003. Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms, Implementation Plan. SCOR and IOC, Baltimore and Paris, 36 pp.

GEOHAB. 2005. Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms, GEOHAB Core Research Project: HABs in Upwelling Systems. SCOR and IOC, Paris and Baltimore, 82 pp.

GEOHAB. 2006. Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms: Eutrophication and HABs. SCOR and IOC, Paris and Baltimore, 74 pp.

GEOHAB. 2008. Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms, GEOHAB Core Research Project: HABs in Stratified Systems. SCOR and IOC, Paris, France, and Newark, Delaware, USA, 59 pp.

GEOHAB. 2010. Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms, GEOHAB Core Research Project: HABs in Fjords and Coastal Embayments. A. Cembella, L. Guzmán, S. Roy, J. Diogène, eds, IOC and SCOR, Paris, France, and Newark, Delaware, 57 pp.

Glibert, P.M., J.M. Burkholder, E. Granéli, and D.M. Anderson. 2008. Advances and insights in the complex relationships between eutrophication and HABs: Preface to the special issue. Harmful Algae 8:1–2. [CrossRef]

González-Gil, S., L. Velo-Suárez, P. Gentien, I. Ramilo, B. Reguera. 2010. Phytoplankton assemblages and characterization of a Dinophysis acuminata population during an upwelling-downwelling cycle. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 58:273–286. [CrossRef]

Granéli, E., G.A. Codd, B. Dale, E. Lipiatou, S.Y. Maestrini, and H. Rosenthal, eds. 1999. EUROHAB Science Initiative: Harmful Algal Blooms in European Marine and Brackish Waters. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Hallegraeff, G.M. 1993. A review of harmful algal blooms and their apparent global increase. Phycologia 32:79–99. [CrossRef]

Hallegraeff, G.M., D.M. Anderson, and A.D. Cembella. 1995. Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae. IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO.

Hallegraeff, G.M., D.M. Anderson, and A.D. Cembella. 2003. Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae. Monographs on Oceanographic Methodology, 11, UNESCO, 794 pp.

Haywood, A.J., CA. Scholin, R. Marin III, K. Petrik, R. Pigg, M. Garrrett, K.A. Steidinger, and C. Heil. 2009. Detection of Karenia brevis in Florida coastal waters using sandwich hybridization assays in two formats. Pp. 95–100 in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Molluscan Shellfish Safety. Royal Society of New Zealand Miscellaneous Series No. 71, Blenheim, Marlborough, New Zealand.

He, R., D.J. McGillicuddy Jr., B.A. Keafer, and D.M. Anderson. 2008. Historic 2005 toxic bloom of Alexandrium fundyense in the western Gulf of Maine: 2. Coupled biophysical numerical modeling. Journal of Geophysical Research 113, C07040. [CrossRef]

Heisler, J., P.M. Glibert, J.M. Burkholder, D.M. Anderson, W. Cochlan, W.C. Dennison, Q. Dortch, C.J. Gobler, C.A. Heil, E. Humphries, and others. 2008. Eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: A scientific consensus. Harmful Algae 8:3–13. [CrossRef]

IOC (Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO). 2010. Microscopic and Molecular Methods for Quantitative Phytoplankton Analysis. B. Karlson, C. Cusack, and E. Bresnan, eds. IOC Manuals and Guides, no. 55, IOC/2010/MG/55, Paris, 110 pp.

Jensen, M.H., and N. Daugbjerg. 2009. Molecular phylogeny of selected species of the order Dinophysiales (Dinophyceae): Testing the hypothesis of a Dinophysioid radiation. Journal of Phycology 45:1,136–1,152.

Jeong, H.J., J.E. Song, N.S. Kang, S. Kim, Y.D. Yoo, and J.Y. Park. 2007. Feeding by heterotrophic dinoflagellates on marine heterotrophic nanoflagellates. Marine Ecology Progress Series 333:151–160. [CrossRef]

John, U., R.A. Fensome, and L.K. Medlin. 2003. The application of a molecular clock based on molecular sequences and the fossil record to explain biogeographic distributions within the Alexandrium tamarense “species complex” (Dinophyceae). Molecular Biology and Evolution 20(7):1,015–1,027. [CrossRef]

Kirkpatrick, G.J., D.F. Millie, M.A. Moline, and O. Schofield. 2000. Optical discrimination of a phytoplankton species in natural mixed populations. Limnology and Oceanography 45(2):467–471. [CrossRef]

Kirkpatrick, G.J., C. Orrico, M.A. Moline, M. Oliver, and O.M. Schofield. 2003. Continuous hyperspectral absorption measurements of colored dissolved organic material in aquatic systems. Applied Optics 42(33):6,564–6,568.

Kudela, R., G. Pitcher, T. Probyn, F. Figueiras, T. Moita, and V. Trainer. 2005. Harmful algal blooms in coastal upwelling systems. Oceanography 18(2):184–197. [pdf]

Kudela, R.M., S. Seeyave, and W.P. Cochlan. 2010. The role of nutrients in regulation and promotion of harmful algal blooms in upwelling systems. Progress in Oceanography 85:122–135. [CrossRef]

Lilly, E.L., K.M. Halanych, and D.M. Anderson. 2007. Species boundaries and global biogeography of the Alexandrium tamarense complex (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 43:1,329–1,338.

Lilly, E.L., D.M. Kulis, P. Gentien, and D.M. Anderson. 2002. Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in France linked to a human-introduced strain of Alexandrium catenella from the western Pacific: Evidence from DNA and toxin analysis. Journal of Plankton Research 24(5):443–452. [CrossRef]

MacKenzie, L., I. Sims, V. Beuzenberg, and P. Gillespie. 2002. Mass accumulation of mucilage caused by dinoflagellate polysaccharide exudates in Tasmanian Bay, New Zealand. Harmful Algae 1:69–83. [CrossRef]

Masseret, E., D. Grzebyk, S. Nagai, B. Genovesi, B. Lasserre, M Laabir, Y. Collos, A. Vaquer, and P. Berrebi. 2009. Unexpected genetic diversity among and within populations of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella as revealed by nuclear microsatellite markers. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75:2,037–2,045.

McGillicuddy, D.J. Jr., D.M. Anderson, D.R. Lynch, and D.W. Townsend. 2005. Mechanisms regulating large-scale seasonal fluctuations in Alexandrium fundyense populations in the Gulf of Maine: Results from a physical-biological model. Deep-Sea Research Part II 52(19–21):2,698–2,714.

McGillicuddy, D.J. Jr., R.P. Signell, C.A. Stock, B.A. Keafer, M.D. Keller, R.D. Hetland, and D.M. Anderson. 2003. A mechanism for offshore initiation of harmful algal blooms in the coastal Gulf of Maine. Journal of Plankton Research 25(9):1,131–1,138.

Park, M.G., K. Sunju, H.S. Kim, G. Myung, Y.G. Kang, and W. Yih. 2006. First successful culture of the marine dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuminata. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 45:101–106. [CrossRef]

Penna, A., and M. Magnani. 1999. Identification of Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) species using PCR and rDNA-targeted probes. Journal of Phycology 35:615–621. [CrossRef]

Pitcher, G.C., and S.C. Pillar. 2010. HABs in eastern boundary upwelling systems. Progress in Oceanography 85:1–4. [CrossRef]

Pitcher, G.C., F.G. Figueiras, B.M. Hickey, and M.T. Moita. 2010. The physical oceanography of upwelling systems and the development of harmful algal blooms. Progress in Oceanography 85:5–32. [CrossRef]

Rhodes, L., C.A. Scholin, J.V. Tyrrell, J. Adamson, and K. Todd. 2001. The integration of DNA probes into New Zealand’s routine phytoplankton monitoring programs. Pp. 429–432 in Harmful Algal Blooms 2001. G.M. Hallegraeff, S.I. Blackburn, C.J. Bolch, and R.J. Lewis, eds, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, UNESCO, Paris.

Richardson, T.L., and J.L. Pickney. 2004. Monitoring of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis using gyroxanthin-based detection methods. Journal of Applied Phycology 16:315–328. [CrossRef]

Rines, J.E.B., P.L. Donaghay, M.M. Dekshenieks, J.M. Sullivan, and M.S. Twardowski. 2002. Thin layers and camouflage: Hidden Pseudo-nitzschia spp. (Bacillariophyceae) populations in a fjord in the San Juan Islands, Washington, USA. Marine Ecology Progress Series 225:123–137. [CrossRef]

Robbins, I.C., G.J. Kirkpatrick, S.M. Blackwell, J. Hillier, C.A. Knight, and M.A. Moline. 2006. Improved monitoring of HABs using autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV). Harmful Algae 5(6):749–761. [CrossRef]

Scholin, C.A., K.R. Buck, T. Britschgi, G. Cangelosi, and F.P. Chavez. 1996. Identification of Pseudo-nitzschia australis (Bacillariophyceae) using rRNA-targeted probes in whole cell and sandwich hybridization formats. Phycologia 35:190–197. [CrossRef]

Scholin, C.A., M. Herzog, M. Sogin and D.M. Anderson. 1994. Identification of group- and strain-specific genetic markers for globally distributed Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) species. II. Sequence analysis of a fragment of the large-subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Journal of Phycology 30:999–1,011.

Smayda, T.J. 2010a. Adaptations and selection of harmful and other dinoflagellate species in upwelling regions. 1. Morphology and adaptive polymorphism. Progress in Oceanography 85:53–70. [CrossRef]

Smayda, T.J. 2010b. Adaptations and selection of harmful and other dinoflagellate species in upwelling regions. 2. Motility and migratory behaviour. Progress in Oceanography 85:71–91. [CrossRef]

Stumpf, R.P., M.E. Culver, P.A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G.J. Kirkpatrick, B.A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco. 2003. Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data. Harmful Algae 2:147–160.

Sullivan, J.M, M.A. McManus, and P.L. Donaghay, eds. 2010. The ecology and oceanography of thin plankton layers. Continental Shelf Research 30:1–118.

Swanson, K.M., L.J. Flewelling, M. Byrd, A. Nunez, and T.A. Villareal. 2010. The 2008 Texas Dinophysis ovum bloom: Distribution and toxicity. Harmful Algae 9:190–199. [CrossRef]

Trainer, V.L., G.C. Pitcher, B. Reguera, and T.J. Smayda. 2010. The distribution and impacts of harmful algal bloom species in eastern boundary upwelling systems. Progress in Oceanography 85:33–52. [CrossRef]

Valiela, I. 1991. Ecology of coastal ecosystems. Pp. 57–76 in Fundamentals of Aquatic Ecology, 2nd ed. R.S.K. Barnes and K.H. Mann, eds, Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, UK. [CrossRef]

Velo-Suárez, L., S. González-Gil, P. Gentien, M. Lunven, C. Bechemin, L. Fernand, R. Raine, and B. Reguera. 2008. Thin layers of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and the fate of Dinophysis acuminata during an upwelling–downwelling cycle in a Galician ría. Limnology and Oceanography 53(5):1,816–1,834.

Walsh, J.J., and G. Kirkpatrick, eds. 2008. Ecology and oceanography of harmful algal blooms in Florida. Continental Shelf Research 28(1):1–214. [CrossRef]

Wynne, T.T., R.P. Stumpf, M.C. Tomlinson, D.J. Schwab, G.Y. Watabayashi, L. Lanerolle, J.D. Christensen. In press. Ecological forecasting: Estimating cyanobacterial bloom transport by coupling remotely sensed imagery and a hydrodynamic model. Limnology and Oceanography.

Zhou, M.-J., Z.-L. Shen, and R.-C. Yu. 2008. Responses of a coastal phytoplankton community to increased nutrient input from the Changjiang (Yangtze) River. Continental Shelf Research 28:1,483–1,489.