Oceanography The Official Magazine of
The Oceanography Society
Volume 15 Issue 01

View Issue TOC
Volume 15, No. 1
Pages 135 - 141

OpenAccess

The Evolution of Physical Oceanography in the Last Hundred Years

Walter Munk
Article Abstract

The last hundred years have seen a revolution in our understanding of ocean processes. I have selected a subset of seven topics. Technological developments generally led (rather than followed) new ideas. The advent of satellite remote sensing led to global sampling with adequate spatial sampling density (two quite different achievements, both of enormous consequence). Computers permitted the timely reduction of very large datasets of disparate observations into digestible displays, including also meaningful estimates of the uncertainties of the measured fields. Underlying all these development is a century of transition from grossly inadequate expeditionary sampling to an appreciation of a rational sampling strategy.

Citation

Munk, W. 2002. The evolution of physical oceanography in the last hundred years. Oceanography 15(1):135–141, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2002.45.

Copyright & Usage

This is an open access article made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format as long as users cite the materials appropriately, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate the changes that were made to the original content. Images, animations, videos, or other third-party material used in articles are included in the Creative Commons license unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If the material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission directly from the license holder to reproduce the material.