Oceanography The Official Magazine of
The Oceanography Society
Volume 30 Issue 02

View Issue TOC
Volume 30, No. 2
Pages 209 - 221

ROGER REVELLE COMMEMORATIVE LECTURE • Swells, Soundings, and Sustainability, but…“Here Be Monsters”

Dawn J. Wright
Article Abstract

We have been mapping the ocean for hundreds of years, from the stick charts of the ancient Marshall Islanders, to the initial soundings of the nineteenth-century Challenger expedition, to the multibeam sonars and robots of modern surveys. Today we map the ocean not only to increase fundamental scientific understanding of the ocean system but also to protect life and property, promote economic vitality, and inform ecosystem-based management and policy. Toward this end, the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals provide an overarching context for modern map development, drawing upon a vast wealth of maps and mapping experience that couples appropriate data with spatial analyses. At the same time, there is an overarching need for more compelling map design to help effectively communicate results and future predictions across a wide variety of research areas. Indeed, modern-day mapping systems have become increasingly “intelligent,” and these “smart maps” are changing what we measure, how we analyze and evaluate systems, how we forecast, and even how we develop new regulations. Intelligent maps are addressing myriad challenges, from the tracking of marine debris and marine mammals, to “geodesigning” the ocean to support multiple uses (commercial fishing, recreation, alternative energy, transportation, conservation), to creating scientific cyberinfrastructures for ocean observatories. Yet “there be monsters”—the major research challenges that continue to confound us. Despite the growing intelligence of mapping systems, we must cope with both the overabundance and the paucity of ocean data (i.e., “big data” and “dark data”), data multidimensionality, the need to increase data resiliency, and the ability to make data more accessible to many audiences. How do we address these major issues to create open and effective access to ocean science that will contribute to the global public good and ultimately to the sustainability of Planet Ocean?

Citation

Wright, D.J. 2017. Swells, soundings, and sustainability…but “here be monsters.” Oceanography 30(2):209–221, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2017.207

References

Abraham, J.P., M. Baringer, N.L. Bindoff, T. Boyer, L.J. Cheng, J.A. Church, J.L. Conroy, C.M. Domingues, J.T. Fasullo, J. Gilson, and others. 2013. A review of global ocean temperature observations: Implications for ocean heat content estimates and climate change. Reviews of Geophysics 51(3):450–483, https://doi.org/10.1002/rog.20022.

Alder, J.R., and S.W. Hostetler. 2015. Web based visualization of large climate data sets. Environmental Modelling & Software 68:175–180, https://doi.org/​10.1016/j.envsoft.2015.02.016.

Assante, M., L. Candela, D. Castelli, and A. Tani. 2016. Are scientific data repositories coping with research data publishing. Data Science Journal 15(6):1–24, https://doi.org/10.5334/dsj-2016-006.

Baker, K.S., and C.L. Chandler. 2008. Enabling long-term oceanographic research: Changing data practices, information management strategies and informatics. Deep Sea Research Part II 55(18–19):2,132–2,142, https://doi.org/​10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.05.009.

Baron, N. 2010. Escape from the Ivory Tower: A Guide to Making Your Science Matter, 2nd ed. Island Press, Washington, DC, 272 pp.

Blondel, P., and B.J. Murton. 1997. Handbook of Seafloor Sonar Imagery. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 314 pp.

Brown, C. 2017. GIS Provides an Open Platform for Global Engagement on the Sustainable Development Goals, http://esriurl.com/12295.

Cheng, L., K.E. Trenberth, J. Fasullo, T. Boyer, J. Abraham, and J. Zhu. 2017. Improved estimates of ocean heat content from 1960 to 2015. Science Advances 3(3):e1601545, https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1601545.

Civic Analytics Network. 2017. An Open Letter to the Open Data Community, http://bit.ly/2m1Uvjo.

Collie, J.S., W.L. Adamowicz, M.W. Beck, B. Craig, T.E. Essington, D. Fluharty, J. Rice, and J.N. Sanchirico. 2013. Marine spatial planning in practice. Estuarine, Coastal, and Shelf Science 117:1–11, https://doi.org/10.1016/​j.ecss.2012.11.010.

Corfield, R. 2003. The Silent Landscape: The Scientific Voyage of HMS Challenger. Joseph Henry Press, New York, 300 pp.

Costello, M.J., and J. Wieczorek. 2014. Best practice for biodiversity data management and publication. Biological Conservation 173:68–73, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2013.10.018.

Cutcher-Gershenfeld, J., K.S. Baker, N. Berente, D.R. Carter, L.A. DeChurch, C.C. Flint, G. Gershenfeld, M. Haberman, J.L. King, C. Kirkpatrick, and others. 2016. Build it, but will they come? A geoscience cyberinfrastructure baseline analysis. Data Science Journal 15(8):1–14, https://doi.org/10.5334/dsj-2016-008

Devillers, R., and R. Gillespie. 2008. Charting inner space: Geomatics for a blue planet. Geomatica 62(4):357–358.

Doel, R.E., T.J. Levin, and M.K. Marker. 2006. Extending modern cartography to the ocean depths: Military patronage, Cold War priorities, and the Heezen-Tharp mapping project, 1952–1959. Journal of Historical Geography 32:605­–626, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhg.2005.10.011.

Environmental Systems Research Institute. 2016. Ecological Marine Units: GIS Provides Better Understanding of Ocean Ecosystems, http://www.esri.com/ecological-marine-units.

Felt, H. 2012. Soundings: The Story of the Remarkable Woman Who Mapped the Ocean Floor. Henry Holt and Co., New York, 352 pp.

Field, K., and D. Demaj. 2012. Reasserting design relevance in cartography: Some concepts. Cartographic Journal 49 (1):70–76, https://doi.org/​10.1179/0008704112Z.00000000011.

Finney, B. 1998. Nautical cartography and traditional navigation in Oceania. Pp. 443–492 in The History of Cartography: Cartography in the Traditional African, American, Arctic, Australian, and Pacific Societies, Vol. 2, Book 3. D. Woodward and L.G. Malcolm, eds, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Fraczek, W., and B. Gerlt. 2016. Transforming 3D data into fences and curtains with geostatistical tools. ArcUser 19(1):8–11.

Gale, G. 2013. Push pins, dots, customisation, brands and services: The three waves of making digital maps. The Cartographic Journal 50(2):155–160, https://doi.org/10.1179/0008704113Z.00000000081.

Gallagher, J., J. Orcutt, P. Simpson, D. Wright, J. Pearlman, and L. Raymond. 2015. Facilitating open exchange of data and information. Earth Science Informatics 8:721–739, https://doi.org/​10.1007/s12145-014-0202-2

Gantz, J., and D. Reinsel. 2012. The Digital Universe in 2020: Big Data, Bigger Digital Shadows, and Biggest Growth in the Far East. International Data Corporation, Framingham, MA, 16 pp.

Garcia, H.E., R.A. Locarnini, T.P. Boyer, J.I. Antonov, O.K. Baranova, M.M. Zweng, and others. 2013a. World Ocean Atlas 2013, Volume 3: Dissolved Oxygen, Apparent Oxygen Utilization, and Oxygen Saturation. S. Levitus, ed., and A. Mishonov, technical ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 75, 27 pp.

Garcia, H.E., R.A. Locarnini, T.P. Boyer, J.I. Antonov, O.K. Baranova, M.M. Zweng, J.R. Reagan, and D.R. Johnson. 2013b. World Ocean Atlas 2013, Volume 4: Dissolved Inorganic Nutrients (phosphate, nitrate, silicate). S. Levitus, ed., and A. Mishonov, technical ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 76, 25 pp.

Gargouri, Y., C.I. Hajjem, V. Larivière, Y. Gingras, L. Carr, T. Brody, and S. Harnad. 2010. Self-selected or mandated, open access increases citation impact for higher quality research. PLoS ONE 5(10):e13636, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013636.

Glover, D.M., P.H. Wiebe, C.L. Chandler, and S. Levitus. 2010. IOC contributions to international, interdisciplinary open data sharing. Oceanography 23(3):140–151, https://doi.org/​10.5670/oceanog.2010.29.

Grenley, D. 2016. The ArcGIS Imagery Book: A Geographic Rosetta Stone, https://blogs.esri.com/​esri/esri-insider/2016/07/05/the-arcgis-​imagery-book-a-geographic-rosetta-stone.

Group on Earth Observations. 2005. Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) 10 Year Implementation Plan Reference Document. European Space Agency Publication GEO 1000R/ESA SP 1284, The European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 210 pp.

Group on Earth Observations. 2017. The Group on Earth Observations, http://www.earthobservations.org

Hoegh-Guldberg, O., T. Aqorau, R. Arnason, T. Chansiri, N. Del Rio, H. Demone, S. Earle, M.H. Feeley, D. Gutierrez, R. Hilborn, and others. 2013. Indispensable Ocean: Aligning Ocean Health and Human Well-Being. Guidance from the Blue Ribbon Panel to the Global Partnership for Oceans. The Global Partnership for Oceans and the World Bank, Washington, DC, 44 pp.

Hönisch, B., A. Ridgwell, D.N. Schmidt, E. Thomas, S.J. Gibbs, A. Sluijs, R. Zeebe, L. Kump, R.C. Martindale, S.E. Greene, and others. 2012. The geological record of ocean acidification. Science 335:1,058–1,063, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1208277.

Kraak, M.-J. 2016. Cartography contributes to meeting sustainable development goals. ArcNews 38(4):33.

Lewis, D. 1994. We, the Navigators: The Ancient Art of Landfinding in the Pacific, 2nd ed. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 464 pp.

Landa, E.R. 2010. The ties that bind: Soil surveyor William Edgar Tharp and oceanographic cartographer Marie Tharp. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 35(15–18):868–880. 

Li, Z., and C. Gold. 2004. Multi-dimensional geospatial technology for geosciences. Computers and Geosciences 30(4):321–323, https://doi.org/​10.1016/j.cageo.2003.09.010.

Locarnini, R.A., A.V. Mishonov, J.I. Antonov, T.P. Boyer, H.E. Garcia, O.K. Baranova, M.M. Zweng, C.R. Paver, J.R. Reagan, D.R. Johnson, and others. 2013. World Ocean Atlas 2013, Volume 1: Temperature. S. Levitus, ed., and A. Mishonov, technical ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 73, 40 pp.

Lu, Y., N. Rakocevic, M. Visbeck, and A.S. Stevance. 2015. Policy: Five priorities for the UN sustainable development goals. Nature 520:432–433, https://doi.org/10.1038/520432a.

Malcolm, H.A., E. Foulsham, R.L. Pressey, A. Jordan, P.L. Davies, T. Ingleton, N. Johnstone, S. Hessey, and S.D.A. Smith. 2012. Selecting zones in a marine park: Early systematic planning improves cost-efficiency; combining habitat and biotic data improves effectiveness. Ocean & Coastal Management 59:1–12, https://doi.org/10.1016/​j.ocecoaman.2011.12.001.

Manley, T.O., and J.A. Tallet. 1990. Volumetric visualization: An effective use of GIS technology in the field of oceanography. Oceanography 3(1):23–29, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.1990.17.

Marine Ecosystems and Management. 2017. The UN Sustainable Development Goals and You: A Short Synopsis for Ocean Planners and Managers, https://meam.openchannels.org/news/meam/un-sustainable-development-​goals-and-you-short-synopsis-ocean-​planners-and-managers.

Mascarelli, A.L. 2009. Data’s shameful neglect. Nature 461:145, https://doi.org/10.1038/461145a.

McHarg, I. 1995. Design with Nature, 25th Anniversary Edition. Wiley, New York, 208 pp.

McNutt, M., K. Lehnert, B. Hanson, B.A. Nosek, A.M. Ellison, and J.L. King. 2016. Liberating field science samples and data. Science 351(6277):1,024–1,026, https://doi.org/​10.1126/​science.aad7048.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory. 2009. NOAA Climate Change Web Portal, http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/ipcc.

North, G.W. 2010. Marie Tharp: The lady who showed us the ocean floors. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 35(15–18):881–886, https://doi.org/10.1016/​j.pce.2010.05.007

NRC (National Research Council). 2004. A Geospatial Framework for the Coastal Zone: National Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 149 pp.

NRC. 2010. Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 200 pp.

NRC. 2011. An Ocean Infrastructure Strategy for U.S. Ocean Research in 2030. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 98 pp.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2015. Making Open Science a Reality. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Policy Paper, OECD Publishing, Paris, 108 pp.

Paolo, D., A. Leadbetter, and H. Glaves, eds. 2016. Oceanographic and Marine Cross-Domain Data Management for Sustainable Development. IGI Global, Hershey, PA, 425 pp.

Paul, E., W. McClintock, and D. Wright. 2012. SeaSketch for oil spill response. Journal of Ocean Technology 7(4):130–131.

Picard, K., B. Brooke, and M.F. Coffin. 2017. Geological insights from Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 search. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 98, https://doi.org/10.1029/2017EO069015

The Royal Society. 2012. Science as an Open Enterprise: Open Data for Open Science. The Royal Society Science Policy Centre, London, 104 pp.

Sandwell, D., S. Gille, J.A. Orcutt, and W. Smith. 2003. Bathymetry from space is now possible. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 84(5):37–44, https://doi.org/10.1029/​2003EO050002.

Sayre, R., D.J. Wright, S.P. Breyer, K.A. Butler, K. Van Graafeiland, M.J. Costello, P.T. Harris, K.L. Goodin, J.M. Guinotte, Z. Basher, and others. 2017. A three-dimensional mapping of the ocean based on environmental data. Oceanography 30(1):90–103, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2017.116.

Seife, C. 2015. Big data: The revolution is digitized. Nature 518(7540):480–481, https://doi.org/ 10.1038/518480a.

Singleton, A.D., S. Spielman, and C. Brunsdon. 2016. Establishing a framework for Open Geographic Information science. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 30(8):1,507–1,521, https://doi.org/10.1080/​13658816.2015.1137579.

Smith, W.H.F., K.M. Marks, and T. Schmitt. 2017. Airline flight paths over the unmapped ocean. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 98, https://doi.org/10.1029/2017EO069127. 

Smith, W.H.F., and D.T. Sandwell. 1994. Bathymetric prediction from dense satellite altimetry and sparse shipboard bathymetry. Journal of Geophysical Research 99:21,803­–21,824, https://doi.org/​10.1029/94JB00988.

Smith, W.H.F., and D.T. Sandwell. 1997. Global seafloor topography from satellite altimetry and ship depth soundings. Science 277:1,957–1,962, https://doi.org/​10.1126/science.277.5334.1956.

Steinitz, C. 2012. A Framework for Geodesign: Changing Geography by Design. Esri Press, Redlands, CA, 224 pp.

Stelzenmuller, V., J. Lee, A. South, J. Foden, and S.I. Rogers. 2013. Practical tools to support marine spatial planning: A review and some prototype tools. Marine Policy 38:214–227, https://doi.org/​10.1016/j.marpol.2012.05.038. 

Strickland-Munro, J., H. Kobryn, G. Brown, and S.A. Moore. 2016. Marine spatial planning for the future: Using Public Participation GIS (PPGIS) to inform the human dimension for large marine parks. Marine Policy 73:15–26, https://doi.org/​10.1016/j.marpol.2016.07.011.

Tenopir, C., S. Allard, K. Douglass, A.U. Aydinoglu, L. Wu, E. Read, M. Manoff, and M. Frame. 2011. Data sharing by scientists: Practices and perceptions. PLoS ONE 6:e21101, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021101.

Trenberth, K.E. 2010. Global change: The ocean is warming, isn’t it? Nature 465:304, https://doi.org/​10.1038/465304a.

United Nations. 2015a. Sustainable Development Goals: 17 Goals to Transform our World, http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment

United Nations. 2015b. Sustainable Development Goal 14: Conserve and Sustainably Use the Oceans, Seas, and Marine Resources, http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/oceans

Walters, M., and R.J. Scholes, eds. 2017. The GEO Handbook on Biodiversity Observation Networks. Springer International Publishing, Cham, Switzerland, 326 pp.

Wessel, P., and M.T. Chandler. 2011. The spatial and temporal distribution of marine geophysical surveys. Acta Geophysica 59(11):55–71, https://doi.org/​10.2478/s11600-010-0038-1.

White, C., B.S. Halpern, and C.V. Kappel. 2012. Ecosystem service tradeoff analysis reveals the value of marine spatial planning for multiple ocean uses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109(12):4,696–4,701, https://doi.org/​10.1073/pnas.1114215109

Wood, D. 1992. The Power of Maps. The Guilford Press, New York, 248 pp.

Wright, D. 2014. Mapping the Course, https://ensia.com/voices/mapping-the-course.

Wright, D.J. 2015a. Toward a digital resilience. Elementa Science of the Anthropocene 4:82, https://doi.org/10.12952/journal.elementa.000082.

Wright, D.J. 2015b. Toward a digital resilience (with a dash of location enlightenment). Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 96, https://doi.org/​10.13140/RG.2.1.2224.6489.

Wright, D.J., ed. 2016. Ocean Solutions, Earth Solutions, 2nd ed., Esri Press, Redlands, California, 500 pp. 

Wright, D.J., M.J. Blongewicz, P.N. Halpin, and J. Breman. 2007. Arc Marine: GIS for a Blue Planet. Esri Press, Redlands, California, 202 pp. 

Wright, D.J., A. Verrill, M. Artz, and R. Deming. 2014. Story maps as an effective social medium for data synthesis, communication, and dissemination. Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 95, http://esriurl.com/agustories.

Wright, D.J., and S. Wang. 2011. The emergence of spatial cyberinfrastructure. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108(14):5,499–5,491, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1103051108.

Yang, C., N. Chen, and L. Di. 2012. RESTFul based heterogeneous geoprocessing workflow interoperation for Sensor Web Service. Computers & Geosciences 47:102–110, https://doi.org/10.1016/​j.cageo.2011.11.010.

Yuan, M., and K.S. Hornsby. 2008. Computation and Visualization for Understanding Dynamics in Geographic Domains: A Research Agenda. Edited by UCGIS, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 120 pp.

Zweng, M.M., J.R. Reagan, J.I. Antonov, R.A. Locarnini, A.V. Mishonov, T.P. Boyer, H.E. Garcia, O.K. Baranova, D.R. Johnson, D. Seidov, and M.M. Biddle. 2013. World Ocean Atlas 2013, Volume 2: Salinity. S. Levitus, ed., and A. Mishonov, technical ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 74, 39 pp.