Oceanography The Official Magazine of
The Oceanography Society
Volume 23 Issue 04

View Issue TOC
Volume 23, No. 4
Pages 104 - 117


Study of Marine Ecosystems and Biogeochemistry Now and in the Future: Examples of the Unique Contributions from Space

James A. Yoder David A. Siegel Cara Wilson
Article Abstract

Ocean color remote sensing has profoundly influenced how oceanographers think about marine ecosystems and their variability in space and time. Satellite ocean color radiometry (OCR) provides a unique perspective for studying the processes regulating marine ecosystems and biogeochemistry at scales difficult to study with ships and moorings. Satellite OCR is especially useful when supported by other in situ and space observations. In this review, we highlight three areas related to marine ecosystems and biogeochemical processes to which satellite observations have made important and unique contributions: understanding the responses of ocean ecosystems to physical processes operating at meso- to global scales, coupled physical-ecosystem-biogeochemical modeling, and marine living resource management.


Yoder, J.A., S.C. Doney, D.A. Siegel, and C. Wilson. 2010. Study of marine ecosystems and biogeochemistry now and in the future: Examples of the unique contributions from space. Oceanography 23(4):104–117, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2010.09.


Abbott, M.R., and P.M. Zion. 1987. Spatial and temporal variability of phytoplankton pigment off northern California during coastal ocean dynamics experiment 1. Journal of Geophysical Research 92:1,745–1,755.

Alvain, S., C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, and H. Loisel. 2008. Seasonal distribution and succession of dominant phytoplankton groups in the global ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 22(3), GB3001. [CrossRef]

Antoine, D., A. Morel, and J.-M. Andre. 1995. Algal pigment distribution and primary production in the eastern Mediterranean as derived from coastal zone color scanner observations. Journal of Geophysical Research 100:16,193–16,209. [CrossRef]

Antoine, D., A. Morel, H.R. Gordon, V.F. Banzon, and R.H. Evans. 2005. Bridging ocean color observations of the 1980s and 2000s in search of long-term trends. Journal of Geophysical Research 110, C06009. [CrossRef]

Antoine, D., F. d’Ortenzio, S.B. Hooker, G. Bécu, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, and A.J. Scott. 2008. Assessment of uncertainty in the ocean reflectance determined by three satellite ocean color sensors (MERIS, SeaWiFS and MODIS-A) at an offshore site in the Mediterranean Sea (BOUSSOLE project). Journal of Geophysical Research 113, C07013. [CrossRef]

Aumont, O., E. Maier-Reimer, S. Blain, and P. Monfray. 2003. An ecosystem model of the global ocean including Fe, Si, P co-limitations. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 17(2), 1060. [CrossRef]

Balch, W.M., D.T. Drapeau, B.C. Bowler, and E. Booth. 2007. Prediction of pelagic calcification rates using satellite-measurements. Deep-Sea Research Part II 54:478–495. [CrossRef]

Barber, R.T., and A.K. Hilting. 2000. Achievements in biological oceanography. Pp. 11–21 in 50 Years of Ocean Discovery: National Science Foundation 1950–2000. National Academies Press, Washington, DC.

Behrenfeld, M.J., E. Boss, D.A. Siegel, and D.M. Shea. 2005. Carbon-based productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 19, GB1006. [CrossRef]

Behrenfeld, M.J., R.T. O’Malley, D.A. Siegel, C.R. McClain, J.L. Sarmmiento, G.C. Feldman, A.J. Milligan, P.G. Falkowski, R.M. Letelier, and E.S. Boss. 2006. Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity. Nature 444:752–755. [CrossRef]

Behrenfeld, M.J., J.T. Randerson, C.R. McClain, G.C. Feldman, S.O. Los, C.J. Tucker, P.G. Falkowski, C.B. Field, R. Frouin, W.E. Esaias, and others. 2001. Biospheric primary production during an ENSO transition. Science 291:2,594–2,597.

Behrenfeld, M.J., T.K. Westberry, E.S. Boss, R.T. O’Malley, D.A. Siegel, J.D. Wiggert, B.A. Franz, C.R. McClain, G.C. Feldman, S.C. Doney, and others. 2009. Satellite-detected fluorescence reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton. Biogeosciences 6:779–794. [CrossRef]

Block, B.A., D.P. Costa, G.W. Boehlert, and R.E. Kochevar. 2003. Revealing pelagic habitat use: The Tagging of Pacific Pelagics Program. Oceanogica Acta 25:255–266. [CrossRef]

Bourassa, M.A., S.T. Gille, D.L. Jackson, J.B. Roberts, and G.A. Wick. 2010. Ocean winds and turbulent air-sea fluxes inferred from remote sensing. Oceanography 23(4):36–51. [CrossRef]

Browman, H.I., and K.I. Stergiou. 2005. Politics and socio-economics of ecosystem-based management of marine resources. Marine Ecology Progress Series 300:241–242. [CrossRef]

Campbell, J.W., and T. Aarup. 1992. New production in the North Atlantic derived from seasonal patterns of surface chlorophyll. Deep-Sea Research 39:1,669–1,694.

Carr, M.E., M.A.M. Friedrichs, M. Schmeltz, M.N. Aita, D. Antoine, K.R. Arrigo, I. Asanuma, O. Aumont, R. Barber, M.J. Behrenfeld, and others. 2006. A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color. Deep-Sea Research Part II 53:741–770. [CrossRef]

Chelton, D.B., M.G. Schlax, R.M. Samelson, and R.A. de Szoeke. 2007. Global observations of large oceanic eddies. Geophysical Research Letters 34, L15606. [CrossRef]

Cipollini, P., D. Cromwell, P.G. Challenor, and S. Raffaglio. 2001. Rossby waves detected in global ocean color data. Geophysical Research Letters 28:323–326. [CrossRef]

Cushing, D.H. 1969. The regularity of the spawning season of some fishes. Journal of Physical Oceanography 33:81–92.

Cushing, D.H. 1990. Plankton production and year-class strength in fish populations: An update of the match mismatch hypothesis. Advances in Marine Biology 26:249–294. [CrossRef]

Dandonneau, Y., A. Vega, H. Loisel, Y. du Penhoat, and C. Menkes. 2003. Oceanic Rossby waves acting as a “hay rake” for ecosystem floating by-products. Science 302:1,548–1,551.

Dickey, T., J. Marra, T. Granata, C. Langdon, M. Hamilton, J. Wiggert, D. Siegel, and A. Bratkovich. 1991. Concurrent high resolution bio-optical and physical time series observations in the Sargasso Sea during the spring of 1987. Journal of Geophysical Research 96:8,643–8,663.

Doerffer, R., and H. Schiller. 2007. The MERIS Case 2 water algorithm. International Journal of Remote Sensing 28:517–535. [CrossRef]

Doney, S.C. 1999. Major challenges confronting marine biogeochemical modeling. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 13:705–714. [CrossRef]

Doney, S.C., D.M. Glover, M. Fuentes, and S. McCue. 2003. Mesoscale variability of Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) satellite ocean color: Global patterns and spatial scales. Journal of Geophysical Research 108, 3024. [CrossRef]

Doney, S.C., I. Lima, J.K. Moore, K. Lindsay, M.J. Behrenfeld, T.K. Westberry, N. Mahowald, D.M. Glover, and T. Takahashi. 2009. Skill metrics for confronting global upper ocean ecosystem-biogeochemistry models against field and remote sensing data. Journal of Marine Systems 76:95–112. [CrossRef]

Dunne, J.P., R.A. Armstrong, A. Gnanadesikan, and J.L. Sarmiento. 2005. Empirical and mechanistic models for the particle export ratio. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 19, GB4026. [CrossRef]

Dutkiewicz, S., M. Follows, J. Marshall, and W.W. Gregg. 2001. Interannual variability of phytoplankton abundances in the North Atlantic. Deep-Sea Research Part II 48:2,323–2,344.

Eakin, C.M., C.J. Nim, R.E. Brainard, C. Aubrecht, C. Elvidge, D.K. Gledhill, F. Muller-Karger, P.J. Mumby, W.J. Skirving, A.E. Strong, and others. 2010. Monitoring coral reefs from space. Oceanography 23(4):118–133. [CrossRef]

Evans R.H., K.S. Baker, O.B. Brown, and R.C. Smith. 1985. Chronology of warm-core ring 82B. Journal of Geophysical Research 90:8,803–8,811.

Fasham, M.J.R., B.M. Balino, M.C. Bowles, R. Anderson, D. Archer, U. Bathmann, P. Boyd, K. Buesseler, P. Burkill, A. Bychkov, and others. 2001. A new vision of ocean biogeochemistry after a decade of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS). AMBIO Special Issue 10:4–31.

Field, C.B., M.J. Behrenfeld, J.T. Randerson and P. Falkowski. 1998. Primary production of the biosphere: Integrating terrestrial and oceanic components. Science 281:237–240. [CrossRef]

Frid, C.L.J., O.A.L. Paramor, and C.L. Scott. 2006. Ecosystem-based management of fisheries: Is science limiting? ICES Journal of Marine Science 63:1,567–1,572.

Friedrichs, M.A.M. 2002. Assimilation of JGOFS EqPac and SeaWiFS data into a marine ecosystem model of the central equatorial Pacific Ocean. Deep-Sea Research Part II 49:289–319. [CrossRef]

Friedrichs, M.A.M., M.-E. Carr, R.T. Barber, M. Scardi, D. Antoine, R.A. Armstrong, I. Asanuma, M.J. Behrenfeld, E.T. Buitenhuis, F. Chai, and others. 2009. Assessing the uncertainties of model estimates of primary productivity in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Journal of Marine Systems 76:113–133. [CrossRef]

Friedrichs, M.A.M., J.A. Dusenberry, L.A. Anderson, R. Armstrong, F. Chai, J.R. Christian, S.C. Doney, J. Dunne, M. Fujii, R. Hood, and others. 2007. Assessment of skill and portability in regional marine biogeochemical models: The role of multiple planktonic groups. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, C08001. [CrossRef]

Fu, L.-L., D.B. Chelton, P.-Y. Le Traon, and R. Morrow. 2010. Eddy dynamics from satellite altimetry. Oceanography 23(4):14–25. [CrossRef]

Fuentes-Yaco, C., P.A. Koeller, S. Sathyendranath, and T. Platt. 2007. Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) growth and timing of the spring phytoplankton bloom on the Newfoundland-Labrador Shelf. Fisheries Oceanography 16:116–129. [CrossRef]

Garçon, V.C., A. Oschlies, S.C. Doney, D.J. McGillicuddy, and J. Waniek. 2001. The role of mesoscale variability on plankton dynamics in the North Atlantic. Deep-Sea Research Part II 48:2,199–2,226.

Gnanadesikan, A., R.D. Slater, N. Gruber, and J.L. Sarmiento. 2002. Oceanic vertical exchange and new production: A comparison between models and observations. Deep-Sea Research Part II 49:363–401. [CrossRef]

Gregg, W.W. 2008. Assimilation of SeaWiFS ocean chlorophyll data into a three-dimensional global ocean model. Journal of Marine Systems 69:205–225. [CrossRef]

Gregg, W.W., and N.W. Casey. 2007. Modeling coccolithophores in the global oceans. Deep-Sea Research II 54:447–477. [CrossRef]

Gregg, W.W., N.W. Casey, and C.R. McClain. 2005. Recent trends in global ocean chlorophyll. Geophysical Research Letters 32, L03606. [CrossRef]

Gregg, W.W., M.A.M. Friedrichs, A.R. Robinson, K.A. Rose, R. Schlitzer, K.R. Thompson, and S.C. Doney. 2009. Skill assessment in ocean biological data assimilation. Journal of Marine Systems 76:16–33. [CrossRef]

Gregg, W.W., P. Ginoux, P.S. Schopf, and N.W. Casey. 2003. Phytoplankton and iron: Validation of a global three-dimensional ocean biogeochemical model. Deep-Sea Research Part II 50:3,143–3,169.

Gruber, N., H. Frenzel, S.C. Doney, P. Marchesiello, J.C. McWilliams, J.R. Moisan, J.J. Oram, G.-K. Plattner, and K.D. Stolzenbach. 2006. Eddy-resolving simulation of plankton ecosystem dynamics in the California Current System. Deep-Sea Research Part I 53:1,483–1,516.

Henson, S.A., J.L. Sarmiento, J.P. Dunne, L. Bopp, I. Lima, S.C. Doney, J. John, and C. Beaulieu. 2010. Detection of anthropogenic climate change in satellite records of ocean chlorophyll and productivity. Biogeosciences 7:621–640. [CrossRef]

Hinke, J.T., D.G. Foley, C. Wilson, and G.M. Watters. 2005. Persistent habitat use by Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the coastal ocean. Marine Ecology Progress Series 304:207–220. [CrossRef]

Hood, R.R., E.A. Laws, R.A. Armstrong, N.R. Bates, C.W. Brown, C.A. Carlson, F. Chai, S.C. Doney, P.G. Falkowski, R.A. Feely, and others. 2006. Pelagic functional group modeling: Progress, challenges and prospects. Deep-Sea Research Part II 53:459–512. [CrossRef]

Iglesias-Rodriguez, M.D., C.W. Brown, S.C. Doney, J. Kleypas, D. Kolber, Z. Kolber, P.K. Hayes, and P.G. Falkowski. 2002. Representing key phytoplankton functional groups in ocean carbon cycle models: Coccolithophorids. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 16, 1100. [CrossRef]

Joyce, T., R. Backus, K. Baker, P. Blackwelder, O. Brown, T. Cowles, R. Evans G. Fryxell, D. Mountain, D. Olson, and others. 1984. Rapid evolution of a Gulf-Stream warm-core ring. Nature 308:837–840. [CrossRef]

Killworth, P.D., P. Cipollini, B.M. Uz, and J.R. Blundell. 2004. Physical and biological mechanisms for planetary waves observed in satellite-derived chlorophyll. Journal of Geophysical Research 109, C07002. [CrossRef]

Kobayashi, D.R., J.J. Polovina, D.M. Parker, N. Kamezaki, I. Cheng, I. Uchida, P. Dutton, and G. Balazs. 2008. Pelagic habitat characterization of loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, in the North Pacific Ocean (1997–2006): Insights from satellite tag tracking and remotely sensed data. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 356:96–114.

Koeller, P., K. Friedland, C. Fuentes-Yaco, G. Han, D. Kulka, J. O’Reilly, T. Platt, A. Richards, and M. Taylor. 2009. Remote sensing applications in stock assessments. Pp. 29–42 in Remote Sensing in Fisheries and Aquaculture. M.-H. Forget, V. Stuart, and T. Platt, eds, IOCCG Report No. 8, Dartmouth, Canada. Available online at: http://www.ioccg.org/reports/report8.pdf (accessed September 21, 2010).

Kostadinov, T.S., D.A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena. 2009. Retrieval of the particle size distribution from satellite ocean color observations. Journal of Geophysical Research 114, C09015. [CrossRef]

Laws, E.A., P.G. Falkowski, W.O. Smith, H. Ducklow, and J.J. McCarthy. 2000. Temperature effects on export production in the open ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 14:1,231–1,246.

Le Quéré, C., S.P. Harrison, I.C. Prentice, E.T. Buitenhuis, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, H. Claustre, L.C. da Cunha, R. Geider, X. Giraud, and others. 2005. Ecosystem dynamics based on plankton functional types for global ocean biogeochemistry models. Global Change Biology 11:2,016–2,040.

Lima, I., and S.C. Doney. 2004. A three-dimensional, multi-nutrient, size structured ecosystem model for the North Atlantic. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 18, GB3019. [CrossRef]

Maritorena, S., O.H. Fanton d’Andon, A. Mangin, and D.A. Siegel. 2010. Merged satellite ocean color data products using a bio-optical model: Characteristics, benefits and issues. Remote Sensing of the Environment 114:1,791–1,804.

Martinez, E., D. Antoine, F. D’Ortenzio, and B. Gentili. 2009. Climate-driven basin-scale decadal oscillations of oceanic phytoplankton. Science 326:1,253. [CrossRef]

McGillicuddy, D.J. Jr., L.A. Anderson, N.R. Bates, T. Bibby, K.O. Buesseler, C.A. Carlson, C.S. Davis, C. Ewart, P.G. Falkowski, S.A. Goldthwait, and others. 2007. Eddy/wind interactions stimulate extraordinary mid-ocean plankton blooms. Science 316:1,021–1,026.

McGillicuddy, D.J. Jr., A.R. Robinson, D.A. Siegel, H.W. Jannasch, R. Johnson, T.D. Dickey, J. McNeil, A.F. Michaels, and A.H. Knap. 1998. Influence of mesoscale eddies on new production in the Sargasso Sea. Nature 394:263–265. [CrossRef]

Moore, J.K., S.C. Doney, and K. Lindsay. 2004. Upper ocean ecosystem dynamics and iron cycling in a global 3-D model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 18, GB4028. [CrossRef]

Mouw, C.B., and J.A. Yoder. In press. Optical determination of phytoplankton size composition from global SeaWiFS imagery. Journal of Geophysical Research.

Najjar, R.G., X. Jin, F. Louanchi, O. Aumont, K. Caldeira, S.C. Doney, J.-C. Dutay, M. Follows, N. Gruber, F. Joos, and others. 2007. Impact of circulation on export production, dissolved organic matter and dissolved oxygen in the ocean: Results from Phase II of the Ocean Carbon-cycle Model Intercomparison Project (OCMIP-2). Global Biogeochemical Cycles 21, GB3007. [CrossRef]

National Research Council. 2007. Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond. Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Community Assessment and Strategy for the Future, 456 pp.

Oschlies, A., W. Koeve, and V.C. Garçon. 2000. An eddy-permitting coupled physical-biological model of the North Atlantic 2. Ecosystem dynamics and comparison with satellite and JGOFS local studies data. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 14:499–523. [CrossRef]

Pauly, D., and V. Christensen. 1993. Stratified models of large marine ecosystems: A general approach and an application to the South China Sea. Pp. 148–174 in Large Marine Ecosystems: Stress, Mitigation and Sustainability. K. Sherman, L.M. Alexander, and B.D. Gold, eds, AAAS Press, Washington, DC.

Pauly, D., and V. Christensen. 1995. Primary production required to sustain global fisheries. Nature 374:255–257. [CrossRef]

Platt, T., and S. Sathyendranath. 1988. Oceanic primary production: Estimation by remote sensing at local and regional scales. Science 241:1613-1620. [CrossRef]

Platt, T., C. Fuentes-Yaco, and K.T. Frank. 2003. Spring algal bloom and larval fish survival. Nature 423:398–399. [CrossRef]

Polovina, J.J., G.H. Balazs, E.A. Howell, D.M. Parker, M.P. Seki, and P.H. Dutton. 2004. Forage and migration habitat of loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) sea turtles in the central North Pacific Ocean. Fisheries Oceanography 13:36–51. [CrossRef]

Polovina, J.J., E.A. Howell, and M. Abecassis. 2008. Ocean’s least productive waters are expanding. Geophysical Research Letters 35, L03618. [CrossRef]

Polovina, J.J., D.R. Kobayashi, D.R. Parker, M.P. Seki, and G.H. Balazs. 2000. Turtles on the edge: Movement of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) along oceanic fronts spanning longline fishing grounds in the central North Pacific, 1997–1998. Fisheries Oceanography 9:71–82. [CrossRef]

Polovina, J.J., G.T. Mitchum, N.E. Graham, M.P. Craig, E.E. DeMartini, and E.N. Flint. 1994. Physical and biological consequences of a climate event in the central North Pacific. Fisheries Oceanography 3:15–21. [CrossRef]

Polovina, J.J., I. Uchida, G. Balazs, E.A. Howell, D. Parker, and P. Dutton. 2006. The Kuroshio Extension Bifurcation Region: A pelagic hotspot for juvenile loggerhead sea turtles. Deep-Sea Research Part II 53:326–339. [CrossRef]

Ream, R.R., J.T. Sterling, and T.R. Loughlin. 2005. Oceanographic features related to northern fur seal migratory movements. Deep-Sea Research Part II 52:823–843. [CrossRef]

Robinson, A.R., ed. 1983. Eddies in Marine Science. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 609 pp.

Sarmiento, J.L., R. Slater, R. Barber, L. Bopp, S.C. Doney, A.C. Hirst, J. Kleypas, R. Matear, U. Mikolajewicz, P. Monfray, and others. 2004. Response of ocean ecosystems to climate warming. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 18, GB3003. [CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S., L. Watts, E. Devred, T. Platt, C. Caverhill, and H. Maass. 2004. Discrimination of diatoms from other phytoplankton using ocean colour data. Marine Ecology Progress Series 272:59–68. [CrossRef]

Schlitzer, R. 2002. Carbon export fluxes in the Southern Ocean: Results from inverse modeling and comparison with satellite-based estimates. Deep-Sea Research Part II 49:1,623–1,644.

Schneider, B., L. Bopp, M. Gehlen, J. Segschneider, T.L. Frölicher, P. Cadule, P. Friedlingstein, S.C. Doney, M.J. Behrenfeld, and F. Joos. 2008. Climate-induced interannual variability of marine primary and export production in three global coupled climate carbon cycle models. Biogeosciences 5:597–614. [CrossRef]

Sherman, K., M. Sissenwine, V. Christensen, A. Duda, G. Hempel, C. Ibe, S. Levin, D. Lluch-Belda, G. Matishov, J. McGlade, and others. 2005. A global movement toward an ecosystem approach to management of marine resources. Marine Ecology Progress Series 300:275–279. [CrossRef]

Siegel, D.A., D.B. Court, D.W. Menzies, P. Peterson, S. Maritorena, and N.B. Nelson. 2008. Satellite and in situ observations of the bio-optical signatures of two mesoscale eddies in the Sargasso Sea. Deep-Sea Research Part II 55:1,218–1,230.

Siegel, D.A., E. Fields, and D.J. McGillicuddy Jr. 1999. Mesoscale motions, satellite altimetry and new production in the Sargasso Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research 104:13,359–13,379. [CrossRef]

Siegel, D.A., S. Maritorena, N.B. Nelson, D.A. Hansell, M. Lorenzi-Kayser. 2002. Global distribution and dynamics of colored dissolved and detrital organic materials. Journal of Geophysical Research 107(C12), 3228. [CrossRef]

Smith, R.C., and K.S. Baker. 1985. Spatial and temporal patterns in pigment biomass in Gulf-Stream Warm-Core Ring 82B and its environs. Journal of Geophysical Research 90:8,859–8,870.

Steinacher, M., F. Joos, T.L. Frölicher, L. Bopp, P. Cadule, V. Cocco, S.C. Doney, M. Gehlen, K. Lindsay, J.K. Moore, and others. 2010. Projected 21st century decrease in marine productivity: A multi-model analysis. Biogeosciences 7:979–1,005.

Stow, C.A., J. Jolliff, D.J. McGillicuddy Jr., S.C. Doney, J.I. Allen, M.A.M. Friedrichs, K.A. Rose, and P. Wallhead. 2009. Skill assessment for coupled biological/physical models of marine systems. Journal of Marine Systems 76:4–15. [CrossRef]

Thomas, A.C., D.W. Townsend, and R. Weatherbee. 2003. Satellite-measured phytoplankton variability in the Gulf of Maine. Continental Shelf Research 23:971–989. [CrossRef]

Thomas A.C., P.T. Strub, M.E. Carr, and R. Weatherbee. 2004. Comparisons of chlorophyll variability between the four major global eastern boundary currents. International Journal of Remote Sensing 25:1,443–1,447.

Uz, B.M., J.A. Yoder, and V. Osychny. 2001. Pumping of nutrients to ocean surface waters by the action of propagating planetary waves. Nature 409:597–600. [CrossRef]

Vantrepotte, V., and F. Mélin. 2009. Temporal variability of 10-year global SeaWiFS time-series of phytoplankton chlorophyll a concentration. ICES Journal of Marine Science 66:1,547–1,556.

Ware, D.M., and R.E. Thomson. 2005. Bottom-up ecosystem trophic dynamics determine fish production in the Northeast Pacific. Science 308:1,280–1,285.

Watson, R., and D. Pauly. 2001. Systematic distortions in world fisheries catch trends. Nature 414:534–536. [CrossRef]

Weng, K.C., A.M. Boustany, P. Pyle, S.D. Anderson, A. Brown, and B.A. Block. 2007. Migration and habitat of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Marine Biology 152:877–894. [CrossRef]

Westberry, T.K., M.J. Behrenfeld, D.A. Siegel, and E. Boss. 2008. Carbon-based primary productivity modeling with vertically resolved photo acclimation. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 22, GB2024. [CrossRef]

Wiggert, J., T. Dickey, and T. Granta. 1994. The effect of temporal undersampling on primary production estimates. Journal of Geophysical Research 99:3,361–3,371.

Wilson, C., and D. Adamec. 2001. Correlations between surface chlorophyll and sea surface height in the tropical Pacific during the 1997–1999 El Niño-Southern Oscillation event. Journal of Geophysical Research 106:31,175–31,188.

Yoder, J.A., and M.A. Kennelly. 2006. What have we learned about ocean variability from satellite ocean color imagers? Oceanography 19(1):152–171. [PDF]

Yoder, J.A., M.A. Kennelly, S.C. Doney, and I.D. Lima. 2010. Are trends in SeaWiFS chlorophyll time-series unusual relative to historic variability? Acta Oceanologica Sinica 29:1–4. [CrossRef]

Copyright & Usage

This is an open access article made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format as long as users cite the materials appropriately, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate the changes that were made to the original content. Images, animations, videos, or other third-party material used in articles are included in the Creative Commons license unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If the material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission directly from the license holder to reproduce the material.