Oceanography The Official Magazine of
The Oceanography Society
Volume 31 Issue 02

View Issue TOC
Volume 31, No. 2
Pages 52 - 62

Southern Ocean Warming

Jean-Baptiste Sallée
Article Abstract

The Southern Ocean plays a fundamental role in global climate. With no continental barriers, it distributes climate signals among the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans through its fast-flowing, energetic, and deep-reaching dominant current, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The unusual dynamics of this current, in conjunction with energetic atmospheric and ice conditions, make the Southern Ocean a key region for connecting the surface ocean with the world ocean’s deep seas. Recent examinations of global ocean temperature show that the Southern Ocean plays a major role in global ocean heat uptake and storage. Since 2006, an estimated 60%–90% of global ocean heat content change associated with global warming is based in the Southern Ocean. But the warming of its water masses is inhomogeneous. While the upper 1,000 m of the Southern Ocean within and north of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current are warming rapidly, at a rate of 0.1°–0.2°C per decade, the surface sub­polar seas south of this region are not warming or are slightly cooling. However, subpolar abyssal waters are warming at a substantial rate of ~0.05°C per decade due to the formation of bottom waters on the Antarctic continental shelves. Although the processes at play in this warming and their regional distribution are beginning to become clear, the specific mechanisms associated with wind change, eddy activity, and ocean-ice interaction remain areas of active research, and substantial challenges persist to representing them accurately in climate models.

Citation

Sallée, J.-B. 2018. Southern Ocean warming. Oceanography 31(2):52–62, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2018.215.

References

Allan, R.P., C. Liu, N.G. Loeb, M.D. Palmer, M. Roberts, D. Smith, and P.-L. Vidale. 2014. Changes in global net radiative imbalance 1985–2012. Geophysical Research Letters 41(15):5,588–5,597, https://doi.org/​10.1002/2014GL060962.

Armour, K.C., J. Marshall, J.R. Scott, A. Donohoe, and E.R. Newsom. 2016. Southern Ocean warming delayed by circumpolar upwelling and equatorward transport. Nature Geoscience 9(7):549–554, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2731.

Atkinson, A., V. Siegel, E.A. Pakhomov, and P. Rothery. 2004. Long-term decline in krill stock and increase in salps within the Southern Ocean. Nature 432:100–103, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02996.

Böning, C.W., A. Dispert, M. Visbeck, S.R. Rintoul, and F.U. Schwarzkopf. 2008. The response of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current to recent climate change. Nature Geoscience 1(12):864–869, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo362.

Bourassa, M.A., S.T. Gille, C. Bitz, D. Carlson, I. Cerovecki, C.A. Clayson, M.F. Cronin, W.M. Drennan, C.W. Fairall, R.N. Hoffman, and others. 2013. High-latitude ocean and sea ice surface fluxes: Challenges for climate research. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 94:403–423, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00244.1.

Bracegirdle, T.J., E. Shuckburgh, J.-B. Sallée, Z. Wang, A.J.S. Meijers, N. Bruneau, A. Phillips, and L.J. Wilcox. 2013. Assessment of surface winds over the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Ocean sectors of the Southern Hemisphere in CMIP5 models: Historical bias, forcing response, and state dependence. Journal of Geophysical Research 118:547–562, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50153.

Bryan, F.O., P.R. Gent, and R. Tomas. 2014. Can Southern Ocean eddy effects be parameterized in climate models? Journal of Climate 27:411–425, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00759.1.

Cai, W., T. Cowan, S. Godfrey, and S. Wijffels. 2010. Simulations of processes associated with the fast warming rate of the Southern midlatitude ocean. Journal of Climate 23:197–206, https://doi.org/​10.1175/2009JCLI3081.1.

Cavalieri, D.J., and C.L. Parkinson. 2008. Antarctic sea ice variability and trends, 1979–2006. Journal of Geophysical Research 113(C7), https://doi.org/​10.1029/2007JC004564.

Cerovečki, I., L.D. Talley, and M.R. Mazloff. 2011. A comparison of Southern Ocean air – sea buoyancy flux from an ocean state estimate with five other products. Journal of Climate 24(24):6,283–6,306, https://doi.org/10.1175/2011JCLI3858.1.

Chapman, C.C. 2017. New perspectives on frontal variability in the Southern Ocean. Journal of Physical Oceanography 47(5):1,151–1,168, https://doi.org/​10.1175/JPO-D-16-0222.1.

Comiso, J.C. 2010. Variability and trends of the global sea ice cover. Pp. 205–246 in Sea Ice, 2nd ed. D.N. Thomas and G.S. Dieckman, eds, Wiley-Blackwell, https://doi.org/10.1002/​9781444317145.ch6.

Dalan, F., P.H. Stone, and A.P. Sokolov. 2005. Sensitivity of the ocean’s climate to diapycnal diffusivity in an EMIC: Part II. Global warming scenario. Journal of Climate 18(13):2,482–2,496, https://doi.org/​10.1175/JCLI3412.1.

de Lavergne, C., J.B. Palter, E.D. Galbraith, R. Bernardello, and I. Marinov. 2014. Cessation of deep convection in the open Southern Ocean under anthropogenic climate change. Nature Climate Change 4(4):278–282, https://doi.org/​10.1038/nclimate2132.

DeVries, T., M. Holzer, and F. Primeau. 2017. Recent increase in oceanic carbon uptake driven by weaker upper-ocean overturning. Nature 542(7640):215–218, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature21068.

DeVries, T., and F. Primeau. 2011. Dynamically and observationally constrained estimates of water-mass distributions and ages in the global ocean. Journal of Physical Oceanography 41(12):2,381–2,401, https://doi.org/​10.1175/JPO-D-10-05011.1.

Domingues, C.M., J.A. Church, N.J. White, P.J. Gleckler, S.E. Wijffels, P.M. Barker, and J.R. Dunn. 2008. Improved estimates of upper-ocean warming and multi-decadal sea-level rise. Nature 453(7198):1,090–1,093, https://doi.org/​10.1038/nature07080.

Dong, S., S.T. Gille, and J. Sprintall. 2007. An assessment of the Southern Ocean mixed layer heat budget. Journal of Climate 20(17):4,425–4,442, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI4259.1.

Durack, P.J., P.J. Gleckler, F.W. Landerer, and K.E. Taylor. 2014. Quantifying underestimates of long-term upper-ocean warming. Nature Climate Change 4(11):999–1,005, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2389.

Exarchou, E., T. Kuhlbrodt, J.M. Gregory, and R.S. Smith. 2015. Ocean heat uptake processes: A model intercomparison. Journal of Climate 28(2):887–908, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00235.1.

Feely, R.A., S.C. Doney, and S.R. Cooley. 2009. Ocean acidification: Present conditions and future changes in a high-CO2 world. Oceanography 22(4):36–47, https://doi.org/​10.5670/oceanog.2009.95.

Ferreira, D., J. Marshall, C.M. Bitz, S. Solomon, and A. Plumb. 2015. Antarctic ocean and sea ice response to ozone depletion: A two-time-scale problem. Journal of Climate 28(3):1,206–1,226, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00313.1.

Frölicher, T.L., J.L. Sarmiento, D.J. Paynter, J.P. Dunne, J.P. Krasting, and M. Winton. 2015. Dominance of the Southern Ocean in anthropogenic carbon and heat uptake in CMIP5 models. Journal of Climate 28:862–886, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00117.1.

Giglio, D., and G.C. Johnson. 2017. Middepth decadal warming and freshening in the South Atlantic. Journal of Geophysical Research 122(2):973–979, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JC012246.

Gille, S.T. 2008. Decadal-scale temperature trends in the Southern Hemisphere ocean. Journal of Climate 21(18):4,749–4,765, https://doi.org/​10.1175/​2008JCLI2131.1.

Gille, S.T. 2014. Meridional displacement of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, https://doi.org/​10.1098/​rsta.2013.0273.

Gille, S., S. Josey, and S. Swart. 2016. New approaches for air-sea fluxes in the Southern Ocean. Eos 97, https://doi.org/​10.1029/​2016EO052243.

Gille, S.T., D.C. McKee, and D.G. Martinson. 2016. Temporal changes in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current: Implications for the Antarctic continental shelves. Oceanography 29(4):96–105, https://doi.org/​10.5670/oceanog.2016.102.

Graham, R.M., A.M. De Boer, K.J. Heywood, M.R. Chapman, and D.P. Stevens. 2012. Southern Ocean fronts: Controlled by wind or topography? Journal of Geophysical Research 117(C8), https://doi.org/​10.1029/2012JC007887.

Gregory, J.M. 2000. Vertical heat transports in the ocean and their effect on time-dependent climate change. Climate Dynamics 16(7):501–515, https://doi.org/​10.1007/s003820000059.

Gulev, S., T. Jung, and E. Ruprecht. 2007. Estimation of the impact of sampling errors in the VOS observations on air-sea fluxes: Part I. Uncertainties in climate means. Journal of Climate 20(2):279–301, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI4010.1.

Haumann, F.A., N. Gruber, M. Münnich, I. Frenger, and S. Kern. 2016. Sea-ice transport driving Southern Ocean salinity and its recent trends. Nature 537:89, https://www.nature.com/articles/nature19101.

Hellmer, H.H., F. Kauker, R. Timmermann, J. Determann, and J. Rae. 2012. Twenty-first-century warming of a large Antarctic ice-shelf cavity by a redirected coastal current. Nature 485(7397):225–228, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11064.

Heuzé, C., K.J. Heywood, D.P. Stevens, and J.K. Ridley. 2013. Southern Ocean bottom water characteristics in CMIP5 models. Geophysical Research Letters 40(7):1,409–1,414, https://doi.org/​10.1002/grl.50287.

IPCC. 2007. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. S.D. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller, eds, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, USA, 996 pp.

Ishii, M., and M. Kimoto. 2009. Reevaluation of historical ocean heat content variations with time-varying XBT and MBT depth bias corrections. Journal of Oceanography 65(3):287–299, https://doi.org/​10.1007/s10872-009-0027-7.

Jacobs, S. 2006. Observations of change in the Southern Ocean. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 364(1844):1,657–1,681, https://doi.org/​10.1098/​rsta.2006.1794.

Jacobs, S.S., and C.F. Giulivi. 2010. Large multidecadal salinity trends near the Pacific-Antarctic continental margin. Journal of Climate 23:4,508–4,524, https://doi.org/​10.1175/2010JCLI3284.1.

Jayne, S.R., D. Roemmich, N. Zilberman, S.C. Riser, K.S. Johnson, G.C. Johnson, and S.R. Piotrowicz. 2017. The Argo Program: Present and future. Oceanography 30(2):18–28, https://doi.org/​10.5670/oceanog.2017.213.

Johnson, G.C., K.E. McTaggart, and R. Wanninkhof. 2014. Antarctic Bottom Water temperature changes in the western South Atlantic from 1989 to 2014. Journal of Geophysical Research 119:8567–8577, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JC010367.

Josey, S.A., E.C. Kent, P.K. Taylor, S.A. Josey, E.C. Kent, and P.K. Taylor. 1999. New insights into the ocean heat budget closure problem from analysis of the SOC air -sea flux climatology. Journal of Climate 12(9):2,856–2,880, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-​0442(1999)012<2856:NIITOH>2.0.CO;2.

Jullion, L., A.C. Naveira Garabato, M.P. Meredith, P.R. Holland, P. Courtois, and B.A. King. 2013. Decadal freshening of the Antarctic Bottom Water exported from the Weddell Sea. Journal of Climate 26:8,111–8,125, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00765.1.

Klatt, O., O. Boebel, and E. Fahrbach. 2007. A profiling float’s sense of ice. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 24:1,301–1,308, https://doi.org/​10.1175/JTECH2026.1.

Kostov, Y., J. Marshall, U. Hausmann, K.C. Armour, D. Ferreira, and M. Holland. 2017. Fast and slow responses of Southern Ocean sea surface temperature to SAM in coupled climate models. Climate Dynamics 48:1,595–1,609, https://doi.org/​10.1007/s00382-016-3162-z.

Kuhlbrodt, T., J.M. Gregory, and L.C. Shaffrey. 2015. A process-based analysis of ocean heat uptake in an AOGCM with an eddy-permitting ocean component. Climate Dynamics 45(11–12):3,205–3,226, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2534-0.

Landschützer, P., N. Gruber, F.A. Haumann, C. Rödenbeck, D.C.E. Bakker, D.S. van Heuven, M. Hoppema, N. Metzl, C. Sweeney, T. Takahashi, and others. 2015. The reinvigoration of the Southern Ocean carbon sink. Science 349(6253):1,221–1,224, https://doi.org/​10.1126/science.aab2620.

Le Quéré, C., M.R. Raupach, J.G. Canadell, G. Marland, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, T. Conway, S.C. Doney, R.A. Feely, P. Foster, and others. 2009. Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide. Nature Geoscience 2(12):831–836, https://doi.org/​10.1038/​ngeo689.

Lecomte, O., H. Goosse, T. Fichefet, C. de Lavergne, A. Barthélemy, and V. Zunz. 2017. Vertical ocean heat redistribution sustaining sea-ice concentration trends in the Ross Sea. Nature Communications 8(1):258, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-00347-4.

Levitus, S., J.I. Antonov, T.P. Boyer, O.K. Baranova, H.E. Garcia, R.A. Locarnini, A.V. Mishonov, J.R. Reagan, D. Seidov, E.S. Yarosh, and M.M. Zweng. 2012. World ocean heat content and thermosteric sea level change (0–2000 m), 1955–2010. Geophysical Research Letters 39(10), https://doi.org/​10.1029/​2012GL051106.

Llovel, W., and L. Terray. 2016. Observed southern upper-ocean warming over 2005–2014 and associated mechanisms. Environmental Research Letters 11:124023, https://doi.org/​10.1088/1748-9326/11/12/124023.

Marshall, G.J. 2003. Trends in the Southern Annular Mode from observations and reanalyses. Journal of Climate 16:4,134–4,143, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-​0442(2003)016​<4134:TITSAM>2.0.CO;2.

Marshall, D.P., and L. Zanna. 2014. A conceptual model of ocean heat uptake under climate change. Journal of Climate 27(22):8,444–8,465, https://doi.org/​10.1175/​JCLI-D-13-00344.1.

Marshall, J., and K. Speer. 2012. Closure of the meridional overturning circulation through Southern Ocean upwelling. Nature Geoscience 5(3):171–180, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo1391.

Martinson, D.G. 1990. Evolution of the southern ocean winter mixed layer and sea ice: Open ocean deepwater formation and ventilation. Journal of Geophysical Research 95(C7), https://doi.org/​10.1029/JC095iC07p11641.

Masuda, S., T. Awaji, N. Sugiura, J.P. Matthews, T. Toyoda, Y. Kawai, T. Doi, T., Kouketsu, S., Igarashi, H., Katsumata, and others. 2010. Simulated rapid warming of abyssal North Pacific waters. Science 329(5989):319–322, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1188703.

Mauritzen, C., A. Melsom, and R.T. Sutton. 2012. Importance of density-compensated temperature change for deep North Atlantic Ocean heat uptake. Nature Geoscience 5(12):905–910, https://doi.org/​10.1038/ngeo1639.

Meijers, A.J.S. 2014. The Southern Ocean in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2013.0296.

Morrison, A.K., S.M. Griffies, M. Winton, W.G. Anderson, and J.L. Sarmiento. 2016. Mechanisms of Southern Ocean heat uptake and transport in a global eddying climate model. Journal of Climate 29:2,059–2,075, https://doi.org/​10.1175/​JCLI-D-15-0579.1.

Morrison, A.K., and A. McC. Hogg. 2013. On the relationship between Southern Ocean overturning and ACC transport. Journal of Physical Oceanography 43(1):140–148, https://doi.org/10.1175/JPO-D-12-057.1.

Palmer, M.D., and P. Brohan. 2011. Estimating sampling uncertainty in fixed-depth and fixed-isotherm estimates of ocean warming. International Journal of Climatology 31:980–986, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.2224.

Paolo, F.S., H.A. Fricker, and L. Padman. 2015. Volume loss from Antarctic ice shelves is accelerating. Science 348(6232):327–331, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa0940.

Purkey, S.G., and G.C. Johnson. 2010. Warming of global abyssal and deep Southern Ocean waters between the 1990s and 2000s: Contributions to global heat and sea level rise budgets*. Journal of Climate 23(23):6,336–6,351, https://doi.org/​10.1175/2010JCLI3682.1.

Purkey, S.G., and G.C. Johnson. 2013. Antarctic Bottom Water warming and freshening: Contributions to sea level rise, ocean freshwater budgets, and global heat gain. Journal of Climate 26(16):6,105–6,122, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00834.1.

Rhein, M., S.R. Rintoul, S. Aoki, E. Campos, D. Chambers, R.A. Feely, S. Gulev, G.C. Johnson, S.A. Josey, A. Kostianoy, and others. 2013. Observations: Ocean. Pp. 255–315 in Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. T.F. Stocker, D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, and P.M. Midgley, eds, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, USA.

Roemmich, D., J. Church, J. Gilson, D. Monselesan, P. Sutton, and S. Wijffels. 2015. Unabated planetary warming and its ocean structure since 2006. Nature Climate Change 5(3):240–245, https://doi.org/​10.1038/nclimate2513.

Sallée, J.-B., K. Speer, and R. Morrow. 2008. Response of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current to atmospheric variability. Journal of Climate 21(12):3,020–3,039, https://doi.org/​10.1175/2007JCLI1702.1.

Sallée, J.-B., E. Shuckburgh, N. Bruneau, A.J.S. Meijers, T.J. Bracegirdle, Z. Wang, and T. Roy. 2013. Assessment of Southern Ocean water mass circulation and characteristics in CMIP5 models: Historical bias and forcing response. Journal of Geophysical Research 118(4):1,830–1,844, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrc.20135.

Schmidtko, S., K.J. Heywood, A.F. Thompson, and S. Aoki. 2014. Multidecadal warming of Antarctic waters. Science 346(6214):1227–1,231, https://doi.org/​10.1126/science.1256117.

Shimada, K., S. Aoki, K.I. Ohshima, and S.R. Rintoul. 2012. Influence of Ross Sea Bottom Water changes on the warming and freshening of the Antarctic Bottom Water in the Australian-Antarctic Basin. Ocean Science 8:419–432, https://doi.org/10.5194/os-8-419-2012.

Smith, D.M., R.P. Allan, A.C. Coward, R. Eade, P. Hyder, C. Liu, N.G. Loeb, M.D. Palmer, C.D. Roberts, and A.A. Scaife. 2015. Earth’s energy imbalance since 1960 in observations and CMIP5 models. Geophysical Research Letters 42(4):1,205–1,213, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014GL062669.

Smith, D.M., and J.M. Murphy. 2007. An objective ocean temperature and salinity analysis using covariances from a global climate model. Journal of Geophysical Research 112(C2), https://doi.org/​10.1029/2005JC003172.

Sokolov, S., and S.R. Rintoul. 2009. Circumpolar structure and distribution of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current fronts: 1. Mean circumpolar paths. Journal of Geophysical Research 114(C11), https://doi.org/​10.1029/2008JC005108.

Sokolov, S., and S.R. Rintoul. 2007. Multiple jets of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current south of Australia*. Journal of Physical Oceanography 37(5):1,394–1,412, https://doi.org/​10.1175/JPO3111.1.

Talley, L.D., R.A. Feely, B.M. Sloyan, R. Wanninkhof, M.O. Baringer, J.L. Bullister, C.A. Carlson, S.C. Doney, R.A. Fine, E. Firing, and others. 2016. Changes in ocean heat, carbon content, and ventilation: A review of the first decade of GO-SHIP global repeat hydrography. Annual Review of Marine Science 8(1):185–215, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-052915-100829.

Taylor, P.K. 2000. Final Report of the Joint WCRP/SCOR Working Group on Air-Sea Fluxes (SCOR Working Group 110). https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/​69522/1/wgasf_final_rep.pdf.

Thompson, D.W.J., S. Solomon, P.J. Kushner, M.H. England, K.M. Grise, and D.J. Karoly. 2011. Signatures of the Antarctic ozone hole in Southern Hemisphere surface climate change. Nature Geoscience 4(11):741–749, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo1296.

Treasure, A.M., F. Roquet, I.J. Ansorge, M.N. Bester, L. Boehme, H. Bornemann, J.-B. Charrassin, D. Chevallier, D.P. Costa, M.A. Fedak, and others. 2017. Marine mammals exploring the oceans pole to pole: A review of the MEOP consortium. Oceanography 30(2):132–138, https://doi.org/​10.5670/oceanog.2017.234.

Trenberth, K.E., J.T. Fasullo, J. Kiehl, K.E. Trenberth, J.T. Fasullo, and J. Kiehl. 2009. Earth’s Global Energy Budget. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 90(3):311–323, https://doi.org/​10.1175/2008BAMS2634.1.

van Wijk, E.M., and S.R. Rintoul. 2014. Freshening drives contraction of Antarctic Bottom Water in the Australian Antarctic Basin. Geophysical Research Letters 41(5):1,657–1,664, https://doi.org/​10.1002/2013GL058921.

Vaughan, D.G., J.C. Comiso, I. Allison, J. Carrasco, G. Kaser, R. Kwok, P. Mote, T. Murray, F. Paul, J. Ren, and others. 2013. Observations: Cryosphere. Pp. 317–382 in Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. T.F. Stocker, D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, and P. Midgley, eds, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, USA.

von Schuckmann, K., M.D. Palmer, K.E. Trenberth, A. Cazenave, D. Chambers, N. Champollion, J. Hansen, S.A. Josey, N. Loeb, P.-P. Mathieu, and others. 2016. An imperative to monitor Earth’s energy imbalance. Nature Climate Change 6(2):138–144, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2876.

Waugh, D.W., F. Primeau, T. DeVries, and M. Holzer. 2013. Recent changes in the ventilation of the Southern Oceans. Science 339(6119):568–570, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1225411.

Wolfe, C.L., P. Cessi, J.L. McClean, and M.E. Maltrud. 2008. Vertical heat transport in eddying ocean models. Geophysical Research Letters 35, L23605, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL036138.

Wong, A.P.S., and S.C. Riser. 2011. Profiling float observations of the upper ocean under sea ice off the Wilkes Land coast of Antarctica. Journal of Physical Oceanography 41:1,102–1,115, https://doi.org/​10.1175/2011JPO4516.1.