Oceanography The Official Magazine of
The Oceanography Society
Volume 23 Issue 01

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Volume 23, No. 1
Pages 123 - 125


BOX • Seamount Ecosystem Evaluation Framework (SEEF): A Tool for Global Seamount Research and Data Synthesis

By Tony J. Pitcher , Telmo Morato, Karen I. Stocks , and Malcolm R. Clark 
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The Seamount Ecosystem Evaluation Framework (SEEF) is an innovative multidisciplinary tool developed to standardize the parameters by which seamounts are characterized, to report the extent of knowledge about individual seamounts, and to identify and assess threats to them, and to address other issues. Initially developed by Pitcher and Bulman (2007) and Pitcher et al. (2007), SEEF identifies critical gaps in knowledge and may be used as a guide to develop future research plans for a specific seamount. By systematizing sets of seamount data, it can also promote and assist consistent seamount ecosystem modeling, meta-analysis, and, for management, development of ecosystem-based plans.


Pitcher, T.J., T. Morato, K.I. Stocks, and M.R. Clark. 2010. Box 6: Seamount Ecosystem Evaluation Framework (SEEF)—A tool for global seamount research and data synthesis. Oceanography 23(1):123–125, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2010.90.


Clark, M.R., A.A. Rowden, I. Wright, and M. Consalvey. 2010. Spotlight 7: Graveyard seamounts. Oceanography 23(1):146–147.

Pitcher, T.J., and C. Bulman. 2007. Raiding the larder: A quantitative evaluation framework and trophic signature for seamount food webs. Pp. 282–296 in Seamounts: Ecology, Conservation and Management. T.J. Pitcher, T. Morato, P.J.B. Hart, M.R. Clark, N. Haggan, and R.S. Santos, eds, Fish and Aquatic Resources Series, Blackwell, Oxford, UK.

Pitcher, T.J., T. Morato, P.J.B. Hart, M.R. Clark, N. Haggan, and R.S. Santos. 2007. The depths of ignorance: An ecosystem evaluation framework for seamount ecology, fisheries and conservation. Pp. 476–488 in Seamounts: Ecology, Conservation and Management. T.J. Pitcher, T. Morato, P.J.B. Hart, M.R. Clark, N. Haggan, and R.S. Santos, eds, Fish and Aquatic Resources Series, Blackwell, Oxford, UK.

Stocks, K. 2009. SeamountsOnline: An online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication. http://seamounts.sdsc.edu.

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