Oceanography The Official Magazine of
The Oceanography Society
Volume 22 Issue 03

View Issue TOC
Volume 22, No. 3
Pages 144 - 153

Observing System Evaluations Using GODAE Systems

Peter R. Oke Magdalena A. BalmasedaMounir Benkiran James A. CummingsEric DombrowskyYosuke Fujii Stéphanie Guinehut Gilles Larnicol Pierre-Yves Le Traon Matthew J. Martin
Article Abstract

Global ocean forecast systems, developed under the Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE), are a powerful means of assessing the impact of different components of the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). Using a range of analysis tools and approaches, GODAE systems are useful for quantifying the impact of different observation types on the quality of analyses and forecasts. This assessment includes both existing and future observation platforms. Many important conclusions can be drawn from these studies. It is clear that altimeter data are extremely important for constraining mesoscale variability in ocean forecast systems. The number of altimeters is also important. For example, near-real-time applications need data from four altimeters to achieve skill that is similar to systems using data from two altimeters in delayed mode. Another important result is that sea surface temperature is the only observation parameter that adequately monitors ocean properties in coastal regions and shallow seas. Assimilation of Argo data provides a significant, measurable improvement to GODAE systems, and is the only observation platform that provides global-scale information for constraining salinity. The complementary nature of different components of GOOS is now clear and the emergence of new assimilation techniques for observing system evaluation provides the GODAE community with a practical path toward routine GOOS monitoring.

Citation

Oke, P.R., M.A. Balmaseda, M. Benkiran, J.A. Cummings, E. Dombrowsky, Y. Fujii, S. Guinehut, G. Larnicol, P.-Y. Le Traon, and M.J. Martin. 2009. Observing system evaluations using GODAE systems. Oceanography 22(3):144–153, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2009.72.

References

Ballabrera-Poy, J., E. Hackert, R. Murtugudde, and A.J. Busalacchi. 2007. An observing system simulation experiment for an optimal moored instrument array in the tropical Indian Ocean. Journal of Climate 20:3,284–3,299.

Balmaseda, M.A., D. Anderson, and A. Vidard. 2007. Impact of Argo on analyses of the global ocean. Geophysical Research Letters 34, L16605, doi:10.1029/2007GL030452.

Balmaseda, M.A., and D. Anderson. 2009. Impact of initialization strategies and observations on seasonal forecast skill. Geophysical Research Letters 36, L01701, doi:10.1029/ 2008GL035561.

Brachet S., P.-Y. Le Traon, and C. Le Provost. 2004. Mesoscale variability from a high-resolution model and from altimeter data in the North Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research 109, C12025, doi:10.1029/2004JC002360.

Brasseur P., P. Bahurel, L. Bertino, F. Birol, J.-M. Brankart, N. Ferry, S. Losa, E. Rémy, J. Schröter, S. Skachko, and others. 2005. Data Assimilation for marine monitoring and prediction: The Mercator operational assimilation systems and the MERSEA developments. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 131:3,561–3,582.

Brassington, G.B., and P. Divakaran. 2009. The theoretical impact of remotely sensed sea surface salinity observations in a multi-variate assimilation system. Ocean Modelling 27:70–81.

Cardinali, C., S. Pezzulli, and E. Andersson. 2004. Influence-matrix diagnostic of a data assimilation system. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 130:2,767–2,786.

Chapron, B., F. Collard, and F. Ardhuin. 2005. Direct measurements of ocean surface velocity from space: Interpretation and validation. Journal of Geophysical Research 110, C07008, doi:1029/2004JC002809.

Ducet, N., P.-Y. Le Traon, and G. Reverdin. 2000. Global high-resolution mapping of ocean circulation from TOPEX/Poseidon and ERS-1 and -2. Journal of Geophysical Research 105:19,477–19,498.

Fujii, Y., H. Tsujino, N. Usui, H. Nakano, and M. Kamachi. 2008a. Application of singular vector analysis to the Kuroshio large meander. Journal of Geophysical Research 113, C07026, doi:10.1029/2007JC004476.

Fujii, Y., T. Yasuda, S. Matsumoto, M. Kamachi, and K. Ando. 2008b. Observing System Evaluation (OSE) using the El Niño forecasting system in Japan Meteorological Agency. Proceedings of the Oceanographic Society of Japan fall meeting (in Japanese).

Guinehut, S., G. Larnicol, and P.-Y. Le Traon. 2002. Design of an array of profiling floats in the North Atlantic from model simulations. Journal of Marine Systems 35:1–9.

Guinehut, S., P.-Y. Le Traon, G. Larnicol, and S. Phillips. 2004. Combining Argo and remote-sensing data to estimate the ocean three-dimensional temperature fields: A first approach based on simulated observations. Journal of Marine Systems 46:85–98.

Langland, R.H., and N.L. Baker. 2004. Estimation of observation impact using the NRL atmospheric variational data assimilation adjoint system. Tellus 56A:189–201.

Larnicol, G., S. Guinehut, M.-H. Rio, M. Drevillon, Y. Faugere, and G. Nicolas. 2006. The global observed ocean products of the French Mercator Project. Paper presented at the Symposium on 15 Years of Progress in Radar Altimetry, March 13–18, 2006, Venice, Italy, European Space Agency and Centre National d’Études Spatiales.

Le Henaff, M., P. De Mey, and P. Marsaleix. 2009. Assessment of observational networks with the representer matrix spectra method: Application to a 3D coastal model of the Bay of Biscay. Ocean Dynamics 59:3–20.

Le Traon, P.-Y., and G. Dibarboure. 2002. Velocity mapping capabilities of present and future altimeter missions: The role of high frequency signals. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 19:2,077–2,088.

Martin, M.J., A. Hines, and M.J. Bell. 2007. Data assimilation in the FOAM operational short-range ocean forecasting system: A description of the scheme and its impact. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 133:981–995.

Oke, P.R., and A. Schiller. 2007. Impact of Argo, SST and altimeter data on an eddy-resolving ocean reanalysis. Geophysical Research Letters 34, L19601, doi:10.1029/2007GL031549.

Pascual, A., Y. Faugère, G. Larnicol, and P.-Y. Le Traon. 2006. Improved description of the ocean mesoscale variability by combining four satellite altimeters. Geophysical Research Letters 33, doi:10.1029/2005GL024633.

Pascual, A., M.I. Pujol, G. Larnicol, P.-Y. Le Traon, and M.H. Rio. 2007. Mesoscale mapping capabilities of multisatellite altimeter missions: First results with real data in the Mediterranean Sea. Journal of Marine Systems 65:190–211.

Pascual, A., C. Boone, G. Larnicol, and P.Y. Le Traon. 2008. On the quality of real time altimeter gridded fields: Comparison with in situ data. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 26(3):556-569, doi:10.1175/2008JTECHO556.

Rabier, F., P. Gauthier, C. Cardinali, R. Langland, M. Tsyrulnikov, A. Lorenc, P. Steinle, R. Gelaro, and K. Koizumi. 2008. An update on THORPEX-related research in data assimilation and observing strategies. Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics 15:81–94.

Sakov, P., and P.R. Oke. 2008. Objective array design: Application to the tropical Indian Ocean. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 25:794–807.

Schiller, A., S.E. Wijffels, and G.A. Meyers. 2004. Design requirements for an Argo float array in the Indian Ocean inferred from observing system simulation experiments. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 21:1,598–1,620.

Tranchant, B., C.E. Testut, L. Renault, N. Ferry, F. Birol, and P. Brasseur. 2008. Expected impact of the future SMOS and Aquarius Ocean surface salinity missions in the Mercator Océan operational systems: New perspectives to monitor ocean circulation. Remote Sensing of the Environment 112:1,476–1,487.

Vecchi, G.A., and M.J. Harrison. 2007. An observing system simulation experiment for the Indian Ocean. Journal of Climate 20:3,300–3,343.

Vidard, A., D.L.T. Anderson, and M. Balmaseda. 2007. Impact of ocean observation systems on ocean analysis and seasonal forecasts. Monthly Weather Review 135:409–429.

Vigan, X., C. Provost, R. Bleck, and P. Courtier, 2000. Sea surface velocities from the sea surface temperature image sequence. 1. Method and validation using primitive equation model output. Journal of Geophysical Research 105:19,499–19,514.