Oceanography The Official Magazine of
The Oceanography Society
Volume 09 Issue 01

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Volume 09, No. 1
Pages 36 - 43

Marine Bioinvasions: The Alteration of Marine Ecosystems by Nonindigenous Species

James T. Carlton
First Paragraph

Sometime in 1979 or perhaps 1980 a bulk cargo ship pushed off from a port in the Americas, with a load of wheat or iron ore, bound for a Russian port on the Black Sea. Perhaps it was winter, and the vessel needed more weight to keep it down in stormy seas. Or perhaps the vessel was “‘high on the nose,” and needed extra weight to keep its bow down just a little more. The ship “ballasted up,” pumping water into its bottom ballast tanks, and adding another 1,000 metric tons to a forepeak tank. The voyage went well: cargo and water were released on the north shore of the Black Sea, 22 days later.


Carlton, J.T. 1996. Marine bioinvasions: The alteration of marine ecosystems by nonindigenous species. Oceanography 9(1):36–43, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.1996.25.