Ammann, A.J. 2004. SMURFs: Standard monitoring units for the recruitment of temperate reef fishes. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 99:135–154, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2003.08.014.
Arnott, S.E., and M.J. Vanni. 1993. Zooplankton assemblages in fishless bog lakes: Influence of biotic and abiotic factors. Ecology 74:2,361–2,380, https://doi.org/10.2307/1939588.
Barth, J.A., B.A. Menge, J. Lubchenco, F. Chan, J.M. Bane, A.R. Kirincich, M.A. McManus, K.J. Nielsen, S.D. Pierce, and L. Washburn. 2007. Delayed upwelling alters nearshore coastal ocean ecosystems in the Northern California Current. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104:3,719–3,724, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0700462104.
Bertness, M.D., and S.D. Hacker. 1994. Physical stress and positive associations among marsh plants. American Naturalist 144:363–372, https://doi.org/10.1086/285681.
Blanchette, C.A., C.M. Miner, P.T. Raimondi, D. Lohse, K.E.K. Heady, and B.R. Broitman. 2008. Biogeographical patterns of rocky intertidal communities along the Pacific coast of North America. Journal of Biogeography 35:1,593–1,607, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2008.01913.x.
Borer, E.T., E.W. Seabloom, J.B. Shurin, K.E. Anderson, C.A. Blanchette, B.R. Broitman, S.D. Cooper, and B.S. Halpern. 2005. What determines the strength of a trophic cascade? Ecology 86:528–537, https://doi.org/10.1890/03-0816.
Botsford, L.W., C.A. Lawrence, E.P. Dever, A. Hastings, and J. Largier. 2006. Effects of variable winds on biological productivity on continental shelves in coastal upwelling systems. Deep Sea Research Part II 53:3,116–3,140, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2006.07.011.
Broitman, B.R., C.A. Blanchette, B.A. Menge, J. Lubchenco, C. Krenz, M. Foley, P. Raimondi, D. Lohse, and S.D. Gaines. 2008. Spatial and temporal variability in the recruitment of intertidal invertebrates along the West Coast of the United States of America. Ecological Monographs 78:403–421, https://doi.org/10.1890/06-1805.1.
Brooker, R.W., R.M. Callaway, L.A. Cavieres, Z. Kikvidze, C.J. Lortie, R. Michalet, F.I. Pugnaire, A. Valiente-Banuet, and T.G. Whitham. 2009. Don’t diss integration: A comment on Ricklefs’s disintegrating communities. The American Naturalist 174:919–927, https://doi.org/10.1086/648058.
Brown, J.H., and E.J. Heske. 1990. Control of a desert-grassland transition by a keystone rodent guild. Science 250:1,705–1,707, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.250.4988.1705.
Bruno, J.F., J.J. Stachowicz, and M.D. Bertness. 2003. Inclusion of facilitation into ecological theory. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18:119–125, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-5347(02)00045-9.
Bryson, E.S., G.C. Trussell, and P.J. Ewanchuk. 2014. Broad-scale geographic variation in the organization of rocky intertidal communities in the Gulf of Maine. Ecological Monographs 84:579–597, https://doi.org/10.1890/13-1106.1.
Bustamante, R.H., and G.M. Branch. 1996. The dependence of intertidal consumers on kelp-derived organic matter on the west coast of South Africa. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 196:1–28, https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(95)00093-3.
Bustamante, R.H., G.M. Branch, S. Eekhout, B. Robertson, P. Zoutendyk, M. Schleyer, A. Dye, N. Hanekom, D. Keats, M. Jurd, and C. McQuaid. 1995. Gradients of intertidal primary productivity around the coast of South Africa and their relationships with consumer biomass. Oecologia 102:189–201, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00333251.
Carpenter, S.R., J.F. Kitchell, and J.R. Hodgson. 1985. Cascading trophic interactions and lake productivity. BioScience 35:634–639, https://doi.org/10.2307/1309989.
Caselle, J.E., B.P. Kinlan, and R.R. Warner. 2010. Temporal and spatial scales of influence on near-shore fish recruitment in the Southern California Bight. Bulletin of Marine Science 86:355–385.
Chan, F., J.A. Barth, K.J. Kroeker, J. Lubchenco, and B.A. Menge. 2019. The dynamics and impact of ocean acidification and hypoxia: Insights from sustained investigations in the Northern California Current Large Marine Ecosystem. Oceanography 32(3):62–71, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2019.312.
Chavez, F.P., and M. Messié. 2009. A comparison of Eastern Boundary Upwelling Ecosystems. Progress in Oceanography 83:80–96, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2009.07.032.
Checkley, D.M.J., and J.A. Barth. 2009. Patterns and processes in the California Current System. Progress in Oceanography 83:49–64, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2009.07.028.
Claisse, J.T., C.A. Blanchette, J.E. Dugan, J.P. Williams, J. Freiwald, D.J. Pondella, N.K. Schooler, D.M. Hubbard, K. Davis, L.A. Zahn, and others. 2018. Biogeographic patterns of communities across diverse marine ecosystems in southern California. Marine Ecology 39:e12453, https://doi.org/10.1111/maec.12453.
Coleman, R.A., A.J. Underwood, L. Benedetti-Cecchi, P. Aberg, F. Arenas, J. Arrontes, J. Castro, R.G. Hartnoll, S.R. Jenkins, J. Paula, and others. 2006. A continental scale evaluation of the role of limpet grazing on rocky shores. Oecologia 147:556–564, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-005-0296-9.
Connell, J.H. 1961. The influence of interspecific competition and other factors on the distribution of the barnacle Chthamalus stellatus. Ecology 42:710–723, https://doi.org/10.2307/1933500.
Connell, J.H. 1975. Some mechanisms producing structure in natural communities: A model and evidence from field experiments. Pp. 460–490 in Ecology and Evolution of Communities. M.L. Cody and J.M. Diamond, eds, Belknap Press, Cambridge, MA.
Connolly, S.R., and J. Roughgarden. 1999. Theory of marine communities: Competition, predation, and recruitment-dependent interaction strength. Ecological Monographs 69:277–296, https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9615(1999)069[0277:TOMCCP]2.0.CO;2.
Connolly, S.R., B.A. Menge, and J. Roughgarden. 2001. A latitudinal gradient in recruitment of intertidal invertebrates in the northeast Pacific Ocean. Ecology 82:1,799–1,813, https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2001)082[1799:ALGIRO]2.0.CO;2.
Cudaback, C., L. Washburn, and E. Dever. 2005. Subtidal inner-shelf circulation near Point Conception, California. Journal of Geophysical Research 110, C10007, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JC002608.
Dayton, P.K. 1971. Competition, disturbance, and community organization: The provision and subsequent utilization of space in a rocky intertidal community. Ecological Monographs 41:351–389, https://doi.org/10.2307/1948498.
Dayton, P.K., and M.J. Tegner. 1984. The importance of scale in community ecology. Pp. 457–481 in A New Ecology: Novel Approaches to Interactive Systems. P.W. Price, C.N. Slobodchiknoff, and W.S. Gaud, eds, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.
Dayton, P.K., M.J. Tegner, P.B. Edwards, and K.L. Riser. 1999. Temporal and spatial scales of kelp demography: The role of oceanographic climate. Ecological Monographs 69:219–250, https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9615(1999)069[0219:TASSOK]2.0.CO;2.
Diamond, J. 1986. Overview: Laboratory experiments, field experiments, and natural experiments. Pp. 3–22 in Community Ecology. J. Diamond and T.J. Case, eds, Harper and Row Publishers, Inc., New York, NY.
Duggins, D.O., C.A. Simenstad, and J.A. Estes. 1989. Magnification of secondary production by kelp detritus in coastal marine ecosystems. Science 245:170–173, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.245.4914.170.
Eckman, J.E., J.S. Levinton, B.A. Menge, C.H. Peterson, J.W. Porter, and J.P. Sutherland. 1989. A coastal initiative (COAST): A workshop on nearshore benthic marine ecology. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 70:204–207.
Farrell, T.M., D. Bracher, and J. Roughgarden. 1991. Cross-shelf transport causes recruitment to intertidal populations in central California. Limnology and Oceanography 36:279–288, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1991.36.2.0279.
Field, C.B., M.J. Behrenfeld, J.T. Randerson, and P. Falkowski. 1998. Primary production of the biosphere: Integrating terrestrial and oceanic components. Science 281:237–240, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.281.5374.237.
Freestone, A.L., R.W. Osman, G.M. Ruiz, and M.E. Torchin. 2011. Stronger predation in the tropics shapes species richness patterns in marine communities. Ecology 92:983–993, https://doi.org/10.1890/09-2379.1.
Fretwell, S.D. 1987. Food chain dynamics: The central theory of ecology? Oikos 50:291–301, https://doi.org/10.2307/3565489.
Gaines, S.D., and J. Roughgarden. 1985. Larval settlement rate: A leading determinant of structure in an ecological community of the marine intertidal zone. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 82:3,707–3,711, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.82.11.3707.
Grime, J.P. 1977. Evidence for the existence of three primary strategies in plants and its relevance to ecological and evolutionary theory. The American Naturalist 111:1,169–1,194, https://doi.org/10.1086/283244.
Hacker, S.D., B.A. Menge, K.J. Nielsen, F. Chan, and T.C. Gouhier. 2019. Regional processes are stronger determinants of rocky intertidal community dynamics than local biotic interactions. Ecology, https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2763.
Hairston, N.G., F.E. Smith, and L.B. Slobodkin. 1960. Community structure, population control, and competition. The American Naturalist 94:421–425, https://doi.org/10.1086/282146.
He, Q., M.D. Bertness, and A.H. Altieri. 2013. Global shifts towards positive species interactions with increasing environmental stress. Ecology Letters 16:695–706, https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12080.
Hickey, B.M., and N.S. Banas. 2008. Why is the northern end of the California Current System so productive? Oceanography 21(4):90–107, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2008.07.
Inchausti, P. 1994. Reductionist approaches in community ecology. The American Naturalist 143:201–221, https://doi.org/10.1086/285601.
Kimbro, D.L., J.H. Grabowski, A.R. Hughes, M.F. Piehler, and J.W. White. 2017. Nonconsumptive effects of a predator weaken then rebound over time. Ecology 98:656–667, https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.1702.
Kimbro, D.L., J.W. White, and E.D. Grosholz. 2019. The dynamics of open populations: Integration of top-down, bottom-up and supply-side influences on intertidal oysters. Oikos 128:584–595, https://doi.org/10.1111/oik.05892.
Kirincich, A.R., J.A. Barth, B.A. Grantham, J. Lubchenco, and B.A. Menge. 2005. Wind-driven inner-shelf circulation off central Oregon during summer. Journal of Geophysical Research 110:C10S03, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JC002611.
Lathlean, J.A., J.A. Trassierra, J.D. Everett, and C.D. McQuaid. 2019. Testing the intermittent upwelling hypothesis: Intercontinental comparisons of barnacle recruitment between South Africa and Australia. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 224:197–208, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2019.04.040.
Lawton, J.H. 1999. Are there general laws in ecology? Oikos 84:177–192, https://doi.org/10.2307/3546712.
Lewis, J.R. 1964. The ecology of rocky shores, 1st ed. The English Universities Press Ltd., London, UK, 323 pp.
Loreau, M., N. Mouquet, and R.D. Holt. 2003. Meta-ecosystems: A theoretical framework for a spatial ecosystem ecology. Ecology Letters 6:673–679, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1461-0248.2003.00483.x.
Lubchenco, J., and B.A. Menge. 1978. Community development and persistence in a low rocky intertidal zone. Ecological Monographs 48:67–94, https://doi.org/10.2307/2937360.
Lubchenco, J., and L.A. Real. 1991. Experimental manipulations in lab and field systems: Manipulative experiments as tests of ecological theory. Pp. 715–733 in Foundations of Ecology. L.A. Real and J.H. Brown, eds, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
McLachlan, A. 1990. Dissipative beaches and macrofauna communities on exposed intertidal sands. Journal of Coastal Research 6:57–71.
Menge, B.A. 1976. Organization of the New England rocky intertidal community: Role of predation, competition and environmental heterogeneity. Ecological Monographs 46:355–393, https://doi.org/10.2307/1942563.
Menge, B.A. 1992. Community regulation: Under what conditions are bottom-up factors important on rocky shores? Ecology 73:755–765, https://doi.org/10.2307/1940155.
Menge, B.A. 2000. Top-down and bottom-up community regulation in marine rocky intertidal habitats. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 250:257–289, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0981(00)00200-8.
Menge, B.A., and J.P. Sutherland. 1976. Species diversity gradients: Synthesis of the roles of predation, competition, and temporal heterogeneity. The American Naturalist 110:351–369, https://doi.org/10.1086/283073.
Menge, B.A., and J.P. Sutherland. 1987. Community regulation: Variation in disturbance, competition, and predation in relation to environmental stress and recruitment. The American Naturalist 130:730–757, https://doi.org/10.1086/284741.
Menge, B.A., B.A. Daley, P.A. Wheeler, E. Dahlhoff, E. Sanford, and P.T. Strub. 1997. Benthic-pelagic links and rocky intertidal communities: Bottom-up effects on top-down control? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 94:14,530–14,535, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.94.26.14530.
Menge, B.A., J. Lubchenco, M.E.S. Bracken, F. Chan, M.M. Foley, T.L. Freidenburg, S.D. Gaines, G. Hudson, C. Krenz, H. Leslie, and others. 2003. Coastal oceanography sets the pace of rocky intertidal community dynamics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100:12,229–12,234, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1534875100.
Menge, B.A., C. Blanchette, P. Raimondi, T. Freidenburg, S. Gaines, J. Lubchenco, D. Lohse, G. Hudson, M. Foley, and J. Pamplin. 2004. Species interaction strength: Testing model predictions along an upwelling gradient. Ecological Monographs 74:663–684, https://doi.org/10.1890/03-4060.
Menge, B.A., T.C. Gouhier, S.D. Hacker, F. Chan, and K.J. Nielsen. 2015. Are meta-ecosystems organized hierarchically? A model and test in rocky intertidal habitats. Ecological Monographs 85:213–233, https://doi.org/10.1890/14-0113.1.
Menge, B.A., and D.N.L. Menge. 2013. Dynamics of coastal meta-ecosystems: The intermittent upwelling hypothesis and a test in rocky intertidal regions. Ecological Monographs 83:283–310, https://doi.org/10.1890/12-1706.1.
Menge, B.A., and D.N.L. Menge. 2019. Testing the intermittent upwelling hypothesis: Comment. Ecology 100:e02476, https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2476.
Menge, B.A., K. Milligan, J.E. Caselle, J.A. Barth, C.A. Blanchette, M.H. Carr, F. Chan, R.K. Cowen, M. Denny, S.D. Gaines, and others. 2019. PISCO: Advances made through the formation of a large-scale, long-term consortium for integrated understanding of coastal ecosystem dynamics. Oceanography 32(3):16–25, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2019.307.
Morgan, S.G., J.L. Fisher, S.H. Miller, S.T. McAfee, and J. Largier. 2009. Nearshore larval retention in a region of strong upwelling and recruitment limitation. Ecology 90:3,489–3,502, https://doi.org/10.1890/08-1550.1.
Morgan, S.G., A.L. Shanks, A.G. Fujimura, A.J.H.M. Reniers, J. MacMahan, C.D. Griesemer, M. Jarvis, and J. Brown. 2016. Surfzone hydrodynamics as a key determinant of spatial variation in rocky intertidal communities. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 283:20161017, https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2016.1017.
Navarrete, S.A., B.R. Broitman, E.A. Wieters, and J.C. Castilla. 2005. Scales of benthic-pelagic coupling and the intensity of species interactions: From recruitment limitation to top down control. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102:18,046–18,051, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0509119102.
Odum, E.P. 1980. The status of three ecosystem-level hypotheses regarding salt marsh estuaries: Tidal subsidy, outwelling, and detritus-based food chains. Pp. 485–495 in Estuarine Perspectives. V. Kennedy, ed., Academic Press, New York, NY.
Oksanen, L., S.D. Fretwell, J. Arruda, and P. Niemela. 1981. Exploitation ecosystems in gradients of primary productivity. The American Naturalist 118:240–261, https://doi.org/10.1086/283817.
Paine, R.T. 1966. Food web complexity and species diversity. The American Naturalist 100:65–75, https://doi.org/10.1086/282400.
Paine, R.T. 1980. Food webs: Linkage, interaction strength and community infrastructure. Journal of Animal Ecology 49:667–685, https://doi.org/10.2307/4220.
Pfaff, M.C., G.M. Branch, J.L. Fisher, V. Hoffmann, A.G. Ellis, and J.L. Largier. 2015. Delivery of marine larvae to shore requires multiple sequential transport mechanisms. Ecology 96:1,399–1,410, https://doi.org/10.1890/14-0229.1.
Pineda, J. 1999. Circulation and larval distribution in internal tidal bore warm fronts. Limnology and Oceanography 44:1,400–1,414, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.19126.96.36.1990.
Pineda, J. 2000. Linking larval settlement to larval transport: Assumptions, potentials, and pitfalls. Oceanography of the Eastern Pacific 1:84–105.
Polis, G.A., and S.D. Hurd. 1996. Linking marine and terrestrial food webs: Allochthonous input from the ocean supports high secondary productivity on small islands and coastal land communities. The American Naturalist 147:396–423, https://doi.org/10.1086/285858.
Power, M.E., D. Tilman, J.A. Estes, B.A. Menge, W.J. Bond, L.S. Mills, G. Daily, J.C. Castilla, J. Lubchenco, and R.T. Paine. 1996. Challenges in the quest for keystones. BioScience 46:609–620, https://doi.org/10.2307/1312990.
Ricklefs, R.E. 2008. Disintegration of the ecological community. The American Naturalist 172:741–750, https://doi.org/10.1086/593002.
Rilov, G., S.E. Dudas, B.A. Menge, B.A. Grantham, J. Lubchenco, and D.R. Schiel. 2008. The surf zone: A semi-permeable barrier to onshore recruitment of invertebrate larvae? Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 361:59–74, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2008.04.008.
Roughgarden, J., S.D. Gaines, and H. Possingham. 1988. Recruitment dynamics in complex life cycles. Science 241:1,460–1,466, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.11538249.
Shanks, A.L., S.G. Morgan, J. MacMahan, and A.J.H.M. Reniers. 2017. Alongshore variation in barnacle populations is determined by surf zone hydrodynamics. Ecological Monographs 87:508–532, https://doi.org/10.1002/ecm.1265.
Shanks, A.L., and S.G. Morgan. 2018. Testing the intermittent upwelling hypothesis: Upwelling, downwelling, and subsidies to the intertidal zone. Ecological Monographs 88:22–35, https://doi.org/10.1002/ecm.1281.
Shurin, J.B., E.T. Borer, E.W. Seabloom, K. Anderson, C.A. Blanchette, B.R. Broitman, S.D. Cooper, and B.S. Halpern. 2002. A cross-ecosystem comparison of the strength of trophic cascades. Ecology Letters 5:785–791, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1461-0248.2002.00381.x.
Silliman, B.R., and Q. He. 2018. Physical stress, consumer control and new theory in ecology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 33:492–503, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2018.04.015.
Simberloff, D. 2004. Community ecology: Is it time to move on? The American Naturalist 163:787–799, https://doi.org/10.1086/420777.
Taylor, D.I., and D.R. Schiel. 2010. Algal populations controlled by fish herbivory across a wave exposure gradient on southern temperate shores. Ecology 91:201–211, https://doi.org/10.1890/08-1512.1.
Terborgh, J., and J.A. Estes. 2010. Trophic Cascades: Predators, Prey, and the Changing Dynamics of Nature. Island Press, Washington, DC, 488 pp.
Thomsen, M.S., A.H. Altieri, C. Angelini, M.J. Bishop, P.E. Gribben, G. Lear, Q. He, D.R. Schiel, B.R. Silliman, P.M. South, and others. 2018. Secondary foundation species enhance biodiversity. Nature Ecology & Evolution 2:634–639, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-018-0487-5.
Underwood, A.J., and E.J. Denley. 1984. Paradigms, explanations, and generalizations in models for the structure of intertidal communities on rocky shores. Pp. 151–180 in Ecological Communities: Conceptual Issues and the Evidence. D.J. Strong, D. Simberloff, L.G. Abele, and A.B. Thistle, eds, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 630 pp, https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400857081.151.
Watson, J.R., C.G. Hays, P.T. Raimondi, S. Mitarai, C. Dong, J.C. McWilliams, C.A. Blanchette, J.E. Caselle, and D.A. Siegel. 2011. Currents connecting communities: Nearshore community similarity and ocean circulation. Ecology 92:1,193–1,200, https://doi.org/10.1890/10-1436.1.
Werner, E.E. 1998. Ecological experiments and a research program in community ecology. Pp. 3–26 in Experimental Ecology: Issues and Perspectives. W.R. Resetarits and J. Bernardo, eds, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 488 pp.
White, J.W., M.H. Carr, J.E. Caselle, S.R. Palumbi, R.R. Warner, B.A. Menge, and K. Milligan. 2019. Empirical approaches to measure connectivity. Oceanography 32(3):60–61, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2019.311.
Whittaker, R.H. 1970. Communities and Ecosystems. Collier-Macmillan Limited, London, 162 pp.
Witman, J.D., J.J. Leichter, S.J. Genovese, and D.A. Brooks. 1993. Pulsed phytoplankton supply to the rocky subtidal zone: Influence of internal waves. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 90:1,686–1,690, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.90.5.1686.
Witman, J.D., M. Brandt, and F. Smith. 2010. Coupling between subtidal prey and consumers along a mesoscale upwelling gradient in the Galápagos Islands. Ecological Monographs 80:153–177, https://doi.org/10.1890/08-1922.1.
Woodson, C.B., M.A. McManus, J.A. Tyburczy, J.A. Barth, L. Washburn, J.E. Caselle, M.H. Carr, D.P. Malone, P.T. Raimondi, B.A. Menge, and S.R. Palumbi. 2012. Coastal fronts set recruitment and connectivity patterns across multiple taxa. Limnology and Oceanography 57:582–596, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2012.57.2.0582.