The Mediterranean Sea is a relative newcomer to Earth’s landscape. Due to its complex tectonic history, this mid-latitude sea is composed of a cluster of basins. Their seascape is in most cases dominated by geologically young structures, but also by sedimentary processes. Among the latter, sedimentary processes related to the dynamics of the largest rivers in the Mediterranean (Ebro, Rhône, Po, Danube, and Nile) stand out. This overview article illustrates the main sedimentary processes and their products contributing to shape the Mediterranean seascape within a source-to-sink approach. To highlight this approach, this article mainly focuses on one of the EUROSTRATAFORM project study areas: the northwestern Mediterranean.