This paper highlights advances in knowledge about the ecology and oceanography of harmful algal blooms (HABs) as guided by the Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (GEOHAB) Core Research Project “HABs in Upwelling Systems.” The diverse group of plankton that comprise HAB species in upwelling systems remains dynamic in terms of the organisms observed, the frequency and density of blooms, and the presence or absence of toxins. Topics covered include emerging HAB problems and the forever-changing threat that HABs pose to the economic viability of fisheries and aquaculture, the health and diversity of upwelling systems, and the recreational activities supported within these systems. We provide an update of our knowledge of the seeding and nutrient strategies of HAB species in upwelling systems, as well as further evidence of the strong influence of physical processes in HAB development and transport on a spectrum of scales. We also assess our progress toward achieving the GEOHAB goal of improved prediction of HABs through evaluation of a variety of predictive models. Finally, we seek to identify the response of HABs to global change through the increasing availability of long-term data sets.
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