Station M is one of three abyssal time-series stations in the world ocean today. This station was established in 1989 to study the influence of seasonal pulses of particulate organic matter reaching the seafloor from the highly productive overlying waters of the California Current. Long time-series monitoring at Station M began with sequencing sediment traps moored in the benthic boundary layer and a time-lapse camera system taking hourly photographs of the seafloor. This monitoring has now expanded to include high-temporal-resolution recording of sedimenting particulate matter and estimated consumption of organic carbon on the seafloor. Persistent monitoring at Station M has revealed the importance of daily to weekly episodic deposition of pelagically derived organic matter that sustains the benthic community over decades. Continued efforts are now underway to link the production and settlement of organic matter during episodic events through the entire water column using a combination of satellite and upper-ocean sensing in concert with deep-ocean instrumentation. The ultimate goal is to model the carbon cycle from the surface to the seafloor with high temporal resolution to better define remineralization and sequestration parameters.
Smith, K.L., Jr., A.D. Sherman, P.R. McGill, R.G. Henthorn, J. Ferreira, and C.L. Huffard. 2017. Evolution of monitoring an abyssal time-series station in the northeast Pacific over 28 years. Oceanography 30(4):72–81, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2017.425.
Bailey, D.M., H.A. Ruhl, and K.L. Smith Jr. 2006. Long-term changes in benthopelagic fish abundance in the abyssal Northeast Pacific Ocean. Ecology 87:549–555, https://doi.org/10.1890/04-1832.
Baldwin, R.J., R.C. Glatts, and K.L. Smith Jr. 1998. Particulate matter fluxes into the benthic boundary layer at a long time-series station in the abyssal NE Pacific: Composition and fluxes. Deep Sea Research Part II 45:643–665, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0645(97)00097-0.
Church, M.J., M.W. Lomas, and F. Muller-Karger. 2013. Sea change: Charting the course from biogeochemical ocean time-series research in the new millennium. Deep Sea Research Part II 93:2–15, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2013.01.035.
Durkin, C.A., M.L. Estapa, and K.O. Buesseler. 2015. Observations of carbon export by small sinking particles in the upper mesopelagic. Marine Chemistry 175:72–81, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2015.02.011.
Durkin, C.A., B.A.S. Van Mooy, S.T. Dyhrman, and K.O. Buesseler. 2016. Sinking phytoplankton associated with carbon flux in the Atlantic Ocean. Limnology and Oceanography 61:1,172–1,187, https://doi.org/10.1002/lno.10253.
Edwards, M., G. Beaugrand, G.C. Hays, J.A. Koslow, and A.J. Richardson. 2010. Multi-decadal oceanic ecological datasets and their application in marine policy and management. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25:602–610, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2010.07.007.
Fontanez, K.M., J.M. Eppley, T.J. Samo, D.M. Karl, and E.F. DeLong. 2015. Microbial community structure and function on sinking particles in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. Microbiology 6:469, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.00469.
Glatts, R.C., A.H. Uhlman, K.L. Smith Jr., and R.J. Baldwin. 2003. Long time-series monitoring of the ecosystem at Deception Island, Antarctica: Description of instrumentation. Deep Sea Research Part II 50:1,631–1,648, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0645(03)00083-3.
Henson, S.A. 2014. Slow science: The value of long ocean biogeochemistry records. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 372:20130334, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2013.0334.
Hobson, B.W., J.G. Bellingham, B. Kieft, R. McEwen, G. Michael, and Y. Zhang. 2012. Tethys-class long range AUVs: Extending the endurance of propeller-driven cruising AUVs from days to weeks. In Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) 2012IEEE/OES, Conference held September 24–27, 2012, Southampton, UK, https://doi.org/10.1109/AUV.2012.6380735.
Honjo, S., and K.W. Doherty. 1988. Large aperture time-series sediment traps: Design objectives, construction and application. Deep Sea Research Part A 35:133–149, https://doi.org/10.1016/0198-0149(88)90062-3.
Kahru, M., R. Kudela, M. Manzano-Sarabia, and B.G. Mitchell. 2009. Trends in primary production in the California Current detected with satellite data. Journal of Geophysical Research 114, CO2004, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JC004979.
Kahru, M., R. Kudela, M. Manzano-Sarabia, and B.G. Mitchell. 2012. Trends in the surface chlorophyll of the California Current: Merging data from multiple ocean color satellites. Deep Sea Research Part II 77:89–98, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2012.04.007.
Karl, D.M., M.J. Church, J.E. Dore, R.M. Letelier, and C. Mahaffey. 2012. Predictable and efficient carbon sequestration in the North Pacific Ocean supported by symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109:1,842–1,849, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1120312109.
Karl, D.M., and R. Lukas. 1996. The Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) program: Background, rationale and field implementation. Deep Sea Research Part II 43:129–156, https://doi.org/10.1016/0967-0645(96)00005-7.
Kuhnz, L.A., H.A. Ruhl, C.L. Huffard, and K.L. Smith Jr. 2014. Rapid changes and long-term cycles in the benthic megafaunal community observed over 24 years in the abyssal Northeast Pacific. Progress in Oceanography 124:1–11, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2014.04.007.
Longhurst, A.R., A.D. Reith, R.E. Bower, and D.L.R. Seibert. 1966. A new system for the collection of multiple serial plankton samples. Deep Sea Research and Oceanographic Abstracts 13:213–222, https://doi.org/10.1016/0011-7471(66)91101-6.
McGill, P.R., R.G. Henthorn, L.E. Bird, C.L. Huffard, D.V. Klimov, and K.L. Smith Jr. 2016. Sedimentation event sensor: New ocean instrument for in situ imaging and fluorometry of sinking particulate matter. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 14:853–863, https://doi.org/10.1002/lom3.10131.
McGill, P.R., A.D. Sherman, B.W. Hobson, R.G. Henthorn, and K.L. Smith Jr. 2009. Initial deployments of the Rover, an autonomous bottom-transecting instrument platform. Journal of Ocean Technology 4:9–26.
Newman, M., M.A. Alexander, T.R. Ault, K.M. Cobb, C. Deser, E. Di Lorenzo, N.J. Mantua, A.J. Miller, S. Minobe, H. Nakamura, and others. 2016. The Pacific decadal oscillation, revisited. Journal of Climate 29(12):4,399–4,427, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0508.1.
Priede, I.G., P.M. Bagley, and K.L. Smith Jr. 1994. Seasonal change in activity of abyssal demersal scavenging grenadiers Coryphaenoides (Nematonurus) armatus in the eastern North Pacific Ocean. Limnology and Oceanography 39:279–285, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1994.39.2.0279.
Ruhl, H.A., J.A. Ellena, and K.L. Smith Jr. 2008. Connections between climate, food limitation, and carbon cycling in abyssal sediment communities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105:17,006–17,011, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0803898105.
Sherman, A.D., and K.L. Smith Jr. 2009. Deep-sea benthic boundary layer communities and food supply: A long-term monitoring strategy. Deep Sea Research Part II 56:1,754–1,762, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2009.05.020.
Smith, K.L., Jr., R.J. Baldwin, D.M. Karl, and A. Boetius. 2002. Benthic community responses to pulses in pelagic food supply: North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. Deep Sea Research Part I 49:971–990, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0637(02)00006-7.
Smith, K.L., Jr., R.J. Baldwin, H.A. Ruhl, M. Kahru, B.G. Mitchell, and R.S. Kaufmann. 2006. Climate effect on food supply to depths greater than 4000 meters in the Northeast Pacific. Limnology and Oceanography 51:166–176, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2006.51.1.0166.
Smith, K.L., Jr., and E.R.M. Druffel. 1998. Long time-series monitoring of an abyssal site in the NE Pacific: An introduction. Deep Sea Research Part II 45:573–586, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0645(97)00094-5.
Smith, K.L., Jr., R.C. Glatts, R.J. Baldwin, A.H. Ulman, R.C. Horn, C.E. Reimers, and S.E. Beaulieu. 1997. An autonomous, bottom-transecting vehicle for making long time-series measurements of sediment community oxygen consumption to abyssal depths. Limnology and Oceanography 42:1,601–1,612, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.19220.127.116.111.
Smith, K.L., Jr., R.S. Kaufmann, and W.W. Wakefield. 1993. Mobile megafaunal activity monitored with a time-lapse camera in the abyssal North Pacific. Deep Sea Research Part I 40:2,307–2,324, https://doi.org/10.1016/0967-0637(93)90106-D.
Smith, K.L., Jr., M. Messie, A.D. Sherman, C.L. Huffard, B.W. Hobson, H.A. Ruhl, and A. Boetius. 2015. Navigating the uncertain future of global oceanic time series. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 96, https://doi.org/10.1029/2015EO038095.
Smith, K.L., Jr., H.A. Ruhl, B.J. Bett, D.S.M. Lampitt, and R.S. Kaufmann. 2009. Climate, carbon cycling, and deep-ocean ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106:19,211–19,218, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0908322106.
Smith, K.L., Jr., H.A. Ruhl, M. Kahru, C.L. Huffard, and A.D. Sherman. 2013. Deep ocean communities impacted by changing climate over 24 y in the abyssal northeast Pacific Ocean. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110:19,838–19,841, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1315447110.
Smith, K.L., Jr., H.A. Ruhl, R.S. Kaufmann, and M. Kahru. 2008. Tracing abyssal food supply back to upper-ocean processes over a 17-year time series in the NE Pacific. Limnology and Oceanography 53:2,655–2,667, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2008.53.6.2655.
Smith, K.L., Jr., A.D. Sherman, C.L. Huffard, P.R. McGill, R. Henthorn, S. Von Thun, H.A. Ruhl, M. Kahru, and M.D. Ohman. 2014. Large salp bloom export from the upper ocean and benthic community response in the abyssal Northeast Pacific: Day to week resolution. Limnology and Oceanography 59:745–757, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2014.59.3.0745.
Smith, K.L., Jr., G.A. White, M.B. Laver, and J.A. Haugsness. 1978. Nutrient exchange and oxygen consumption by deep-sea benthic communities: Preliminary in situ measurements. Limnology and Oceanography 23:997–1,005, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1978.23.5.0997.
Smith, K.L., Jr., G.A. White and M.B. Laver, R.R. McConnaughey, and J.R. Meador. 1979. Free vehicle capture of abyssopelagic animals. Deep Sea Research Part A 26A:57–64, https://doi.org/10.1016/0198-0149(79)90085-2.
Stukel, M.R., L.I. Aluwihare, K.A. Barbeau, A.M. Chekalyuk, R. Goericke, A.J. Miller, M.D. Ohman, A. Ruacho, H. Song, B.M. Stephens, and M.R. Landry. 2017. Mesoscale ocean fronts enhance carbon export due to gravitational sinking and subduction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 114:1,252–1,257, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1609435114.
Yool, A., E.E. Popova, A.C. Coward, D. Bernie, and T.R. Anderson. 2013. Climate change and ocean acidification impacts on lower trophic levels and the export of organic carbon to the deep ocean. Biogeosciences 10:5,831–5,854, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-10-5831-2013.
This is an open access article made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format as long as users cite the materials appropriately, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate the changes that were made to the original content. Images, animations, videos, or other third-party material used in articles are included in the Creative Commons license unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If the material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission directly from the license holder to reproduce the material.