Oceanography The Official Magazine of
The Oceanography Society
Volume 25 Issue 01

View Issue TOC
Volume 25, No. 1
Pages 44 - 61


Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge: One of the Most Remarkable Places on Earth

Deborah S. Kelley Suzanne M. CarbotteDavid W. CaressDavid A. ClagueJohn R. DelaneyJames B. Gill Hunter HadawayJames F. HoldenEmilie E.E. Hooft Jonathan P. KelloggMarvin D. LilleyMark StoermerDoug ToomeyRobert Weekly William S.D. Wilcock
Article Abstract

Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge is one of three Integrated Study Sites for the Ridge 2000 Program. It is a remarkable, dynamic environment hosting five major hydrothermal fields, numerous smaller fields, and myriad diffuse-flow sites; magma chambers underlie all fields. Over 800 individual extinct and active chimneys have been documented within the central ~ 15 km portion of the ridge, with some edifices reaching 50 m across and up to 45 m tall. Fluid flow is focused along faults within the rift zone, and seismically active faults along the western axial valley wall have been used by both magmas and upwelling hydrothermal fluids. There is significant chemical heterogeneity in basalt compositions within the axial rift valley, with the greatest diversity occurring near the base of the western axial valley wall where normal, transitional, and enriched type mid-ocean ridge basalts occur within tens of meters of each other. Endeavour is the only site where seismic intensity has been linked directly to heat flux at the individual vent field scale. Installation of the world’s first high-power and high-bandwidth cabled observatory at Endeavour via NEPTUNE Canada ensures that new discoveries along the Juan de Fuca Ridge will continue into the future.


Kelley, D.S., S.M. Carbotte, D.W. Caress, D.A. Clague, J.R. Delaney, J.B. Gill, H. Hadaway, J.F. Holden, E.E.E. Hooft, J.P. Kellogg, M.D. Lilley, M. Stoermer, D. Toomey, R. Weekly, and W.S.D. Wilcock. 2012. Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge: One of the most remarkable places on Earth. Oceanography 25(1):44–61, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2012.03.


Bohnenstiehl, D.R., R.P. Dziak, M. Tolstoy, C.G. Fox, and M. Fowler. 2004. Temporal and spatial history of the 1999–2000 Endeavour Segment seismic series, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 5, Q09003, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GC000735.

Butterfield, D.A., R.E. McDuff, M.J. Mottl, M.D. Lilley, G.J. Massoth, and J.E. Lupton. 1994. Gradients in the composition of hydrothermal fluids from the Endeavour Segment vent field: Phase separation and brine loss. Journal of Geophysical Research 99:9,561–9,583, https://doi.org/10.1029/93JB03132.

Carbotte, S.M., J.P. Canales, M.R. Nedimović, H. Carton, and J.C. Mutter. 2012. Recent seismic studies at the East Pacific Rise 8°20’–10°10’N and Endeavour Segment: Insights into mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal and magmatic processes. Oceanography 25(1):100–112, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2012.08.

Carbotte, S.M., R.S. Detrick, A. Harding, J.P. Canales, J. Babcock, G. Kent, E. Van Ark, M. Nedimović, and J. Diebold. 2006. Rift topography linked to magmatism at the intermediate spreading Juan de Fuca Ridge. Geology 34:209–212, https://doi.org/10.1130/G21969.1.

Carbotte, S.M., R. Detrick, G. Kent, J.P. Canales, J. Diebold, A. Harding, M. Nedimović, D. Epstein, I. Cochran, E. Van Arken, and others. 2002. A multi-channel seismic investigation of ridge crest and ridge flank structure along the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 83(47):Fall Meeting Supplement Abstract T72C-07.

Clague, D.A., D.W Caress, H. Thomas, D. Thompson, M. Calarco, J. Holden, and D. Butterfield. 2008. Abundance and distribution of hydrothermal chimneys and mounds on the Endeavour Ridge determined by 1-m resolution AUV multibeam mapping surveys. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 89(53):Fall Meeting Supplement Abstract V41B-2079.

Crone, T.J., W.S.D. Wilcock, A.H. Barclay, and J.D. Parsons. 2006. The sound generated by mid-ocean ridge black smoker hydrothermal vents. Plos ONE 1(1):ee133, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000133.

Cudrak, C.F., and R.M. Clowes. 1993. Crustal structure of Endeavour Ridge segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge, from a detailed seismic refraction survey. Journal of Geophysical Research 98:6,329–6,349, https://doi.org/10.1029/92JB02860.

Davis, E.E., K. Wang, R.E. Thompson, K. Becker, and J.F. Cassidy. 2001. An episode of seafloor spreading and associated plate deformation inferred from crustal fluid pressure transients. Journal of Geophysical Research 106:21,953–21,963, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JB000040.

Delaney, J.R., D.S. Kelley, E.A. Mathez, D.R. Yoerger, J. Baross, M. Schrenk, M.K. Tivey, J. Kaye, and V. Robigou. 2001. Edifice Rex Sulfide Recovery Project: Analysis of a sulfide-microbial habitat from a submarine hydrothermal system. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 2(6):67, https://doi.org/10.1029/01EO00041.

Delaney, J.R., D.S. Kelley, M.D. Lilley, D.A. Butterfield, R.E. McDuff, J.A. Baross, J.W. Deming, H.P. Johnson, and V. Robigou. 1997. The Endeavour hydrothermal system: Part I, Cellular circulation above an active cracking front yields large sulfide structures, “fresh” vent water, and hyperthermophile archaea. RIDGE Events 8:11–19.

Delaney, J.R., R.E. McDuff, and J.E. Lupton. 1984. Hydrothermal fluid temperatures of 400°C on the Endeavour Segment, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 65(45):Fall Meeting Supplement 973.

Delaney, J.R., V. Robigou, and R. McDuff. 1992. Geology of a vigorous hydrothermal system on the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Journal of Geophysical Research 97:19,663-19,682, https://doi.org/10.1029/92JB00174.

Delaney, J., F. Spiess, S. Solomon, R. Hessler, J. Karsten, J. Baross, D. Norton, R. McDuff, F. Sayles, and J. Whitehead. 1988. Scientific rationale for establishing long-term ocean bottom observatory/laboratory systems. Pp. 234–257 in The Mid-Oceanic Ridge: A Dynamic Global System. Proceedings of a workshop, National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

Dziak, R.P., D.R. Bohnenstiehl, J.P. Cowen, E.T. Baker, K.H. Rubin, J.H. Haxel, and M.R. Fowler. 2007. Rapid dike emplacement leads to eruptions and hydrothermal plume release during seafloor spreading events. Geology 35:579–582, https://doi.org/10.1130/G23476A.1.

Dziak, D.P., S.R. Hammond, and C.G. Fox. 2011. A 20-year hydroacoustic time series of seismic and volcanic events in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Oceanography 24(3):280–293, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.79.

Edwards, K.J., T.M. McCollom, H. Konishi, and P.R. Buseck. 2003. Seafloor bioalteration of sulfide minerals: Results from in situ incubation studies. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67:2,843–2,856, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7037(03)00089-9.

Escartín, J., S.A. Soule, D.J. Fornari, M.A. Tivey, H. Schouten, and M.R. Perfit. 2007. Interplay between faults and lava flows in construction of the upper oceanic crust: The East Pacific Rise crest 9°25’–9°58’N. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 8, Q06005, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GC001399.

Ferrini, V.L., D.J. Fornari, T.M. Shank, J.C. Kinsey, M.A. Tivey, S.A. Soule, S.M. Carbotte, L.L. Whitcomb, D. Yoerger, and J. Howland. 2007. Submeter bathymetric mapping of volcanic and hydrothermal features on the East Pacific Rise crest at 9°50’N. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 8, Q01006, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GC001333.

Flores, G.E., J.H. Campbell, J.D. Kirshtein, J. Meneghin, M. Podar, J.I. Steinberg, J.S. Seewald, M.K. Tivey, M.A. Voytek, Z.K. Yang, and A.L. Reysenbach. 2011. Microbial community structure of hydrothermal deposits from geochemically different vent fields along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Environmental Microbiology 13:2,158–2,171, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2011.02463.x.

Fornari, D., M. Tivey, H. Schouten, M. Perfit, D. Yoerger, A. Bradley, M. Edwards, R. Haymon, D. Scheirer, K. Von Damm, and others. 2004. Submarine lava flow emplacement at the East Pacific Rise 9°N: Implications for uppermost ocean crust stratigraphy and hydrothermal fluid circulation. Pp. 187–217 in Mid-Ocean Ridges: Hydrothermal Interactions Between the Lithosphere and Oceans. C.R. German, J. Lin, and L.M. Parson, eds, Geophysical Monograph Series, vol. 148, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.

Fornari, D.J., K.L. Von Damm, J.G. Bryce, J.P. Cowen, V. Ferrini, A. Fundis, M.D. Lilley, G.W. Luther III, L.S. Mullineaux, M.R. Perfit, and others. 2012. The East Pacific Rise between 9°N and 10°N: Twenty-five years of integrated, multidisciplinary oceanic spreading center studies. Oceanography 25(1):18–43, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2012.02.

Gill, J., and P. Michael. 2008. Open magmatic systems at ocean ridges. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 89(53):Fall Meeting Supplement Abstract V51F-2115.

Glickson, D.A., D.S. Kelly, and J.R. Delaney. 2006. The Sasquatch Hydrothermal Field: Linkages between seismic activity, hydrothermal flow, and geology. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 87(52):Fall Meeting Supplement Abstract V23B-0614.

Glickson, D.A., D.S. Kelley, and J.R. Delaney. 2007. Geology and hydrothermal evolution of the Mothra Hydrothermal Field, Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 8, Q06010, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GC001588.

Harding, A.J., G.M. Kent, and J.A. Orcutt. 1993. A multichannel seismic investigation of upper crustal structure at 9°N on the East Pacific Rise: Implications for crustal accretion. Journal of Geophysical Research 98:13,925–13,944, https://doi.org/10.1029/93JB00886.

Harris, C.R., J. Gill, J. Woodcock, and R. Anderson. 2008. Small-scale mantle heterogeneities beneath the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 89(53):Fall Meeting Supplement Abstract V51G-05.

Hautala, S., H.P. Johnson, M. Pruis, I. García-Berdeal, and T. Bjorklund. 2012. Low-temperature hydrothermal plumes in the near-bottom boundary layer at Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Oceanography 25(1):192–195, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2012.17.

Hooft, E.E.E., H. Patel, W.S.D. Wilcock, K. Becker, D. Butterfield, E. Davis, R. Dziak, K. Inderbitzen, M. Lilley, P. McGill, and others. 2010. A seismic swarm and regional hydrothermal and hydrologic perturbations: The northern Endeavour Segment, February 2005. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 11, Q12015, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GC003264.

Jamieson, J.W., M.D. Hannington, D.S. Kelley, D.A. Clague, J.F. Holden, M.K. Tivey, and J.R. Delaney. 2011. Age, episodicity and migration of hydrothermal activity within the axial valley, Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union:Fall Meeting Supplement Abstract V14C-01.

Johnson, H.P., M. Hutnak, R.P. Dziak, C.G. Fox, I. Urcuyo, J.P. Cowen, J. Nabelek, and C. Fisher. 2000. Earthquake-induced changes in a hydrothermal system on the Juan de Fuca mid-ocean ridge. Nature 407:174–177, https://doi.org/10.1038/35025040.

Johnson, H.P., M.A. Tivey, T.A. Bjorklund, and M.S. Salmi. 2010. Hydrothermal circulation within the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 11, Q05002, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GC002957.

Karsten, J.L., J.R. Delaney, J.M. Rhodes, and R.A. Liias. 1990. Spatial and temporal evolution of magmatic systems beneath the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge: Tectonic and petrologic constraints. Journal of Geophysical Research 95:19,235–19,256, https://doi.org/10.1029/JB095iB12p19235.

Karsten, J., S.R. Hammond, E.E. Davis, and R.G. Currie. 1986. Detailed geomorphology and neotectonics of the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge: New results from Seabeam swath mapping. Geological Society of America Bulletin 97:213–221, http://gsabulletin.gsapubs.org/content/97/2/213.abstract.

Kashefi, K., and D.R. Lovley. 2003. Extending the upper temperature limit for life. Science 301:934, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1086823.

Kellogg, J.P. 2011. Temporal and spatial variability of hydrothermal fluxes within a mid-ocean ridge segment. PhD Thesis, University of Washington.

Kellogg, J.P., and R.E. McDuff. 2010. A hydrographic transient above the Salty Dawg hydrothermal field, Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 11, Q12001, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GC003299.

Kelley, D.S., J.A. Baross, and J.R. Delaney. 2002. Volcanoes, fluids, and life in submarine environments. Annual Reviews Earth and Planetary Sciences 30:385–491, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.earth.30.091201.141331.

Kelley, D.S., J.R. Delaney, M. Lilley, and D. Butterfield. 2001a. Vent field distribution and evolution along the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 82(47):Fall Meeting Supplement Abstract OS21B-0439.

Kelley, D.S., J.R. Delaney, and D.A. Yoerger. 2001b. Geology and venting characteristics of the Mothra Hydrothermal Field, Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Geology 29:959–962.

Kelley, D.S., and T.M. Shank. 2010. Hydrothermal systems: A decade of discovery in slow-spreading centers. Pp. 369–407 in Diversity of Hydrothermal Systems on Slow-Spreading Ocean Ridges. P.A. Rona, C.W. Devey, J. Dyment, and B.J. Murton, eds, Geophysical Monograph Series, vol. 188, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.

Kent, G.M., A.J. Harding, and J.A. Orcutt. 1993. Distribution of magma beneath the East Pacific Rise near the 9°03’N overlapping spreading center from forward modeling of common depth point data. Journal of Geophysical Research 98:13,971–13,995, https://doi.org/10.1029/93JB00706.

Kristall, B., D.S. Kelley, M.D. Hannington, and J.R. Delaney. 2006. Growth history of a diffusely venting sulfide structure from the Juan de Fuca Ridge: A petrological and geochemical study. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 7, Q07001, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GC001166.

Lam, P., J.P. Cowen, B.N. Popp, and R.D. Jones. 2008. Microbial ammonia oxidation and enhanced nitrogen cycling in the Endeavour hydrothermal plume. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 72:2,268–2,286, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2008.01.033.

Larson, B.I., M.D. Lilley, and E.J. Crone. 2009. Parameters of subsurface brines and hydrothermal processes 12–15 months after the 1999 magmatic event at the Main Endeavour Field as inferred from in situ series measurements of chloride and temperature. Journal of Geophysical Research 114, B01207, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JB005627.

Lilley, M.D., D.A. Butterfield, D.S. Kelley, M.K. Tivey, V. Robigou, and J.R. Delaney. 2000. Long and short term variability in hydrothermal activity at the Endeavour Ridge Observatory Site. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 81(48):Fall Meeting Supplement Abstract OS521-02.

Lilley, M.D., D.A. Butterfield, E.J. Olsen, J.E. Lupton, S.A. Macko, and R.E. McDuff. 1993. Anomalous CH4 and NH4+ concentrations at an unsedimented mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal system. Nature 364:45–47, https://doi.org/10.1038/364045a0.

Lilley, M.D., J.A. Lupton, D.A. Butterfield, and E.J. Olson. 2003. Magmatic events can produce rapid changes in hydrothermal vent chemistry. Nature 422:878–881.

Mehta, M.P., D.A. Butterfield, and J.A. Baross. 2003. Phylogenetic diversity of nitrogenase (nifH) genes in deep-sea and hydrothermal vent environments of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69:960–970, https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.69.2.960-970.2003.

Nedimović, M.R., S.M. Carbott, J.B. Diebold, A.J. Harding, J.P. Canales, and G.M. Kent. 2008. Upper crustal evolution across the Juan de Fuca Ridge flanks. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 9, Q09006, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GC002085.

Perfit, M.R., and W.W. Chadwick Jr. 1998. Magmatism at mid-ocean ridges: Constraints from volcanological and geochemical investigations. Pp 59–115 in Faulting and Magmatism at Mid-Ocean Ridges. W.R. Buck, P.T. Delaney, J.A. Karson, and Y. Lagabrielle, eds, Geophysical Monograph Series, vol. 106, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.

Proskurowski, G., M.D. Lilley, and T.A. Brown. 2004. Isotopic evidence of magmatism and seawater bicarbonate removal at the Endeavour hydrothermal system. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 225:53–61, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2004.06.007.

Robigou, V.R., J.R. Delaney, and D.S. Stakes. 1993. Large massive sulfide deposits in a newly discovered active hydrothermal system, the High Rise Field, Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Geophysical Research Letters 20:1,887–1,890, https://doi.org/10.1029/93GL01399.

Rogers, D.R., C.M. Santelli, and K.J. Edwards. 2003. Geomicrobiology of deep-sea deposits: Estimating community diversity from low-temperature seafloor rocks and minerals. Geobiology 1:109–117, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1472-4669.2003.00009.x.

Rohr, K.M.M. 1994. Increase of seismic velocities in upper oceanic crust and hydrothermal circulation on the Juan de Fuca Plate. Geophysical Research Letters 21:2,163–2,166, https://doi.org/10.1029/94GL01913.

Schrenk, M.O., D.S. Kelley, J.R. Delaney, and J.A. Baross. 2003. Incidence and diversity of microorganisms within the walls of an active deep-sea sulfide chimney. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69:3,580–3,592, https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.69.6.3580-3592.2003.

Seewald, J., A. Cruise, and P. Saccocia. 2003. Aqueous volatiles in hydrothermal fluids from the Main Endeavour Field, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge: Temporal variability following earthquake activity. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 216:575–590, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0012-821X(03)00543-0.

Seyfried, W.E. Jr., J.S. Seewald, M.E. Berndt, K. Ding, and D.I. Foustoukos. 2003. Chemistry of hydrothermal vent fluids from the Main Endeavour Field, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge: Geochemical controls in the aftermath of June 1999 seismic events. Journal of Geophysical Research 108:2,429–2,452, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JB001957.

Shackelford, R., and J.P. Cowen. 2006. Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) as a component of hydrothermal plume particle dynamics. Deep-Sea Research Part I 53:1,677–1,694, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2006.08.001.

Shank, T.M., D.J. Fornari, K.L. Von Damm, M.D. Lilley, R.M. Haymon, and R.A. Lutz. 1998. Temporal and spatial patterns of biological community development at nascent deep-sea hydrothermal vents (9°50’N, East Pacific Rise). Deep-Sea Research Part II 45:465–515, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0645(97)00089-1.

Smith, M.C., M.R. Perfit, D.J. Fornari, W.I. Ridley, M.H. Edwards, G.J. Kurras, and K.L. Von Damm. 2001. Magmatic processes and segmentation at a fast spreading mid-ocean ridge: Detailed investigation of an axial discontinuity on the East Pacific Rise crest at 9°37’N. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 2, 1040, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000GC000134.

Soule, S.A., D.J. Fornari, M.R. Perfit, M.A. Tivey, W.I. Ridley, and H. Schouten. 2005. Channelized lava flows at the East Pacific Rise crest 9°–10°N: The importance of off-axis lava transport in developing the architecture of young oceanic crust. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 6, Q08005, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GC000912.

Stakes, D., and W.S. Moore. 1991. Evolution of hydrothermal activity on the Juan de Fuca Ridge: Observations, mineral ages and Ra isotope ratios. Journal of Geophysical Research 96:21,739-21,752, https://doi.org/10.1029/91JB02038.

Takai, K., and K. Nakamura. 2010. Compositional, physiological and metabolic variability in microbial communities associated with geochemically diverse, deep-sea hydrothermal vent fluids. Pp. 251–283 in Geomicrobiology: Molecular and Environmental Perspective. A. Loy, M. Mandl, and L.L. Barton, eds, Springer, New York.

Takai, K., K. Nakamura, T. Toki, U. Tsunogai, M. Miyazaki, J. Miyazaki, H. Hirayama, S. Nakagawa, T. Nunoura, and K. Horikoshi. 2008. Cell proliferation at 122°C and isotopically heavy CH4 production by a hyperthermophilic methanogen under high-pressure cultivation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105:10,949–10,954, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0712334105.

Tivey, M.K., and J.R. Delaney. 1986. Growth of large sulfide structures on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 77:303–317, https://doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(86)90142-1.

Tivey, M.K., D.S. Stakes, T.L. Cook, M.D. Hannington, and S. Petersen. 1999. A model for growth of steep-sided vent structures on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge: Results of a petrologic and geochemical study. Journal of Geophysical Research 104:22,859–22,883, https://doi.org/10.1029/1999JB900107.

Toner, B.M., C.M. Santelli, M.A. Marcus, R. Wirth, C.S. Chan, T. McCollom, W. Bach, and K.J. Edwards. 2009. Biogenic iron oxyhydroxide formation at mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal vents: Juan de Fuca Ridge. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73:388–403, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2008.09.035.

Van Ark, E.M., R.S. Detrick, J.P. Canales, S.M. Carbotte, A.J. Haring, G.M. Kent, M.R. Nedimović, W.S.D. Wilcock, J.B. Diebold, and J.M Babcock. 2007. Seismic structure of the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge: Correlations with seismicity and hydrothermal activity. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, B02401, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JB004210.

Ver Eecke, H.C., D.S. Kelley, and J.F. Holden. 2009. Abundances of hyperthermophilic autotrophic Fe(III) oxide reducers and heterotrophs in hydrothermal sulfide chimneys of the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75:242–245, https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01462-08.

Von Damm, K.L. 1995. Controls on the chemistry and temporal variability of seafloor hydrothermal fluids. Pp. 222–247 in Physical, Chemical, Biological, and Geological Interactions Within Seafloor Hydrothermal Systems. S. Humphris, R. Zierenberg, L. Mullineau, and R. Thomson, eds, Geophysical Monograph Series, vol. 91, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.

Von Damm, K.L. 2000. Chemistry of hydrothermal vent fluids from 9°–10°N, East Pacific Rise: “Time zero,” the immediate posteruptive period. Journal of Geophysical Research 105:11,203–11,222, https://doi.org/10.1029/1999JB900414.

Wankel, S.D., L.N. Germanovich, M.D. Lilley, G. Genc, C.J. DiPerna, A.S. Bradley, E.J. Olson, and P.R. Girguis. 2011. Influences of subsurface biosphere on geochemical fluxes from diffuse hydrothermal vents. Nature Geoscience 4:461–468, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo1183.

Weekly, R.T., W.S. Wilcock, D.R. Toomey, E.E. Hooft, and P.R. Gill. 2008. An automatically generated earthquake catalog for the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge: Linkages between segment and vent-field scale seismicity. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 89(58):Fall Meeting Supplement Abstract V54B-02.

Wilcock, W.S.D. 2004. Physical response of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems to local earthquakes. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 5, Q11009, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GC000701.

Wilcock, W.S.D., S.D. Archer, and G.M. Purdy. 2002. Microearthquakes on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Journal of Geophysical Research 107(B12), 2336, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000505.

Wilcock, W.S.D., and J.R. Delaney. 1996. Mid-ocean ridge sulfide deposits: Evidence for heat extraction from magma chambers or cracking fronts? Earth and Planetary Science Letters 149:49–64, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0012-821X(96)00195-1.

Wilcock, W.S., E.E.E. Hooft, P.R. McGill, D.R. Toomey, A.H. Barclay, D.S. Stakes, and T.M. Ramirez. 2007. Microearthquakes beneath the Endeavour hydrothermal vent fields: Insights into reaction zone processes. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 88(52):Fall Meeting Supplement Abstract S13F-02.

Wilcock, W.S.D., E.E.E. Hooft, D.R. Toomey, P.R. McGill, A.H. Barclay, D.S. Stakes, and T.M. Ramirez. 2009. The role of magma injection in localizing black smoker activity. Nature Geoscience 2:509–513, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo550.

Woodcock, J., J. Gill, F. Ramos, and P. Michael. 2007. Frequently shifting magma sources at Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 88(52):Fall Meeting Supplement Abstract V21B-0602.

Xie, W., F. Wang, L. Guo, Z. Chen, S.M. Sievert, J. Meng, G. Huang, Y. Li, Q. Yan, S. Wu, and others. 2011. Comparative metagenomics of microbial communities inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys with contrasting chemistries. The ISME Journal 5:414–426, https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2010.144.

Zhou, H., J. Li, X. Peng, J. Meng, F. Wang, and Y. Ai. 2009. Microbial diversity of a sulfide black smoker in main Endeavour hydrothermal vent field, Juan de Fuca Ridge. The Journal of Microbiology 47:235–247, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12275-008-0311-z.

Copyright & Usage

This is an open access article made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format as long as users cite the materials appropriately, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate the changes that were made to the original content. Images, animations, videos, or other third-party material used in articles are included in the Creative Commons license unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If the material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission directly from the license holder to reproduce the material.