Monterey Bay and contiguous waters of the California Current System have been observed repeatedly since 1929, most intensively since 1989 with ships, moorings, and autonomous vehicles. Here, seasonal, interannual, and multidecadal variations are linked to regional weather and large-scale climate ocean-atmosphere dynamics. In the springtime, the Northeast Pacific subtropical high-pressure system strengthens, intensifying northwesterly alongshore winds. These winds drive coastal upwelling that fertilizes nearshore surface water with phytoplankton nutrients, resulting in a dramatic increase in biological productivity. Upwelling weakens over summer into fall, allowing nutrient-depleted offshore water to move toward the coast. Southerly winter storm winds deepen the mixed layer and further enhance onshore flow. El Niño interrupts these seasonal cycles with varying intensity every three to eight years, but typically peaks during the low-productivity winter season, lessening its biological impact. Over the 1989–2016 period of observation, a negative phase of the multidecadal Pacific Decadal Oscillation is observed as a 15-year cool period following the strong 1997–1998 El Niño. Two recently identified basin-scale phenomena, the central Pacific El Niño Modoki and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation, increased in strength during this period. In Monterey Bay, primary productivity increased substantially during the cool period, at about 3% per year. This shift also marked the beginning of a monotonic decline in subsurface oxygen, which decreased by 3% annually in the 300–400 m depth horizon, above the oxygen minimum zone. Anthropogenically driven increases in surface pCO2 and acidity (pH) are notable in Monterey Bay in spite of high near-surface variability. Recently, over 2014–2016, Monterey Bay has warmed, interrupting the 1988–2012 cooling trend. Even with the warm years included, however, there is no overall increasing trend in temperature at any depth from 1988 to the present. A recompilation of historical temperature data back to 1929 indicates that over this longer period, average and cool years have not been significantly different, but warm episodes have been hotter over the last few decades, leading to a trend of increasing temperature over the past 89 years. The 2014–2016 warm period included “the Blob” and an El Niño, and is reminiscent of similar conditions in the early 1940s. It is not known if the warm conditions will continue, or we will return to a cooler and drier than average period. Our observations highlight the value of long-term data. Such data collections will need to be automated to increase their value and sustainability.
View Issue TOC
Volume 30, No. 4
Pages 128 - 145
Climate Variability and Change: Response of a Coastal Ocean Ecosystem
Francisco P. Chavez , J. Timothy Pennington, Reiko P. Michisaki, Marguerite Blum, Gabriela M. Chavez, Jules Friederich, Brent Jones, Robert Herlien, Brian Kieft, Brett Hobson, Alice S. Ren, John Ryan, Jeffrey C. Sevadjian, Christopher Wahl, Kristine R. Walz, Kevan Yamahara, Gernot E. Friederich, Monique Messié
Chavez, F.P., J.T. Pennington, R.P. Michisaki, M. Blum, G.M. Chavez, J. Friederich, B. Jones, R. Herlien, B. Kieft, B. Hobson, A.S. Ren, J. Ryan, J.C. Sevadjian, C. Wahl, K.R. Walz, K. Yamahara, G.E. Friederich, and M. Messié. 2017. Climate variability and change: Response of a coastal ocean ecosystem. Oceanography 30(4):128–145, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2017.429.
Ashok, K., S.K. Behera, S.A. Rao, H. Weng, and T. Yamagata. 2007. El Niño Modoki and its possible teleconnection. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, C11007, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JC003798.
Bakun, A. 1990. Global climate change and intensification of coastal ocean upwelling. Science 247:198–202, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.247.4939.198.
Barber, R.T., and F.P. Chavez. 1983. Biological consequences of El Niño. Science 222(4629):1,203–1,210, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.222.4629.1203.
Barber, R.T., and R.L. Smith. 1981. Coastal upwelling ecosystems. Pp. 31–68 in Analysis of Marine Ecosystems. A.R. Longhurst, ed., Academic Press, New York.
Barton, A., B. Hales, G. Waldbusser, C. Langdon, and R. Feely. 2012. The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, shows negative correlation to naturally elevated carbon dioxide levels: Implications for near-term ocean acidification effects. Limnology and Oceanography 57(3):698–710, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2012.57.3.0698.
Bellingham, J.G., Y. Zhang, J.E. Kerwin, J. Erikson, B. Hobson, B. Kieft, M. Godin, R. McEwen, T. Hoover, J. Paul, and others. 2010. Efficient propulsion for the Tethys long-range autonomous underwater vehicle. Paper presented at the 2010 IEEE/OES Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) conference, September 1–3, 2010, Monterey, California, https://doi.org/10.1109/AUV.2010.5779645.
Bjerknes, J. 1966. Survey of El Niño 1957-58 in its relation to tropical Pacific meteorology. Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission Bulletin 12(2):1–62.
Bograd, S.J., C.G. Castro, E. Di Lorenzo, D.M. Palacios, H. Bailey, W. Gilly, and F.P. Chavez. 2008. Oxygen declines and the shoaling of the hypoxic boundary in the California Current. Geophysical Research Letters 35, L12607, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL034185.
Bond, N.A., M.F. Cronin, H. Freeland, and N. Mantua. 2015. Causes and impacts of the 2014 warm anomaly in the Northeast Pacific. Geophysical Research Letters 42:3,414–3,420, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL063306.
Brewer, P.G., K.W. Bruland, R.W. Eppley, and J.J. McCarthy. 1986. The Global Ocean Flux Study (GOFS): Status of the U.S. GOFS Program. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 67(44):827–832, https://doi.org/10.1029/EO067i044p00827.
Brönnimann, S. 2005. The global climate anomaly, 1940–1942. Weather 60(12):336–342, https://doi.org/10.1256/wea.248.04.
Chavez, F.P. 1987. Ocean Variability and Phytoplankton Community Structure. PhD Dissertation, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, 300 pp.
Chavez, F.P. 1989. Size distribution of phytoplankton in the central and eastern tropical Pacific. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 3:27–35, https://doi.org/10.1029/GB003i001p00027.
Chavez, F.P., R.T. Barber, A. Huyer, P.M. Kosro, S.R. Ramp, T. Stanton, and B. Rojas de Mendiola. 1991. Horizontal transport and the distribution of nutrients in the Coastal Transition Zone off northern California: Effects on primary production, phytoplankton biomass and species composition. Journal of Geophysical Research 96(C8):14,833–14,848, https://doi.org/10.1029/91JC01163.
Chavez, F.P., A. Bertrand, R. Guevara-Carrasco, P. Soler, and J. Csirke. 2008. The northern Humboldt Current System: Brief history, present status and a view towards the future. Progress in Oceanography 79(2–4):95–105, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2008.10.012.
Chavez, F.P., and C.A. Collins. 1998. California Current System: Part 1. Preface. Deep-Sea Research Part II 45(8–9):1,407–1,409, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0645(98)80001-5.
Chavez, F.P., and C.A. Collins. 2000. Studies of the California Current System: Present, past and future. Deep Sea Research Part II 47(5–6):761–763, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0645(99)00125-3.
Chavez, F.P., C.A. Collins, A. Huyer, and D.L. Mackas. 2002a. El Niño along the west coast of North America. Progress in Oceanography 54(1):1–5, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6611(02)00040-X.
Chavez, F.P., and M. Messié. 2009. A comparison of eastern boundary upwelling ecosystems. Progress in Oceanography 83(1):80–96, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2009.07.032.
Chavez, F.P., M. Messié, and J.T. Pennington. 2011. Marine primary production in relation to climate variability and change. Annual Review of Marine Science 3:227–260, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.marine.010908.163917.
Chavez, F.P., J.T. Pennington, C.G. Castro, J.P. Ryan, R.P. Michisaki, B. Schlining, P. Walz, K.R. Buck, A. McFadyen, and C.A. Collins. 2002b. Biological and chemical consequences of the 1997–1998 El Niño in central California waters. Progress in Oceanography 54(1):205–232, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6611(02)00050-2.
Chavez, F.P., J.T. Pennington, R. Herlien, H. Jannasch, G. Thurmond, and G.E. Friederich. 1997. Moorings and drifters for real-time interdisciplinary oceanography. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 14(5):1,199–1,211, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0426(1997)014<1199:MADFRT>2.0.CO;2.
Chavez, F.P., J. Ryan, S.E. Lluch-Cota, and M. Ñiquen. 2003. From anchovies to sardines and back: Multidecadal change in the Pacific Ocean. Science 299(5604):217–221, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1075880.
Chavez, F.P., J. Sevadjian, C. Wahl, J. Friederich, and G.E. Friederich. 2017. Measurements of pCO2 and pH from an autonomous surface vehicle in a coastal upwelling system. Deep Sea Research Part II, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2017.01.001
Chavez, F.P., P.G. Strutton, G.E. Friederich, R.A. Feely, G.C. Feldman, D.G. Foley, and M.J. McPhaden. 1999. Biological and chemical response of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to the 1997–98 El Niño. Science 286:2,126–2,131, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.286.5447.2126.
Chelton, D.B., and R.E. Davis. 1982. Monthly mean sea-level variability along the west coast of North America. Journal of Physical Oceanography 12(8):757–784, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1982)012<0757:MMSLVA>2.0.CO;2.
Cleveland, W.S., A.E. Freeny, and T.E. Graedel. 1983. The seasonal component of atmospheric CO2: Information from new approaches to the decomposition of seasonal time-series. Journal of Geophysical Research 88:10,934–10,940, https://doi.org/10.1029/JC088iC15p10934.
Collins, C.A, J.T. Pennington, C.G. Castro, T.A. Rago, and F.P. Chavez. 2003. The California Current System off Monterey, California: Physical and biological coupling. Deep Sea Research Part II 50(14–16):2,389–2,404, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0645(03)00134-6.
Croll, D.A., B. Marinovic, S. Benson, F.P. Chavez, N. Black, R. Ternullo, and B.R. Tershy. 2005. From wind to whales: Trophic links in a coastal upwelling system. Marine Ecology Progress Series 289:117–130, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps289117.
Deutsch, C., W. Berelson, R. Thunell, T. Weber, C. Tems, J. McManus, J. Crusius, T. Ito, T. Baumgartner, V. Ferreira, and others. 2014. Centennial changes in North Pacific anoxia linked to tropical trade winds. Science 345(6197):665–668, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1252332.
Di Lorenzo, E., N. Schneider, K.M. Cobb, K. Chhak, P.J.S. Franks, A.J. Miller, J.C. McWilliams, S.J. Bograd, H. Arango, E. Curchister, and others. 2008. North Pacific Gyre Oscillation links ocean climate and ecosystem change. Geophysical Research Letters 35, L08607, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL032838.
Elrod, V.A., K.S. Johnson, S.E. Fitzwater, and J.N. Plant. 2008. A long-term, high-resolution record of surface water iron concentrations in the upwelling-driven central California region. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 113, C11021, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JC004610.
Enfield, D.B., and J.S. Allen. 1980. On the structure and dynamics of monthly mean sea level anomalies along the Pacific Coast of North and South America. Journal of Physical Oceanography 10(4):557–578, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1980)010<0557:OTSADO>2.0.CO;2.
England, M.H., S. McGregor, P. Spence, G.A. Meehl, A. Timmermann, W. Cai, A.S. Gupta, M.J. McPhaden, A. Purich, and A. Santoso. 2014. Recent intensification of wind-driven circulation in the Pacific and the ongoing warming hiatus. Nature Climate Change 4(3):222–227, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2106.
Friederich, G.E., P.G. Brewer, R. Herlien, and F.P. Chavez. 1995. Measurement of sea surface partial pressure of CO2 from a moored buoy. Deep Sea Research Part I 42:1,175–1,186, https://doi.org/10.1016/0967-0637(95)00044-7.
Graham, W.M., and J.L. Largier. 1997. Upwelling shadows as nearshore retention sites: The example of northern Monterey Bay. Continental Shelf Research 17:509–532, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0278-4343(96)00045-3.
Hickey, B.M. 1979. The California Current System: Hypothesis and facts. Progress in Oceanography 8:191–279, https://doi.org/10.1016/0079-6611(79)90002-8.
Hobson, B.W., J.G. Bellingham, B. Kieft, R. McEwen, M. Godin, and Y. Zhang. 2012. Tethys-class long range AUVs: Extending the endurance of propeller-driven cruising AUVs from days to weeks. Paper presented at the 2012 IEEE/OES Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) conference, September 24–27, 2012, Southampton, UK, https://doi.org/10.1109/AUV.2012.6380735.
Jaccard, S.L., E.D. Galbraith, T.L. Frölicher, and N. Gruber. 2014. Ocean (de)oxygenation across the last deglaciation: Insights for the future. Oceanography 27(1):26–35, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2014.05.
Jacox, M.G., E.L. Hazen, K.D. Zaba, D.L. Rudnick, C.A. Edwards, A.M. Moore, and S.J. Bograd. 2016. Impacts of the 2015–2016 El Niño on the California Current System: Early assessment and comparison to past events. Geophysical Research Letters 43(13):7,072–7,080, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL069716.
Jessup, D.A., M.A. Miller, J.P. Ryan, H.M. Nevins, H.A. Kerkering, A. Mekebri, D.B. Crane, T.A. Johnson, and R.M. Kudela. 2009. Mass stranding of marine birds caused by a surfactant-producing red tide. PLoS ONE 4(2):e4550, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004550.
Johnson, K.S., F.P. Chavez, V.A. Elrod, S.E. Fitzwater, J.T. Pennington, K.R. Buck, and P.M. Walz. 2001. The annual cycle of iron and the biological response in central California coastal waters. Geophysical Research Letters 28:1,247–1,250, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000GL012433.
Johnson, K.S., and L.J. Coletti. 2002. In situ ultraviolet spectrophotometry for high resolution and long-term monitoring of nitrate, bromide and bisulfide in the ocean. Deep Sea Research Part I 49:1,291–1,305, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0637(02)00020-1.
Johnson, K.S., L.J. Coletti, and F.P. Chavez. 2006. Diel nitrate cycles observed with in situ sensors predict monthly and annual new production. Deep Sea Research Part I 53(3):561–573, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2005.12.004.
Karl, D.M. 2010. Oceanic ecosystem time-series programs: Ten lessons learned. Oceanography 23(3):104–125, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2010.27.
Karl, D.M., and M.J. Church. 2014. Microbial oceanography and the Hawaii Ocean Time-series programme. Nature Reviews Microbiology 12:699–713, https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro3333.
Lluch-Belda, D., D.B. Lluch-Cota, and S.E. Lluch-Cota. 2003. Baja California’s biological transition zones: Refuges for the California sardine. Journal of Oceanography 59(4):503–513, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1025596717470.
MacIsaac, J.J., R.C. Dugdale, R.T. Barber, D. Blasco, and T.T. Packard. 1985. Primary production cycle in an upwelling center. Deep Sea Research Part A 32:503–529, https://doi.org/10.1016/0198-0149(85)90042-1.
Margalef, R. 1978. Life-forms of phytoplankton as survival alternatives in an unstable environment. Oceanologica Acta 1(4):493–509.
Martin, J.H., G.A. Knauer, D.M. Karl, and W.W. Broenkow. 1987. VERTEX: Carbon cycling in the Northeast Pacific. Deep Sea Research Part A 34(2):267–85, https://doi.org/10.1016/0198-0149(87)90086-0.
MBARI. 2010. A new coastal pelagic ecosystem paradigm? Pp. 9–11 in Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute Annual Report 2010. Moss Landing, CA.
McClatchie, S., R. Goericke, R. Cosgrove, G. Auad, and R. Vetter. 2010. Oxygen in the Southern California Bight: Multidecadal trends and implications for demersal fisheries. Geophysical Research Letters 37, L19602, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL044497.
Messié, M., and F.P. Chavez. 2011. Global modes of sea surface temperature variability in relation to regional climate indices. Journal of Climate 24(16):4,314–4,331, https://doi.org/10.1175/2011JCLI3941.1.
Olivieri, R.A., and F.P. Chavez. 2000. A model of plankton dynamics for the coastal upwelling system of Monterey Bay, California. Deep Sea Research Part II 47(5–6):1,077–1,106, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0645(99)00137-X.
Paek, H., J.Y. Yu, and C. Qian. 2017. Why were the 2015/2016 and 1997/1998 extreme El Niños different? Geophysical Research Letters 44:1,848–1,856, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL071515.
Pares Sierra, A., and J.J. O’Brien. 1989. The seasonal and interannual variability of the California Current System: A numerical model. Journal of Geophysical Research: 94(C3):3,159–3,180, https://doi.org/10.1029/JC094iC03p03159.
Pennington, J.T., M. Blum, and F.P. Chavez. 2016. Seawater sampling by an autonomous underwater vehicle: “Gulper” sample validation for nitrate, chlorophyll, phytoplankton, and primary production. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 14(1):14–23, https://doi.org/10.1002/lom3.10065.
Pennington, J.T., G.E. Friederich, C.G. Castro, C.A. Collins, W.W. Evans, and F.P. Chavez. 2010. The northern and central California coastal upwelling system. 2010. Pp. 29–43 in Carbon and Nutrient Fluxes in Continental Margins: A Global Synthesis. K.K. Liu, L. Atkinson, R. Quinones, and L. Talaue-McManus, eds, Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Pennington, J.T, and F.P. Chavez. 2000. Seasonal fluctuations of temperature, salinity, nitrate, chlorophyll and primary production at Station H3/M1 over 1989-1996 in Monterey Bay, California. Deep Sea Research Part II 47(5–6):947–973, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0645(99)00132-0.
Pennington, J.T, and F.P. Chavez. 2017. Decade-scale oceanographic fluctuation in Monterey Bay, California, 1989–2011. Deep Sea Research Part II, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2017.07.005.
Redfield, A.C. 1958. The biological control of chemical factors in the environment. American Scientist 46(3):230A, 205–221.
Ren, A.S. 2016. Declining Dissolved Oxygen in the Central California Current Region. MS Thesis, University of Maine, Orono, https://digitalcommons.library.umaine.edu/etd/2539.
Rosenfeld, L.K., F.B. Schwing, N. Garfield, and D.E. Tracy. 1994. Bifurcated flow from an upwelling center: A cold water source for Monterey Bay. Continental Shelf Research 14(9):931–964, https://doi.org/10.1016/0278-4343(94)90058-2.
Rudnick, D.L., K.D. Zaba, R.E. Todd, and R.E. Davis. 2017. A climatology of the California Current System from a network of underwater gliders. Progress in Oceanography 154:64–106, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2017.03.002.
Ryan, J.P., F.P. Chavez, and J.G. Bellingham. 2005. Physical-biological coupling in Monterey Bay, California: Topographic influences on phytoplankton ecology. Marine Ecology Progress Series 287:23–32, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps287023.
Ryan, J.P., A.M. Fischer, R.M. Kudela, J.F.R. Gower, S.A. King, R. Marin III, and F.P. Chavez. 2009. Influences of upwelling and downwelling winds on red tide bloom dynamics in Monterey Bay, California. Continental Shelf Research 29(5–6):785–795, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2008.11.006
Ryan, J.P., J.F.R. Gower, S.A. King, W.P. Bissett, A.M. Fischer, R.M. Kudela, Z. Kolber, F. Mazzillo, E.V. Rienecker, and F.P. Chavez. 2008a. A coastal ocean extreme bloom incubator. Geophysical Research Letters 35, L12602, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL034081.
Ryan, J., D. Greenfield, R. Marin III, C. Preston, B. Roman, S. Jensen, D. Pargett, J. Birch, C. Mikulski, G. Doucette, and C. Scholin. 2011. Harmful phytoplankton ecology studies using an autonomous molecular analytical and ocean observing network. Limnology and Oceanography 56, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2011.56.4.1255.
Ryan, J.P., R.M. Kudela, J.M. Birch, M. Blum, H.A. Bowers, F.P. Chavez, G.J. Doucette, K. Hayashi, R. Marin III, C.M. Mikulski, and others. 2017. Causality of an extreme harmful algal bloom in Monterey Bay, California, during the 2014–2016 Northeast Pacific warm anomaly. Geophysical Research Letters 44:5,571–5,579, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL072637.
Ryan, J.P., M.A. McManus, R.M. Kudela, M. Lara Artigas, J.G. Bellingham, F.P. Chavez, G. Doucette, D. Foley, M. Godin, J.B.J. Harvey, and others. 2014. Boundary influences on HAB phytoplankton ecology in a stratification-enhanced upwelling shadow. Deep Sea Research Part II 101:63–79, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2013.01.017.
Ryan, J.P., M.A. McManus, J.D. Paduan, and F.P. Chavez. 2008b. Phytoplankton thin layers caused by shear infrontal zones of a coastal upwelling system. Marine Ecology Progress Series 354:21–34, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps07222.
Ryan, J.P., M.A. McManus, and J.M. Sullivan. 2010. Interacting physical, chemical and biological forcing of phytoplankton thin-layer variability in Monterey Bay, California. Continental Shelf Research 30:7–16, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2009.10.017.
Rykaczewski, R.R., and J.P. Dunne. 2010. Enhanced nutrient supply to the California Current ecosystem with global warming and increased stratification in an earth system model. Geophysical Research Letters 37, L21606, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL045019.
Ryther, J.H. 1969. Photosynthesis and fish production in the sea. Science 166(3901):72–76, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.166.3901.72.
Sakamoto, C.M., K.S. Johnson, L.J. Coletti, T.L. Maurer, G. Massion, J.T. Pennington, J.N. Plant, H.W. Jannasch, and F.P. Chavez. 2017. Hourly in situ nitrate on a coastal mooring: A 15-year record and insights into new production. Oceanography 30(4):114–127, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2017.428.
Sassoubre, L.M., K.M. Yamahara, L.D. Gardner, B.A. Block, and A.B. Boehm. 2016. Quantification of environmental DNA (eDNA) shedding and decay rates for three marine fish. Environmental Science & Technology 50:10,456–10,464, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b03114.
Scholin, C.A., J. Birch, S. Jensen, R. Marin III, E. Massion, D. Pargett, C. Preston, B. Roman, and W. Ussler III. 2017. The quest to develop ecogenomic sensors: A 25-Year history of the Environmental Sample Processor (ESP) as a case study. Oceanography 30(4):100–113, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2017.427.
Scofield, W.L. 1926. The sardine at Monterey: Dominant size-class and their progression, 1919–1923. California Fish and Game Commission, Fish Bulletin 2:191–221.
Scofield, W.L. 1929. Sardine fishing methods at Monterey, California. California Fish and Game Commission, Fish Bulletin 19:61.
Sette, O.E., and J.D. Isaacs, eds. 1960. Proceedings of Symposium on “The Changing Pacific Ocean in 1957 and 1958,” Rancho Santa Fe, CA, June 2–4, 1958. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports, vol. VII, January 1958 to June 1959, 217 pp.
Skogsberg, T. 1936. Hydrography of Monterey Bay, California: Thermal conditions, 1929–1933. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 29(1):i–152, https://doi.org/10.2307/1005510.
Strub, P.T., and C. James. 2000. Altimeter-derived variability of surface velocities in the California Current system: Part 2. Seasonal circulation and eddy statistics. Deep Sea Research Part II 47(5):831–870, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0645(99)00129-0.
Sutton, A.J., R.A. Feely, C.L. Sabine, M.J. McPhaden, T. Takahashi, F.P. Chavez, G.E. Friederich, and J.T. Mathis. 2014. Natural variability and anthropogenic change in equatorial Pacific surface ocean pCO2 and pH. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 28:131–145, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013GB004679.
Zeidberg, L.D., and B.H. Robison. 2007. Invasive range expansion by the Humboldt squid, Dosidicus gigas, in the eastern North Pacific. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104:12,948–12,950, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0702043104.
This is an open access article made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format as long as users cite the materials appropriately, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate the changes that were made to the original content. Images, animations, videos, or other third-party material used in articles are included in the Creative Commons license unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If the material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission directly from the license holder to reproduce the material.