Coastal ocean ecosystems have always served human populations—they provide food security, livelihoods, coastal protection, and defense. Ocean acidification is a global threat to these ecosystem services, particularly when other local and regional stressors combine with it to jeopardize coastal health. Monitoring efforts call for a coordinated global approach toward sustained, integrated coastal ocean health observing networks to address the region-specific mix of factors while also adhering to global ocean acidification observing network principles to facilitate comparison among regions for increased utility and understanding. Here, we generalize guidelines for scoping and designing regional coastal ocean acidification observing networks and provide examples of existing efforts. While challenging in the early stages of coordinating the design and prioritizing the implementation of these observing networks, it is essential to actively engage all of the relevant stakeholder groups from the outset, including private industries, public agencies, regulatory bodies, decision makers, and the general public. The long-term sustainability of these critical observing networks will rely on leveraging of resources and the strength of partnerships across the consortium of stakeholders and those implementing coastal ocean health observing networks
View Issue TOC
Volume 28, No. 2
Pages 92 - 107
Characterizing the Natural System: Toward Sustained, Integrated Coastal Ocean Acidification Observing Networks to Facilitate Resource Management and Decision Support
Alin, S.R., R.E. Brainard, N.N. Price, J.A. Newton, A. Cohen, W.T. Peterson, E.H. DeCarlo, E.H. Shadwick, S. Noakes, and N. Bednaršek. 2015. Characterizing the natural system: Toward sustained, integrated coastal ocean acidification observing networks to facilitate resource management and decision support. Oceanography 28(2):92–107, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2015.34.
Alford, M.H., J.B. Mickett, S. Zhang, P. MacCready, Z. Zhao, and J. Newton. 2012. Internal waves on the Washington continental shelf. Oceanography 25(2):66–79, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2012.43.
Alin, S.R., R.A. Feely, A.G. Dickson, J.M. Hernández-Ayón, L.W. Juranek, M.D. Ohman, and R. Goericke. 2012. Robust empirical relationships for estimating the carbonate system in the southern California Current System and application to CalCOFI hydrographic cruise data (2005–2011). Journal of Geophysical Research 117, C05033, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JC007511.
AMAP. 2013. AMAP Assessment 2013: Arctic Ocean Acidification. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), Oslo, Norway, 99 pp.
Aronson, R.B., S. Thatje, J.B. McClintock, and K.A. Hughes. 2011. Anthropogenic impacts on marine ecosystems in Antarctica. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1,223:82–107, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05926.x.
Barton, A., G.G. Waldbusser, R.A. Feely, S.B. Weisberg, J.A. Newton, B. Hales, S. Cudd, B. Eudeline, C.J. Langdon, I. Jefferds, and others. 2015. Impacts of coastal acidification on the Pacific Northwest shellfish industry and adaptation strategies implemented in response. Oceanography 28(2):146–159, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2015.38.
Bednaršek, N., R.A. Feely, J.C.P. Reum, B. Peterson, J. Menkel, S.R. Alin, and B. Hales. 2014. Limacina helicina shell dissolution as an indicator of declining habitat suitability owing to ocean acidification in the California Current Ecosystem. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281:20140123, https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2014.0123.
Brainard, R.E., C. Birkeland, C.M. Eakin, P. McElhany, M.W. Miller, M. Patterson, and G.A. Piniak. 2012. Status Review Report of 82 Candidate Coral Species Petitioned Under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. NOAA Technical Memorandum. NOAA-TM-NMFS-PIFSC-27, Washington, DC, 533 pp.
Brander, L.M., D. Narita, K. Rehdanz, and R.S.J. Tol. 2014. The economic impacts of ocean acidification. Pages 1–18 in Handbook on the Economics of Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity. P.A.L.D. Nunes, P. Kumar, and T. Dedeurwaerdere, eds, Edward Elgar Publishing.
Breitburg, D.L., J. Salisbury, J.M. Bernhard, W.-J. Cai, S. Dupont, S.C. Doney, K.J. Kroeker, L.A. Levin, W.C. Long, L.M. Milke, and others. 2015. And on top of all that… Coping with ocean acidification in the midst of many stressors. Oceanography 28(2):48–61, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2015.31.
Bunce, L., P. Townsley, R. Pomeroy, and R. Pollnac. 2000. Socioeconomic Manual for Coral Reef Management. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Australia, 264 pp.
Byrne, R.H. 2014. Measuring ocean acidification: New technology for a new era of ocean chemistry. Environmental Science and Technology 48:5,352–5,360, https://doi.org/10.1021/es405819p.
Cesar, H., L. Burke, and L. Pet-Soede. 2003. The Economics of Worldwide Coral Reef Degradation. Cesar Environmental Economics Consulting, Arnhem, The Netherlands.
Constable, A.J., J. Melbourne-Thomas, S.P. Corney, C. Barbraud, D.K.A. Barnes, N.L. Bindoff, P.W. Boyd, A. Brandt, D.P. Costa, A.T. Davidson, and others. 2014. Climate change and Southern Ocean ecosystems: Part I. How changes in physical habitats directly affect marine biota. Global Change Biology 20(10):3,004–3,025, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12623.
Curchitser, E.N., and H.P. Batchelder. 2013. Advances in physical, biological, and coupled ocean models during the US GLOBEC program. Oceanography 26(4):52–67, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2013.75.
DeBroyer, C., P. Koubbi, H.J. Griffiths, B. Raymond, C. d’Udekem d’Acoz, A.P. Van de Putte, B. Danis, B. David, S. Grant, J. Gutt, and others, eds. 2014. Biogeographic Atlas of the Southern Ocean. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, Cambridge.
Duffy, J.E., L.A. Amaral-Zettler, D.G. Fautin, G. Paulay, A. Tatiana, H.M. Sosik, J.J. Stachowicz, and T.A. Rynearson. 2013. Envisioning a marine biodiversity observation network. BioScience 63:350–361, https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2013.63.5.8.
Fabry, V.J., J.B. McClintock, J.T. Mathis, and J.M. Grebmeier. 2009. Ocean acidification at high latitudes: The bellwether. Oceanography 22(4):160–171, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2009.105.
Feely, R.A., S.R. Alin, J. Newton, C.L. Sabine, M. Warner, A. Devol, C. Krembs, and C. Maloy. 2010. The combined effects of ocean acidification, mixing, and respiration on pH and carbonate saturation in an urbanized estuary. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 88:442–449, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2010.05.004.
Feely, R.A., S.C. Doney, and S.R. Cooley. 2009. Ocean acidification: Present conditions and future changes in a high-CO2 world. Oceanography 22(4):36–47, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2009.95.
Feely, R.A., C.L. Sabine, J.M. Hernandez-Ayon, D. Ianson, and B. Hales. 2008. Evidence for upwelling of corrosive “acidified” water onto the continental shelf. Science 320:1,490–1,492, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1155676.
Fisher, R., R.A. O’Leary, S. Low-Choy, K. Mengersen, R.E. Brainard, and M.J. Caley. 2015. Species richness on coral reefs and the pursuit of convergent global estimates. Current Biology 4:500–505, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2014.12.022.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 2014. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture: Opportunities and Challenges. Rome, http://www.fao.org/3/a-i3720e.pdf.
Gattuso, J.-P., M. Frankignoulle, and R. Wollast. 1998. Carbon and carbonate metabolism in coastal aquatic ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29:405–434, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.29.1.405.
Gobler, C.J., E.L. DePasquale, A.W. Griffith, and H. Baumann. 2014. Hypoxia and acidification have additive and synergistic negative effects on the growth, survival, and metamorphosis of early life stage bivalves. PLoS ONE 9, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083648.
Grantham, B.A., F. Chan, K.J. Nielsen, D.S. Fox, J.A. Barth, A. Huyer, J. Lubchenco, and B.A. Menge. 2004. Upwelling-driven nearshore hypoxia signals ecosystem and oceanographic changes in the northeast Pacific. Nature 429:749–754, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02605.
Grebmeier, J.M. 2012. Shifting patterns of life in the Pacific Arctic and sub-Arctic seas. Annual Review of Marine Science 4:63–78, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-120710-100926.
Gruber, N., C. Hauri, Z. Lachkar, D. Loher, T.L. Frölicher, and G.K. Plattner. 2012. Rapid progression of ocean acidification in the California Current System. Science 337:220–223, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1216773.
Hauri, C., N. Gruber, A.M.P. McDonnell, and M. Vogt. 2013. The intensity, duration, and severity of low aragonite saturation state events on the California continental shelf. Geophysical Research Letters 40:3,424–3,428, https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50618.
Interagency Working Group on Ocean Acidification. 2014. Strategic Plan for Federal Research and Monitoring of Ocean Acidification. Washington, DC, 84 pp., https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/NSTC/iwg-oa_strategic_plan_march_2014.pdf.
Juranek, L.W., R.A. Feely, W.T. Peterson, S.R. Alin, B. Hales, K. Lee, C.L. Sabine, and J. Peterson. 2009. A novel method for determination of aragonite saturation state on the continental shelf of central Oregon using multi-parameter relationships with hydrographic data. Geophysical Research Letters 36, L24601, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL040778.
Karl, T.R., V.E. Derr, D.R. Easterling, C.K. Folland, D.J. Hofmann, S. Levitus, N. Nicholls, D.E. Parker, and G.W. Withee. 1995. Critical issues for long-term climate monitoring. Climatic Change 31:185–221, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01095146.
Khatiwala, S., F. Primeau, and T. Hall. 2009. Reconstruction of the history of anthropogenic CO2 concentrations in the ocean. Nature 462:346–349, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08526.
Knowlton, N., R.E. Brainard, R. Fisher, M. Moews, L. Plaisance, and M.J. Caley. 2010. Coral reef biodiversity. Pp. 65–78 in Life in the World’s Oceans: Diversity, Distribution, Abundance. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service). 2014. Fisheries Economics of the United States 2012. Economics and Sociocultural Status and Trends Series, NOAA Technical Memorandum, NMFS-F/SPO-137, 183 pp., https://www.st.nmfs.noaa.gov/Assets/economics/documents/feus/2012/FEUS2012.pdf.
Newton, J.A., R.A. Feely, E.B. Jewett, P. Williamson, and J. Mathis. 2014. Global Ocean Acidification Observing Network: Requirements and Governance Plan. GOA-ON, 57 pp., http://goa-on.org/docs/GOA-ON_Plan_final_Sept_2014.pdf.
NOAA Ocean Acidification Steering Committee. 2010. NOAA Ocean and Great Lakes Acidification Research Plan. NOAA Special Report, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, DC, 143 pp.
Pfister, C.A. A.J. Esbaugh, C.A. Frieder, H. Baumann, E.E. Bockmon, M.M. White, B.R. Carter, H.M. Benway, C.A. Blanchette, E. Carrington, and others. 2014. Detecting the unexpected: A research framework for ocean acidification. Environmental Science & Technology 48:9,982–9,994, https://doi.org/10.1021/es501936p.
Radtke, H.D. 2011. Washington State Commercial Fishing Industry: Total Economic Contribution. Prepared by H. Radtke, Natural Resource Economist for Seattle Marine Business Coalition, Yachats, OR, 19 pp.
Schindler, D.E., and R. Hilborn. 2015. Prediction, precaution, and policy under global change: Emphasize robustness, monitoring, and flexibility. Science 347:953–954, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1261824.
Steinacher, M., F. Joos, T.L. Frölicher, G.-K. Plattner, and S.C. Doney. 2008. Imminent ocean acidification in the Arctic projected with the NCAR global coupled carbon cycle-climate model. Biogeosciences 6:515–533, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-6-515-2009.
Trenberth, K.E., T.R. Karl, and T.W. Spence. 2002. The need for a systems approach to climate observation. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 83:1,593–1,602, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-83-11-1593.
Waldbusser, G.G., B. Hales, C.J. Langdon, B.A. Haley, P. Schrader, E.L. Brunner, M.W. Gray, C.A. Miller, and I. Gimenez. 2014. Saturation-state sensitivity of marine bivalve larvae to ocean acidification. Nature Climate Change 5:273–280, https://doi.org/10.1038/NCLIMATE2479.
Wallace, R.B., H. Baumann, J.S. Grear, R.C. Aller, and C.J. Gobler. 2014. Coastal ocean acidification: The other eutrophication problem. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 148:1–13, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2014.05.027.
This is an open access article made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format as long as users cite the materials appropriately, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate the changes that were made to the original content. Images, animations, videos, or other third-party material used in articles are included in the Creative Commons license unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If the material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission directly from the license holder to reproduce the material.