Oceanography The Official Magazine of
The Oceanography Society
Volume 20 Issue 04

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Volume 20, No. 4
Pages 140 - 149


Applications of Geo-Referenced Underwater Photo Mosaics in Marine Biology and Archaeology

By Martin Ludvigsen , Bjørn Sortland , Geir Johnsen, and Hanumant Singh 
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In deep water, below the photic zone, still and video imaging of the seabed requires artificial lighting. Light absorption and backscatter caused by typical seawater components, such as dissolved organic matter, plankton, and inorganic particles, often limit the artificially lit area to a few square meters. To obtain high-resolution photographic data of larger seabed areas, a series of images can be compiled into a photo mosaic. Image mosaics are easier to interpret, communicate, and exhibit than video footage or a series of images, because the individual image frames in a photo mosaic are naturally represented in a spatial context.


Ludvigsen, M., B. Sortland, G. Johnsen, and H. Singh. 2007. Applications of geo-referenced underwater photo mosaics in marine biology and archaeology. Oceanography 20(4):140–149, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.14.

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