Approaches to measuring marine biological parameters remain almost as diverse as the researchers who measure them. However, understanding the patterns of diversity in ocean life over different temporal and geographic scales requires consistent data and information on the potential environmental drivers. As a group of marine scientists from different disciplines, we suggest a formalized, consistent framework of 20 biological, chemical, physical, and socioeconomic parameters that we consider the most important for describing environmental and biological variability. We call our proposed framework the General Ocean Survey and Sampling Iterative Protocol (GOSSIP). We hope that this framework will establish a consistent approach to data collection, enabling further collaboration between marine scientists from different disciplines to advance knowledge of the ocean (deep-sea and mesophotic coral ecosystems).
View Issue TOC
Volume 31, No. 3
A Multidisciplinary Approach for Generating Globally Consistent Data on Mesophotic, Deep-Pelagic, and Bathyal Biological Communities
Woodall, L.C., D.A. Andradi-Brown, A.S. Brierley, M.R. Clark, D. Connelly, R.A. Hall, K.L. Howell, V.A.I. Huvenne, K. Linse, R.E. Ross, P. Snelgrove, P.V. Stefanoudis, T.T. Sutton, M. Taylor, T.F. Thornton, and A.D. Rogers. 2018. A multidisciplinary approach for generating globally consistent data on mesophotic, deep-pelagic, and bathyal biological communities. Oceanography 31(3):76–89, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2018.301.
Althaus, F., N. Hill, R. Ferrari, L. Edwards, R. Przeslawski, C.H.L. Schönberg, R. Stuart-Smith, N. Barrett, G. Edgar, G., Colquhoun, and others. 2015. A standardized vocabulary for identifying benthic biota and substrata from underwater imagery: The CATAMI Classification Scheme. PloS One 10:e0141039, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141039.
Andradi-Brown, D.A., C.E.I. Head, D.A. Exton, C.L. Hunt, A. Hendrix, E. Gress, and A.D. Rogers. 2017. Identifying zooplankton community changes between shallow and upper-mesophotic reefs on the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef, Caribbean. PeerJ 5:e2853, https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.2853.
Andradi-Brown, D., J. Laverick, I. Bejarano, T. Bridge, P.L. Colin, G. Eyal, R. Jones, S.E. Kahng, J. Reed, T.B. Smith, and others. 2016a. Threats to mesophotic coral ecosystems and management options. Pp. 67–82 in Mesophotic Coral Ecosystems: A Lifeboat for Coral Reefs. E.K. Baker, K.A. Puglise, and P.T. Harris, eds, The United Nations Environment Programme and GRID-Arendal, Nairobi and Arendal.
Andradi-Brown, D.A., C. Macaya-Solis, D.A. Exton, E. Gress, G. Wright, and A.D. Rogers. 2016b. Assessing Caribbean shallow and mesophotic reef fish communities using baited-remote underwater video (BRUV) and diver-operated video (DOV) survey techniques. PLoS One 11:e0168235, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168235.
Aylagas, E., A. Borja, X. Irigoien, and N. Rodriguez-Ezpeleta. 2016. Benchmarking DNA metabarcoding for biodiversity-based monitoring and assessment. Frontiers of Marine Science 13:96, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2016.00096.
Barlow, J., T. Gerrodette, and J. Forcada. 2001. Factors affecting perpendicular sighting distances on shipboard line-transect surveys for cetaceans. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 3:201–212.
Brandt A., A.J. Gooday, S.N. Brandao, S. Brix, W. Brokeland, T. Cedhagen, M. Choudhury, N. Cornelius, B. Danis, I. De Mesel, and others. 2007. First insights into the biodiversity and biogeography of the Southern Ocean deep sea. Nature 447:307–311, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05827.
Bucklin, A., P.K. Lindeque, N. Rodriguez-Ezpeleta, A. Albaina, and M. Lehtiniemi. 2016. Metabarcoding of marine zooplankton: Prospects, progress and pitfalls. Journal of Plankton Research 38:393–400, https://doi.org/10.1093/plankt/fbw023.
Christiansen, B., S.I. Bühring, O. Pfannkuche, and H. Weikert. 2010. The near-bottom plankton community at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain, NE-Atlantic: Structure and vertical distribution. Marine Biology Research 6:113–124, https://doi.org/10.1080/17451000903150363.
Christiansen, B., B. Drüke, R. Koppelmann, and H. Weikert. 1999. The near-bottom zooplankton at the abyssal BIOTRANS site, Northeast Atlantic: Composition, abundance and variability. Journal of Plankton Research 21:1,847–1,863, https://doi.org/10.1093/plankt/21.10.1847.
Clark, M.R., M. Consalvey, and A.A. Rowden. 2016. Biological Sampling in the Deep Sea. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.
Clark, M.R., V.I. Vinnichenko, J.D.M. Gordon, G.Z. Beck-Bulat, N.N. Kukharev, and A.F. Kakora. 2007. Large-scale distant-water trawl fisheries on seamounts. Pp. 361–399 in Seamounts: Ecology, Fisheries, and Conservation. T. Morato, P. Hart, M.R. Clark, N. Haggan, and R. Santos, eds, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.
Constable, A.J., D.P. Costa, O. Schofield, L. Newman, E.R. Urban Jr., E.A. Fulton, J. Melbourne-Thomas, T. Ballerini, P.W. Boyd, A. Brandt, and others. 2016. Developing priority variables (“ecosystem Essential Ocean Variables”—eEOVs) for observing dynamics and change in Southern Ocean ecosystems. Journal of Marine Systems 161:26–41, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2016.05.003.
Cutter, G., K. Casciotti, P. Croot, W. Geibert, L.-E. Heimbürger, M. Lohan, H. Planquette, and T. van der Fliert. 2017. Sampling and Sample-Handling Protocols for GEOTRACES Cruises, version 3.0. 139 pp. plus appendices, http://www.geotraces.org/libraries/documents/Intercalibration/Cookbook.pdf.
Danovaro, R. 2009. Methods for the Study of Deep-Sea Sediments, Their Functioning and Biodiversity. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 458 pp.
Danovaro, R., C. Gambi, A. Dell’Anno, C. Corinaldesi, S. Fraschetti, A. Vanreusel, M. Vincx, and A.J. Gooday. 2008. Exponential decline of deep-sea ecosystem functioning linked to benthic biodiversity loss. Current Biology 18:1–8, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2007.11.056.
Davies, E.J., D. Buscombe, G.W. Graham, and W.A.M. Nimmo-Smith. 2015. Evaluating unsupervised methods to size and classify suspended particles using digital in-line holography. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 32:1,241–1,256, https://doi.org/10.1175/JTECH-D-14-00157.1.
Dickson, A.G., J.D. Afghan, and G.C. Anderson. 2003. Reference materials for oceanic CO2 analysis: A method for the certification of total alkalinity. Marine Chemistry 80:185–197, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4203(02)00133-0.
Dunlop, K.M., D. van Oevelen, H.A. Ruhl, C.L. Huffard, L.A. Kuhnz, and K.L. Smith. 2016. Carbon cycling in the deep eastern North Pacific benthic food web: Investigating the effect of organic carbon input. Limnology and Oceanography 61:1,956–1,968, https://doi.org/10.1002/lno.10345.
Gallager, S.M., H. Yamazaki, and C.S. Davis. 2004. Contribution of fine-scale vertical structure and swimming behavior to formation of plankton layers on Georges Bank. Marine Ecology Progress Series 267:27–43, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps267027.
Gilbert, J.A., D. Field, Y. Huang, R. Edwards, W. Li, P. Gilna, and I. Joint. 2008. Detection of large numbers of novel sequences in the metatranscriptomes of complex marine microbial communities. PLoS One 3:e3042, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003042.
Glover, A.G., T.G. Dahlgren, H. Wiklund, I. Mohrbeck, and C.R. Smith. 2016. An end-to-end DNA taxonomy methodology for benthic biodiversity survey in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone, central Pacific abyss. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 4:2, https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse4010002.
Glud, R.N. 2008. Oxygen dynamics of marine sediments. Marine Biology Research 4:243–289, https://doi.org/10.1080/17451000801888726.
Hansell, D.A., and C.A. Carlson. 2014. Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter. Academic Press, London, 712 pp.
Haver, S., H. Klinck, S. Nieukirk, H. Matsumoto, R. Dziak, and J. Miksis-Olds. 2017. The not-so-silent world: Measuring arctic, equatorial and antarctic soundscapes in the Atlantic Ocean. Deep-Sea Research Part I 122:95–104, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2017.03.002.
Harvey, E., D. Fletcher, and M. Shortis. 2001. A comparison of the precision and accuracy of estimates of reef-fish lengths determined visually by divers with estimates produced by a stereo-video system. Fishery Bulletin 99:63–71.
Heino, M., F.M. Porteiro, T.T. Sutton, T. Falkenhaug, O.R. Godø, and U. Piatkowski. 2011. Catchability of pelagic trawls for sampling deep-living nekton in the mid-North Atlantic. ICES Journal of Marine Science 68:377–389, https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsq089.
Hidalgo-Ruz, V., L. Gutow, R.C. Thompson, and M. Thiel. 2012. Microplastics in the marine environment: A review of the methods used for identification and quantification. Environmental Science & Technology 46:3,060–3,075, https://doi.org/10.1021/es2031505.
Hinderstein, L., J. Marr, F. Martinez, M. Dowgiallo, K. Puglise, R. Pyle, D. Zawada, and R. Appeldoorn. 2010. Theme section on “Mesophotic coral ecosystems: Characterization, ecology, and management.” Coral Reefs 29:247–251, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00338-010-0614-5.
Howell, K., J. Davies, and B. Narayanaswamy. 2010. Identifying deep-sea megafaunal epibenthic assemblages for use in habitat mapping and marine protected area network design. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 90:33–68, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025315409991299.
Huvenne, V., K. Robert, L. Marsh, C. Lo lacono, T.P. Le Bas, and R.B. Wynn. 2018. ROVs and AUVs. Pp. 93–108 In Submarine Geomorphology, A. Micallef, S. Krastel, and A. Savini, eds, Springer, Heidelberg.
Ingels, J., S. Dashfield, P. Somerfield, S. Widdicombe, and M. Austen. 2014. Interactions between multiple large macrofauna species and nematode communities: Mechanisms for indirect impacts of trawling disturbance. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 456:41–49, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2014.03.009.
Irigoien, X., T.A. Klevjer, A. Røstad, U. Martinez, G. Boyra, J.L. Acuña, A. Bode, F. Echevarria, J.I. Gonzalez-Gordillo, S. Hernandez-Leon, and others. 2014. Large mesopelagic fishes biomass and trophic efficiency in the open ocean. Nature Communications 5, 3271, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms4271.
Johnson, K.M., A.E. King, and J.M. Sieburth. 1985. Coulometric TCO2 analyses for marine studies: An introduction. Marine Chemistry 16:61–82, https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4203(85)90028-3.
Letessier, T.B., J.B. Juhel, L. Vigliola, and J.J. Meeuwig. 2015. Low-cost small action cameras in stereo generates accurate underwater measurements of fish. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 466:120–126, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2015.02.013.
Lindstrom, E., J. Gunn, A. Fischer, A. McCurdy, and L.K. Glover 2012. A Framework for Ocean Observing. Prepared by the Task Team for an Integrated Framework for Sustained Ocean Observing (IFSOO), Report IOC/INF-1284 Rev., UNESCO, Paris, 28 pp.
Longhurst, A. 2007. Ecological Geography of the Sea. Academic Press, Burlington, MA, 560 pp.
Luckhurst, B.E., and K. Luckhurst. 1977. Recruitment patterns of coral reef fishes on the fringing reef of Curacao, Netherlands Antilles. Canadian Journal of Zoology 55:681–689, https://doi.org/10.1139/z77-089.
Lurton, X., and G. Lamarche, eds. 2015. Backscatter measurement by seafloor-mapping sonars: Guidelines and recommendations. A collective report by members of the GeoHab Backscatter Working Group, 200 pp., http://geohab.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/BWSG-REPORT-MAY2015.pdf.
Martz, T.R., J.G. Connery, and K.S. Johnson. 2010. Testing the Honeywell Durafet® for seawater pH applications. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 8:172–184, https://doi.org/10.4319/lom.2010.8.172.
Mees, J., and M.B. Jones. 1997. The hyperbenthos. Oceanography and Marine Biology 35:221–256.
Micallef, A., S. Krastel, and A. Savini. 2018. Submarine Geomorphology. Springer, Heidelberg.
Mora, C., D.P. Tittensor, S. Adl, A.G.B. Simpson, and B. Worm. 2011. How many species are there on earth and in the ocean? PLoS Biology 9:e1001127, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001127.
Olson, P., E. Reynolds, L. Hinnov, and A. Goswami. 2016. Variation of ocean sediment thickness with crustal age. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 17:1,349–1,369, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GC006143.
Pakhomov, E., and O. Yamamura, eds. 2010. Report of the Advisory Panel on Micronekton Sampling Inter-calibration Experiment. PICES Scientific Report No. 38, 117 pp.
Pepper, R.E., J.S. Jaffe, E. Variano, and M.A.R. Koehl. 2015. Zooplankton in flowing water near benthic communities encounter rapidly fluctuating velocity gradients and accelerations. Marine Biology 162:1,939–1,954, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-015-2713-x.
Proud, R., M.J. Cox, and A.S. Brierley. 2017. Biogeography of the global ocean’s mesopelagic zone. Current Biology 27:113–119, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2016.11.003.
Proud, R., M.J. Cox, S. Wotherspoon, and A.S. Brierley. 2015. A method for identifying Sound Scattering Layers and extracting key characteristics. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 6:1,190–1,198, https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210X.12396.
Ramirez-Llodra, E.Z., A. Brandt, R. Danovaro, B. De Mol, E. Escobar, C.R. German, L.A. Levin, P. Martinez Arbizu, L. Menot, and P. Buhl-Mortensen. 2010. Deep, diverse and definitely different: Unique attributes of the world’s largest ecosystem. Biogeosciences 7:2,851–2,899, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-7-2851-2010.
Robison, B.H. 2004. Deep pelagic biology. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 300:253–272, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2004.01.012.
Robison, B.H., R.E. Sherlock, and K.R. Reisenbichler. 2010. The bathypelagic community of Monterey Canyon. Deep Sea Research Part II 57:1,551–1,556, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.02.021.
Rogers, A., A. Brierley, P. Croot, M. Cunha, R. Danovaro, C. Devey, A. Hoel, H. Ruhl, P.-M. Sarradin, S. Trevisanut, and others. 2015. Delving Deeper: Critical Challenges for 21st Century Deep-Sea Research. Position Paper 22, Marine Board-European Science Foundation, Oostende, 225 pp.
Simmonds, J., and D.N. MacLennan. 2005. Fisheries Acoustics: Theory and Practice. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 456 pp.
Sinniger, F., J. Pawlowski, S. Harii, A.J. Gooday, H. Yamamoto, P. Chevaldonné, T. Cedhagen, G. Carvalho, and S. Creer. 2016 Worldwide analysis of sedimentary DNA reveals major gaps in taxonomic knowledge of deep-sea benthos. Frontiers in Marine Science 3:92, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2016.00092.
Snelgrove, P.V.R., and C.R. Smith. 2002. A riot of species in an environmental calm: The paradox of the species-rich deep-sea floor. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 40:311–342, https://doi.org/10.1201/9780203180594.ch6.
Spengler, A., and M.F. Costa. 2008. Methods applied in studies of benthic marine debris. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56:226–230, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2007.09.040.
Sunagawa, S., L.P. Coelho, S. Chaffron, J.R. Kultima, K. Labadie, G. Salzar, B. Djahanschiri, G. Zeller, D.R. Mende, A. Alberti, and others. 2015. Structure and function of the global ocean microbiome. Science 348(6237), 1261359, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1261359.
St. John, M.A., A. Borja, G. Chust, M. Heath, I. Grigorov, P. Mariani, A.P. Martin, and R.S. Santos. 2016. A dark hole in our understanding of marine ecosystems and their services: Perspectives from the mesopelagic community. Frontiers in Marine Science 3:31, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2016.00031.
Sutton, T.T., M.R. Clark, D.C. Dunn, P.N. Halpin, A.D. Rogers, J. Guinotte, S.J. Bograd, M.V. Angel, J.A.A. Perez, K. Wishner, and others. 2017. A global biogeographic classification of the mesopelagic zone. Deep Sea Research Part I 126:85–102, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2017.05.006.
Thomson, R.E., and W.J. Emery. 2014. Data Analysis Methods in Physical Oceanography. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 654 pp.
Thurber, A.R., A.K. Sweetman, B.E. Narayanaswamy, D.O.B. Jones, J. Ingels, and R.L. Hansman. 2014. Ecosystem function and services provided by the deep sea. Biogeosciences 11:3,941–3,963, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-11-3941-2014.
Turner, J.A., R.C. Babcock, R. Hovey, and G.A. Kendrick. 2017. Deep thinking: A systematic review of mesophotic coral ecosystems. ICES Journal of Marine Science 9:2,309–2,320, https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsx085.
Turner, M.G., R.H. Gardner, and R.V. O’Neill. 2001. Landscape Ecology in Theory and Practice. Springer, New York, 406 pp.
Visbeck, M. 2002. Deep velocity profiling using lowered acoustic Doppler current profilers: Bottom track and inverse solutions. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 19:794–807, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0426(2002)019<0794:DVPULA>2.0.CO;2.
Williams, R., N. Kelly, O. Boebel, A.S. Friedlaender, H. Herr, K.-H. Kock, L.S. Lehnert, T. Maksym, J. Roberts, M. Scheidat, and others. 2014. Counting whales in a challenging, changing environment. Scientific Reports 4:4170, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep04170.
Witt, M.J., and B.J. Godley. 2007. A step towards seascape scale conservation: Using vessel monitoring systems (VMS) to map fishing activity. PLoS One 2:e1,111, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001111.
Woodall, L.C., C. Gwinnett, M. Packer, R.C. Thompson, L.F. Robinson, and G.L. Paterson. 2015. Using a forensic science approach to minimize environmental contamination and to identify microfibres in marine sediments. Marine Pollution Bulletin 95:40–46, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.04.044.
Wynn, R.B., V.A.I. Huvenne, T.P. Le Bas, B.J. Murton, D.P. Connelly, B.J. Bett, H.A. Ruhl, K.J. Morris, J. Peakall, and D.R. Parsons. 2014. Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs): Their past, present and future contributions to the advancement of marine geoscience. Marine Geology 352:451–468, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2014.03.012.
Yasué, M., L. Kaufman, and A. Vincent. 2010. Assessing ecological changes in and around marine reserves using community perceptions and biological surveys. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 20:407–418, https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.1090.
This is an open access article made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format as long as users cite the materials appropriately, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate the changes that were made to the original content. Images, animations, videos, or other third-party material used in articles are included in the Creative Commons license unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If the material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission directly from the license holder to reproduce the material.