Oceanography The Official Magazine of
The Oceanography Society
Volume 18 Issue 01

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Volume 18, No. 1
Pages 12 - 24


Women of the Academy and the Sea

By Suzanne O’Connell  and Mary Anne Holmes 
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First Paragraph

The oceans cover almost three-quarters of our planet, influencing food production, coastal erosion, sea-level rise, and natural disasters such as tsunamis and hurricanes. Those who study the oceans can be subdivided into four major fields: biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, physical oceanography, and geological oceanography (marine geology and geophysics). Although oceanography also includes ocean engineering, public policy, and coastal oceanography, these disciplines were not considered in this study because they are “non-traditional” and participation therein is more difficult to track.


O’Connell, S., and M.A. Holmes. 2005. Women of the academy and the sea. Oceanography 18(1):12–24, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2005.66.

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