Aller, R.C. 2014. Sedimentary diagenesis, depositional environments, and benthic fluxes. Pp. 293–334 in Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, Treatise on Geochemistry, 2nd ed., The Oceans and Marine Geochemistry, vol. 8. Elsevier, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-095975-7.00611-2.
Alvarez, L.W., W. Alvarez, F. Asaro, and H.V. Michel. 1980. Extraterrestrial cause for the Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction. Science 208:1,095–1,108, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.208.4448.1095.
Beerling, D.J., and D.L. Royer. 2011. Convergent Cenozoic CO2 history. Nature Geoscience 4:418–420, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo1186.
Berner, R.A. 1994. GEOCARB II: A revised model of atmospheric CO2 over Phanerozoic time. American Journal of Science 294:56–91, https://doi.org/10.2475/ajs.294.1.56.
Berner, R.A., and A. Kothavla. 2001. GEOCARB III: A revised model of atmospheric CO2 over Phanerozoic time. American Journal of Science 301:182–204, https://doi.org/10.2475/ajs.301.2.182.
Berner, R.A., A.C. Lasaga, and R.M. Garrels. 1983. The carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle and its effect on atmospheric carbon dioxide over the past 100 million years. American Journal of Science 283:641–683, https://doi.org/10.2475/ajs.283.7.641.
Bouihol, P., O. Jagoutz, J.M. Hanchar, and F.O. Dudas. 2013. Dating the India-Eurasia collision through arc magmatic records. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 366:163–175, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2013.01.023.
Brewster, N.A. 1980. Cenozoic biogenic silica sedimentation in the Antarctic Ocean. Geological Society of America Bulletin 6:337–347, https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1980)91<337:CBSSIT>2.0.CO;2.
Chamberlin, T.C. 1899. An attempt to frame a working hypothesis for the cause of glacial periods on an atmospheric basis. Journal of Geology 7:545–584, https://doi.org/10.1086/608449.
Chan, L.H., J.C. Alt, and D.A.H. Teagle. 2002. Lithium and lithium isotope profiles through the upper oceanic crust: A study of seawater-basalt exchange at ODP Sites 504B and 869A. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 201:187–201, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0012-821X(02)00707-0.
Chan, L.H., J.M. Edmond, G. Thompson, and K. Gillis. 1992. Lithium isotopic composition of submarine basalts: Implications for the lithium cycle in the oceans. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 108:151–160, https://doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(92)90067-6.
Chan, L.H., and M. Kastner. 2000. Lithium isotopic composition of pore fluids and sediments in the Costa Rica subduction zone: Implications for fluid processes and sediment contribution to the arc volcanoes. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 183:275–290, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0012-821X(00)00275-2.
Chan, L.H., W.P. Leeman, and T. Plank. 2006. Lithium isotopic composition of marine sediments. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 7, Q06005, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GC001202.
Coggon, R.M., D.A.H. Teagle, C.E. Smith-Duque, J.C. Alt, and M.J. Cooper. 2010. Reconstructing past seawater Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca from mid-ocean ridge flank calcium carbonate veins. Science 327:1,114–1,117, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1182252.
Courtillot, V.E., and P.R. Renne. 2003. On the ages of flood basalt events. Comptes Rendus Geoscience 335:113–140, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1631-0713(03)00006-3.
Decarreau, A., N. Vigier, H. Palkova, S. Petit, P. Vieillard, and C. Fontaine. 2012. Partitioning of lithium between smectite and solution: An experimental approach. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 85:314–325, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2012.02.018.
Edmond, J.M. 1992. Himalayan tectonics, weathering processes, and the strontium isotope record in marine limestones. Science 258:1,594–1,597, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.258.5088.1594.
Farrell, J.W., S.C. Clemens, and L.P. Gromet. 1995. Improved chronostratigraphic reference curve of late Neogene seawater 87Sr/86Sr. Geology 23:403–406, https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1995)023<0403:ICRCOL>2.3.CO;2.
Hathorne, E.C., and R.H. James. 2006. Temporal record of lithium in seawater: A tracer for silicate weathering? Earth and Planetary Science Letters 246:393–406, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2006.04.020.
Hay, W.W., E. Soeding, R.M. DeConto, and C.N. Wold. 2002. The Late Cenozoic uplift – climate change paradox. International Journal of Earth Sciences 91:746–774, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00531-002-0263-1.
Herman, F., D. Seward, P.G. Valla, A. Carter, B. Kohn, S.D. Willett, and T.A. Ehlers. 2013. Worldwide acceleration of mountain erosion under a cooler climate. Nature 19:423–426, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12877.
Hess, J., M.L. Bender, and J.G. Schilling. 1986. Evolution of the ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 in seawater from Cretaceous to present. Science 231:979–984, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.231.4741.979.
Hodell, D.A., G.D. Kamenov, E.C. Hathorne, J.C. Zachos, U. Röhl, and T. Westerhold. 2007. Variations in the strontium isotope composition of seawater during the Paleocene and early Eocene from ODP Leg 208 (Walvis Ridge). Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 8, Q09001, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GC001607.
Hodell, D.A., P.A. Mueller, and J.R. Garrido. 1991. Variations in the strontium isotopic composition of seawater during the Neogene. Geology 19:24–30, https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1991)019<0024:VITSIC>2.3.CO;2.
Holland, H.D. 1978. The Chemistry of the Atmosphere and Ocean. Wiley, New York, 369 pp.
Huh, Y., L.H. Chan, and J.M. Edmond. 2001. Lithium isotopes as a probe of weathering processes: Orinoco River. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 194:189–199, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0012-821X(01)00523-4.
Huh, Y., L.H. Chan, L. Zhang, and J.M. Edmond. 1998. Lithium and its isotopes in major world rivers: Implications for weathering and the oceanic budget. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 62:2,039–2,051, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7037(98)00126-4.
Kent, D.V., and G. Muttoni. 2008. Equatorial convergence of India and early Cenozoic climate trends. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105:16,065–16,070, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0805382105.
Kisakurek, B., R.H. James, and N.B.W. Harris. 2005. Li and δ7Li in Himalayan rivers: Proxies for silicate weathering? Earth and Planetary Science Letters 237:387–401, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2005.07.019.
Komar, N., R.E. Zeebe, and G.R. Dickens. 2013. Understanding long-term carbon cycle trends: The late Paleocene through the early Eocene. Paleoceanography 28, https://doi.org/10.1002/palo.20060.
Kurtz, A.C., L.R. Kump, M.A. Arthur, J.C. Zachos, and A. Paytan. 2003. Early Cenozoic decoupling of the global carbon and sulfur cycles. Paleoceanography 18, 1090, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003PA000908.
Lefebvre, V., Y. Donnadieu, Y. Gdderis, F. Fluteau, and L. Hubert-Theou. 2013. Was the Antarctic glaciation delayed by a high degassing rate during the early Cenozoic? Earth and Planetary Science Letters 371–372:203–211, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2013.03.049.
Li, G., and H. Elderfield. 2013. Evolution of carbon cycle over the past 100 million years. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 103:11–25, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2012.10.014.
Li, G., and J. West. In press. Increased continental weathering flux through the Cenozoic inferred from the lithium isotope evolution of seawater. Earth and Planetary Science Letters.
Mackenzie, F.T., and R.M. Garrels. 1966. Chemical mass balance between rivers and oceans. American Journal of Science 264:507–525, https://doi.org/10.2475/ajs.264.7.507.
Mackin, J.E. 1986. Control of dissolved Al distribution in marine sediments by clay reconstitution reactions: Experimental evidence leading to a unified theory. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 50:207–214, https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(86)90170-5.
Mackin, J.E., and R.C. Aller. 1989. The nearshore marine and estuarine chemistry of dissolved Aluminium and rapid authigenic mineral precipitation. Reviews in Aquatic Science 1:537–554.
Martin, E.E., and J.D. Macdougall. 1991. Seawater Sr isotopes at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 104:166–180, https://doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(91)90202-S.
Martin, E.E., and H.D. Scher. 2004. Preservation of seawater Sr and Nd isotopes in fossil fish teeth: Bad news and good news. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 220:25–39, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0012-821X(04)00030-5.
Martin, E.E., N.J. Shackleton, J.C. Zachos, and B.P. Flower. 1999. Orbitally-tuned Sr isotope chemostratigraphy for the late middle to late Miocene. Paleoceanography 14:74–83, https://doi.org/10.1029/1998PA900008.
Mead, G.A., and D.A. Hodell. 1995. Controls on the 87Sr/86Sr composition of seawater from the middle Eocene to Oligocene: Hole 689B, Maud Rise, Antarctica. Paleoceanography 10:327–327, https://doi.org/10.1029/94PA03069.
Michalopoulos, P., and R.C. Aller. 1995. Rapid clay mineral formation in Amazon delta sediments: Reverse weathering and oceanic elemental cycles. Science 270:614–616, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.270.5236.614.
Michalopoulos, P., and R.C. Aller. 2004. Early diagenesis of biogenic silica in the Amazon delta: Alteration, authigenic clay formation, and storage. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 68:1,061–1,085, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2003.07.018.
Michalopoulos, P., R.C. Aller, and R.J. Reeder. 2000. Conversion of diatoms to clays during early diagenesis in tropical continental shelf muds. Geology 28:1,095–1,098, https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(2000)28<1095:CODTCD>2.0.CO;2.
Miller, K.G., M.D. Feigenson, J.D. Wright, and B.M. Clement. 1991. Miocene isotope reference section, Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 608: An evaluation of isotope and biostratigraphic resolution. Paleoceanography 6:33–52, https://doi.org/10.1029/90PA01941.
Millot, R., N. Vigier, and J. Gaillardet. 2010. Behaviour of lithium and its isotopes during weathering in the Mackenzie Basin, Canada. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 74:3,897–3,912, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2010.04.025.
Misra, S., and P.N. Froelich. 2012. Lithium isotope history of Cenozoic seawater: Changes in silicate weathering and reverse weathering. Science 335:818–823, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1214697.
Molnar, P. 2004. Late Cenozoic increase in accumulation rates of terrestrial sediment. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Sciences 32:67–89, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.earth.32.091003.143456.
Pälike, H., M.W. Lyle, H. Nishi, I. Raffi, A. Ridgewell, K. Gamage, A. Klaus, G. Acton, L. Anderson, J. Backman, and others. 2012. A Cenozoic record of the equatorial Pacific carbonate compensation depth. Nature 488:609–614, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11360.
Palmer, M.R., and J.M. Edmond. 1989. The strontium isotope budget of the modern ocean. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 92:11–26, https://doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(89)90017-4.
Palmer, M.R., and J.M. Edmond. 1992. Controls over the strontium isotope composition of river water. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 56:2,099–2,111, https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(92)90332-D.
Peizhen, Z., P. Molnar, and W.R. Dowes. 2001. Increased sedimentation rates and grain sizes 2–4 Myr ago due to the influence of climate change on erosion rates. Nature 410:891–897, https://doi.org/10.1038/35073504.
Pogge von Strandmann, P.A.E., K.W. Burton, R.H. James, P. van Calsteren, and S.R. Gíslason. 2006. Riverine behaviour of uranium and lithium isotopes in an actively glaciated basaltic terrain. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 251:134–147, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2006.09.001.
Pogge von Strandmann, P.A.E., R.H. James, P. van Calsteren, and S.R. Gíslason. 2008. Lithium, magnesium and uranium isotope behaviour in the estuarine environment of basaltic islands. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 274:462–471, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2008.07.041.
Rausch, S., F. Bohm, W. Back, A. Kluget, and A. Eisenhauer. 2013. Calcium carbonate veins in ocean crust record a three-fold increase of seawater Mg/Ca in the past 30 million years. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 362:215–224, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2012.12.005.
Raymo, M.E. 1991. Geochemical evidence supporting T.C. Chamberlin’s theory of glaciation. Geology 19:344–347, https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1991)019<0344:GESTCC>2.3.CO;2.
Raymo, M.E., and W.F. Ruddiman. 1992. Tectonic forcing of late Cenozoic climate. Nature 359:117–122, https://doi.org/10.1038/359117a0.
Raymo, M.E., W.F. Ruddiman, and P.N. Froelich. 1988. Influence of late Cenozoic mountain building on ocean geochemical cycles. Geology 16:649–653, https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1988)016<0649:IOLCMB>2.3.CO;2.
Reagan, M.K., W.C. McClelland, G. Girard, K.R. Goff, D.W. Peate, Y. Ohara, and R.J. Stern. 2013. The geology of the southern Mariana fore-arc crust: Implications for the scale of Eocene volcanism in the western Pacific. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 380:41–51, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2013.08.013.
Rowley, D.B. 2002. Rate of plate creation and destruction: 180 Ma to present. Geological Society of America Bulletin 114:927–933, https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(2002)114<0927:ROPCAD>2.0.CO;2.
Ruddiman, W.F., M.E. Raymo, W.L. Prell, and J.E. Kutzback. 1997. The uplift-climate connections: A synthesis. Pp. 363–397 in Tectonic Uplift and Climate Change. W.F. Ruddiman, ed., Plenum, New York.
Sayles, F.L. 1979. The composition and diagenesis of interstitial solutions: Part I. Fluxes across the seawater-sediment interface in the Atlantic Ocean. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 43:527–545, https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(79)90163-7.
Sayles, F.L. 1981. The composition and diagenesis of interstitial solutions: Part II. Fluxes and diagenesis at the water-sediment interface in the high latitude North and South Atlantic. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 45:1,061–1,086, https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(81)90132-0.
Sluijs, A., S. Schouten, M. Pagani, M. Woltering, H. Brinkhuis, J.S. Sinninghe Damste, G.R. Dickens, M. Huber, G.-J. Reichart, R. Stein, and others. 2006. Subtropical Arctic Ocean temperatures during the Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum. Nature 441:610–613, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04668.
Sluijs, A., R.E. Zeebe, P.K. Bijl, and S.W. Bohaty. 2013. A middle Eocene carbon cycle conundrum. Nature Geoscience 6:429–434, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo1807.
Stallard, R.F., and J.M. Edmond. 1981. Geochemistry of the Amazon: Part 1. Precipitation chemistry and the marine contribution to the dissolved load at the time of peak discharge. Journal of Geophysical Research 86:9,844–9,858, https://doi.org/10.1029/JC086iC10p09844.
Stallard, R.F., and J.M. Edmond. 1983. Geochemistry of the Amazon: Part 2. The influence of geology and weathering environment on the dissolved load. Journal of Geophysical Research 88:9,671–9,688, https://doi.org/10.1029/JC088iC14p09671.
Stallard, R.F., and J.M. Edmond. 1987. Geochemistry of the Amazon: Part 3. Weathering chemistry and limits to dissolved inputs. Journal of Geophysical Research 92:8,293–8,302, https://doi.org/10.1029/JC092iC08p08293.
Stoffyn-Egli, P., and F.T. Mackenzie. 1984. Mass balance of dissolved lithium in the oceans. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 48:859–872, https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(84)90107-8.
Svensen, H., S. Planke, A. Maltke-Sorenssen, B. Jamtveit, T.R. Miltebest, and S.S. Eiden. 2004. Release of methane from a volcanic basin as a mechanism for initial Eocene global warming. Nature 429:542–545, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02566.
Urey, H.C., and S.A. Korff. 1952. The planets: Their origin and development. Physics Today 5:12.
Vigier, N., A. Decarreau, R. Millot, J. Carignan, S. Petit, and C. France-Lanord. 2006. Quantifying the isotopic fractionation of lithium during clay formation at various temperatures. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 70:A673, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2006.06.1258.
Vigier, N., A. Decarreau, R. Millot, J. Carignan, S. Petit, and C. France-Lanord. 2008. Quantifying Li isotope fractionation during smectite formation and implications for the Li cycle. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 72:780–792, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2007.11.011.
Vigier, N., S.R. Gislason, K.W. Burton, R. Millot, and F. Mokadem. 2009. The relationship between riverine lithium isotope composition and silicate weathering rates in Iceland. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 287:434–441, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2009.08.026.
Walker, J.C.G., P.B. Hays, and J.F. Kasting. 1981. A negative feedback mechanism for the long-term stabilization of Earth’s surface temperature. Journal of Geophysical Research 86:9,776–9,782, https://doi.org/10.1029/JC086iC10p09776.
West, A.J., A. Galy, and M. Bickle. 2005. Tectonic and climatic controls on silicate weathering. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 235:211–228, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2005.03.020.
Wimpenny, J., R.H. James, K.W. Burton, A. Gannou, F. Mokadem, and S.R. Gíslason. 2010. Glacial effects on weathering processes: New insights from the elemental and lithium isotopic composition of West Greenland rivers. Earth and Planetary Science Letter 290:427–437, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2009.12.042.
Zachos, J.C., G.R. Dickens, and R.E. Zeebe. 2008. An early Cenozoic perspective on greenhouse warming and carbon-cycle dynamics. Nature 451:279–283, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature06588.
Zachos, J.C., M. Pagani, L. Sloan, E. Thomas, and K. Billups. 2001. Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present. Science 292:686, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1059412.
Zachos, J.C., U. Rohl, S.A. Schellenberg, A. Sluijs, D.A. Hodell, D.C. Kelly, E. Thomas, M. Nicolo, I. Raffi, L.J. Lourens, and others. 2005. Rapid acidification of the ocean during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Science 308:1,611–1,615, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1109004.
Zeebe, R.E. 2013. What caused the long duration of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum? Paleoceanography 3:440–452, https://doi.org/10.1002/palo.20039.