Oceanography The Official Magazine of
The Oceanography Society
Volume 27 Issue 04

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Volume 27, No. 4
Pages 9 - 12


COMMENTARY • Recommended Practices for Integrating Education, Diversity, and Research: Five Lessons Learned from NSF Science and Technology Centers

By Barbara C. Bruno , Pamela Bligh-Glover , Sharnnia Artis , Cynthia Joseph , and Aimée Tabor 
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Over the last couple of decades, funding agencies have increased pressure on scientists to demonstrate that their research has some societal benefit. When the National Science Foundation established the Broader Impacts requirement (NSF, 1997) by merging two review criteria—utility or relevance of the project and its effect on the infrastructure of science and engineering—principal investigators largely ignored it (Lok, 2010). Then, in 2002, NSF began to return (without review) any proposal that didn’t explicitly address broader impacts (NSF, 2002).


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