Aitken, M., C. Haggett, and D. Rudolph. 2016. Practices and rationales of community engagement with wind farms: Awareness raising, consultation, empowerment. Planning Theory and Practice 17(4):557–576, https://doi.org/10.1080/14649357.2016.1218919.
Alexander, K.A., T. Potts, and T.A. Wilding. 2013a. Marine renewable energy and Scottish west coast fishers: Exploring impacts, opportunities and potential mitigation. Ocean & Coastal Management 75:1–10, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2013.01.005.
Alexander, K.A., T.A. Wilding, and J. Heymans. 2013b. Attitudes of Scottish fishers towards marine renewable energy. Marine Policy 37:239–244, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2012.05.005.
Barnes, J. 2020. Fishermen call for 4-nautical-mile lanes between offshore wind turbines. South Coast Today, January 7, 2020, https://www.southcoasttoday.com/news/20200107/fishermen-call-for-4-nautical-mile-lanes-between-offshore-wind-turbines.
Bates, A., and J. Firestone. 2015. A comparative assessment of offshore wind power demonstration projects in the United States. Energy Research & Social Science 10:192–205, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2015.07.007.
Bell, D., T. Gray, and C. Haggett. 2005. The ‘social gap’ in wind farm siting decisions: Explanations and policy responses. Environmental Politics 14(4):460–477, https://doi.org/10.1080/09644010500175833.
Bell, D., T. Gray, C. Haggett, and J. Swaffield. 2013. Re-visiting the ‘social gap’: Public opinion and relations of power in the local politics of wind energy. Environmental Politics 22(1):115–135, https://doi.org/10.1080/09644016.2013.755793.
Bergman, M.J.N., S.M. Ubels, G.C.A. Duineveld, and E.W.G. Meesters. 2015. Effects of a 5-year trawling ban on the local benthic community in a wind farm in the Dutch coastal zone. ICES Journal of Marine Science 71:1,088–1,099, https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsu193.
Bergström, L., L. Kautsky, T. Malm, R. Rosenberg, M. Wahlberg, and N. Åstrand Capetillo. 2014. Effects of offshore wind farms on marine wildlife—a generalized impact assessment. Environmental Research Letters 9:034012, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/9/3/034012.
Berkenhagen, J., R. Doring, H.O. Fock, M.H.F. Kloppmann, S.A. Pedersen, and T. Schulze. 2010. Decision bias in marine spatial planning of offshore wind farms: Problems of singular versus cumulative assessments of economic impacts on fisheries. Marine Policy 34:733–736, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2009.12.004.
Bidwell, D. 2013. The role of values in public beliefs and attitudes towards commercial wind energy. Energy Policy 58:189–199, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.03.010.
BOEM (Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, US Department of Interior). 2018. Permit, port, and fishery revenue analysis. Presentation delivered at the Intergovernmental Renewable Energy Task Force Meeting, https://www.boem.gov/sites/default/files/renewable-energy-program/State-Activities/NY/NMFS-NY-Press.pdf.
BOEM. 2020. Vineyard Wind 1 Offshore Wind Energy Project: Supplement to the Draft Environmental Impact Statement. 420 pp., https://www.boem.gov/sites/default/files/documents/renewable-energy/Vineyard-Wind-1-Supplement-to-EIS.pdf.
Brookfield, K., T. Gray, and J. Hatchard. 2005. The concept of fisheries-dependent communities: A comparative analysis of four UK case studies. Fisheries Research 72:55–69, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2004.10.010.
Chase, C. 2020. RODA request pause in offshore wind development amid COVID-19 pandemic. Seafood Source, April 15, 2020, https://www.seafoodsource.com/news/supply-trade/roda-request-pause-in-offshore-wind-development-amid-covid-19-pandemic.
Chen, J., H. Liu, C. Chuang, and H. Lu. 2015. The factors affecting stakeholders’ acceptance of offshore wind farms along the western coast of Taiwan: Evidence from stakeholders’ perceptions. Ocean & Coastal Management 109:40–50, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2015.02.012.
Coates, D.A., Y. Deschutter, M. Vincx, and J. Vanaverbeke. 2014. Enrichment and shifts in macrobenthic assemblages in an offshore wind farm area in the Belgian part of the North Sea. Marine Environmental Research 95:1–12, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2013.12.008.
Coates, D.A., D. Kapasakali, M. Vincx, and J. Vanaverbeke. 2016. Short-term effects of fishery exclusion in offshore wind farms on macrofaunal communities in the Belgian part of the North Sea. Fisheries Research 179:131–138, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2016.02.019.
Cresswell, T. 2014. Place: An Introduction. John Wiley & Sons, 232 pp.
Degraer, S., D.A. Carey, J.W.P. Coolen, Z.L. Hutchison, F. Kerckhof, B. Rumes, and J. Vanaverbeke. 2020. Offshore wind farm artificial reefs affect ecosystem structure and functioning: A synthesis. Oceanography 33(4):48–57, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2020.405.
de Groot, J., M. Campbell, M. Ashley, and L. Rodwell. 2014. Investigating the co-existence of fisheries and offshore renewable energy in the UK: Identification of a mitigation agenda for fishing effort displacement. Ocean Coastal Management 102:7–18, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2014.08.013.
De Mesel, I., F. Kerckhof, A. Norro, B. Rumes, and S. Degraer. 2015. Succession and seasonal dynamics of the epifauna community on offshore wind farm foundations and their role as stepping stones for non-indigenous species. Hydrobiologia 756:37–50, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-014-2157-1.
Devine-Wright, P. 2005. Beyond NIMBYism: Towards an integrated framework for understanding public perceptions of wind energy. Wind Energy 8:125–139, https://doi.org/10.1002/we.124.
Devine-Wright, P. 2009. Rethinking NIMBYism: The role of place attachment and place identity in explaining place-protective action. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology 19(6):426–441, https://doi.org/10.1002/casp.1004.
Dwyer, J., and D. Bidwell. 2019. Chains of trust: Energy justice, public engagement, and the first offshore wind farm in the United States. Energy Research & Social Science 47:166–176, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2018.08.019.
European Commission. 2019. Offshore wind and commercial fisheries. European Marine Spatial Planning Platform Conflict Fiche 5, https://www.msp-platform.eu/sector-information/offshore-wind-and-fisheries.
Fayram, A.H., and A. de Risi. 2007. The potential compatibility of offshore wind power and fisheries: An example using bluefin tuna in the Adriatic Sea. Ocean & Coastal Management 50:597–605, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2007.05.004.
Firestone, J., D. Bidwell, M. Gardner and L. Knapp. 2018a. Wind in the sails or choppy seas? People-place relations, aesthetics and public support for the United States’ first offshore wind project. Energy Research & Social Science 40:232–243, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2018.02.017.
Firestone, J., B. Hoen, J, Rand, D., Elliott, G. Hübner, and J. Pohl. 2018b. Reconsidering barriers to wind power projects: Community engagement, developer transparency and place. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning 20(3):370–386, https://doi.org/10.1080/1523908X.2017.1418656.
Firestone, J., C. Hirt, D. Bidwell, M. Gardner, and J. Dwyer. 2020. Faring well in offshore wind power siting? Trust, engagement and process fairness in the United States. Energy Research & Social Science 62:101393, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2019.101393.
FLOWW (Fishing Liaison with Offshore Wind and Wet Renewables Group). 2014. FLOWW Best Practice Guidance for Offshore Renewables Developments: Recommendations for Fisheries Liaison. 74 pp., https://www.sff.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/FLOWW-Best-Practice-Guidance-for-Offshore-Renewables-Developments-Jan-2014.pdf.
Friedman, R.S., E.A. Law, N.J. Bennett, C.D. Ives, J.P.R. Thorn, and K.A. Wilson. 2018. How just and just how? A systematic review of social equity in conservation research. Environmental Research Letters 13(5):053001, http://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aabcde.
Gimpel, A., V. Stelzenmüller, B. Grote, B.H. Buck, J. Floeter, I. Núñez-Riboni, B. Pogoda, and A. Temming. 2015. A GIS modelling framework to evaluate marine spatial planning scenarios: Co-location of offshore wind farms and aquaculture in the German EEZ. Marine Policy 55:102–115, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2015.01.012.
Gray, T., C. Haggett, and D. Bell. 2005. Offshore wind farms and commercial fisheries in the UK: A study in stakeholder consultation. Ethics, Place & Environment 8(2):127–140, https://doi.org/10.1080/13668790500237013.
Hall, D.M. and E.D. Lazarus. 2015. Deep waters: Lessons from community meetings about offshore wind resource development in the US. Marine Policy 57:9–17, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2015.03.004.
Haraldsson, M., A. Raoux, F. Riera, J. Hay, J.M. Dambacher, and N. Niquil. 2020. How to model social-ecological systems? A case study on the effects of a future offshore wind farm on the local society and ecosystem, and whether social compensation matters. Marine Policy 119:104031, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2020.104031.
Hooper, T., and M. Austen. 2014. The co-location of offshore wind farms and decapod fisheries in the UK: Constraints and opportunities. Marine Policy 43:295–300, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2013.06.011.
Hooper, T., M. Ashley, and M. Austen. 2015. Perceptions of fishers and developers on the co-location of offshore wind farms and decapod fisheries in the UK. Marine Policy 61:16–22, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2015.06.031.
Hooper, T., C. Hattam, and M. Austen. 2017. Recreational use of offshore wind farms: Experiences and opinions of sea anglers in the UK. Marine Policy 78:55–60, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2017.01.013.
Island Institute. 2009. Mapping Working Waters: Maine’s Commercial Fisheries. Available at https://www.islandinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/MWW_offshorefisheriespacket_july2012_rev2.pdf.
Jasanoff, S. 2018. Just transitions: A humble approach to global energy futures. Energy Research & Social Science 35:11–14, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2017.11.025.
Jenkins, K., D. McCauley, R. Heffron, H. Stephan, and R. Rehner. 2016. Energy justice: A conceptual review. Energy Research and Social Science 11:174–182, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2015.10.004.
Kafas, A. 2017. MUSES [Multi-Use in European Seas] Project Case Study 1A: Offshore Wind and Commercial Fisheries in the East Coast of Scotland. MUSES Deliverable: D.3.3, 38 pp., https://sites.dundee.ac.uk/muses/wp-content/
Kafas, A., A. McLay, M. Chimienti, B.E. Scott, I. Davies, and M. Gubbins. 2017. ScotMap: Participatory mapping of inshore fishing activity to inform marine spatial planning in Scotland. Marine Policy 79:8–18, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2017.01.009.
Kempton, W.P., J.P. Firestone, J. Lilley, T. Rouleau, and P. Whitaker. 2005. The offshore wind power debate: Views from Cape Cod. Coastal Management 33:119–149, https://doi.org/10.1080/08920750590917530.
Klain, S.C., T. Satterfield, S. MacDonald, N. Battista, and K.M.A. Chan. 2017. Will communities “open-up” to offshore wind? Lessons learned from New England islands in the United States. Energy Research & Social Science 34:13–26, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2017.05.009.
Krone, R., G. Dederer, P. Kanstinger, P. Krämer, C. Schneider, and I. Schmalenbach. 2017. Mobile demersal megafauna at common offshore wind turbine foundations in the German Bight (North Sea) two years after deployment: Increased production rate of Cancer pagurus. Marine Environmental Research 123:53–61, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2016.11.011.
Kularathna, A., S. Suda, K. Takagi, and S. Tabeta. 2019. Evaluation of co-existence options of marine renewable energy projects in Japan. Sustainability 11(10), https://doi.org/10.3390/su11102840.
Lacroix, D., and S. Pioch. 2011. The multi-use in wind farm projects: More conflicts or a win-win opportunity? Aquatic Living Resources 24:129–135, https://doi.org/10.1051/alr/2011135.
Lilley, M.B., J. Firestone, and W. Kempton. 2010. The effect of wind power installations on coastal tourism. Energies 3:1–22, https://doi.org/10.3390/en3010001.
Lipsky, A., and W. Gabriel. 2019. Co-existence of sustainable fisheries & offshore wind: Fisheries science and fisheries considerations. Paper presented at the Northeast Regional Ocean Council Ocean Planning Committee Meeting, June 4, 2019, Gloucester, Massachusetts, https://neoceanplanning.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/Lipsky_NEFSC_NROC_OPC.pdf.
Mackinson, S., H. Curtis, R. Brown, K. McTaggart, N. Taylor, S. Neville, and S. Rogers. 2006. A report on the perceptions of the fishing industry into the potential socio-economic impacts of offshore wind farms on their work patters and income. CEFAS Science Series Technical Report no.133, 62 pp., https://www.cefas.co.uk/publications/techrep/tech133.pdf.
Marine Management Organisation. 2020. UK Sea Fisheries Annual Statistics Report 2019. 62 pp., https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/uk-sea-fisheries-annual-statistics-report-2019.
Marine Scotland. 2011. Economic Assessment of Short-Term Options for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Costs and Benefits to Other Marine Users and Interests, https://www2.gov.scot/Publications/2011/03/22104736/8.
McCann, J., S. Schumann, G. Fugate, S. Kennedy, and C. Young. 2013. The Rhode Island Ocean Special Area Management Plan: Managing Ocean Resources through Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning. University of Rhode Island Coastal Resources Center/Rhode Island Sea Grant College Program, Narragansett, RI, 68 pp., http://www.crmc.ri.gov/samp_ocean/reports/Ocean_SAMP_Practioners_Guide.pdf.
McLachlan, C. 2009. ‘You don’t do a chemistry experiment in your best china’: Symbolic interpretations of place and technology in a wave energy case. Energy Policy 37(12):5,342–5,350, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2009.07.057.
Moura, S., A. Lipsky, and M. Morse. 2015. Options for Cooperation between Commercial Fishing and Offshore Wind Energy Industries: A Review of Relevant Tools and Best Practices. SeaPlan, New Bedford, Massachusetts,43 pp., https://www.openchannels.org/sites/default/files/literature/Options for Cooperation between Commercial Fishing and Offshore Wind Energy Industries - A Review of Relevant Tools and Best Practices.pdf.
Musial, W., D. Heimiller, P. Beiter, G. Scott, C. Draxl, 2016. Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment For the United States. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Report NREL/TP-5000-66599, 88 pp., https://doi.org/10.2172/1324533.
NOAA Fisheries. 2020a. Fisheries of the United States, 2018. US Department of Commerce, NOAA Current Fishery Statistics No. 2018, https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/national/commercial-fishing/fisheries-united-states-2018.
NOAA Fisheries. 2020b. Offshore Wind Energy Development in New England/Mid-Atlantic Waters, https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/content/offshore-wind-energy-development-new-england-mid-atlantic-waters.
NYSERDA (New York State Energy Research and Development Authority). 2020. New York State Offshore Wind Master Plan Table of Permits and Approvals. NYSERDA Report 17-25x, https://www.nyserda.ny.gov/All-Programs/Programs/Offshore-Wind/Focus-Areas/Permitting.
O’Keeffe, A., and C. Haggett. 2012. An investigation into the potential barriers facing the development of offshore wind energy in Scotland: Case study of the Firth of Forth wind farm. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16(65):3,711–3,721, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.03.018.
Pasqualetti, M.J. 2011. Opposing wind energy landscapes: A search for common cause. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 101:907–917, https://doi.org/10.1080/00045608.2011.568879.
Pita, C., I. Theodossiou, and G.J. Pierce. 2013. The perceptions of Scottish inshore fishers about marine protected areas. Marine Policy 37:254–263, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2012.05.007.
Reilly, K., A.M. O’Hagan, and G. Dalton. 2015. Attitudes and perceptions of fishermen on the island of Ireland towards the development of marine renewable energy projects. Marine Policy 58:88–97, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2015.04.001.
Reilly, K., A.M. O’Hagan, and G. Dalton. 2016. Moving from consultation to participation: A case study of the involvement of fishermen in decisions relating to marine renewable energy projects on the island of Ireland. Ocean & Coastal Management 134:30–40, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2016.09.030.
RODA (Responsible Offshore Development Alliance). 2020. Ocean Data Portals, https://rodafisheries.org/portfolio/ocean-data-portals/.
Roach, M., M. Cohen, R. Forster, A.S. Revill, and M. Johnson. 2018. The effects of temporary exclusion of activity due to wind farm construction on a lobster (Homarus gammarus) fishery suggests a potential management approach. ICES Journal of Marine Science 75(4):1,416–1,426, https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsy006.
Rudolph, D., C. Haggett, and M. Aitken. 2017. Community benefits from offshore renewables: The relationship between different understandings of impact, community, and benefit. Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space 36(1):92–117, https://doi.org/10.1177/2399654417699206.
Russell, A., J. Firestone, D., Bidwell, and M. Gardner. 2020. Place meaning and consistency with offshore wind: An island and coastal tale. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 132:110044, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2020.110044.
Samoteskul, K., J. Firestone, J. Corbett, and J. Callahan. 2014. Changing vessel routes could significantly reduce the cost of future offshore wind projects. Journal of Environmental Management 141:146–154, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.03.026.
Scottish Government. 2017. Scottish Energy Strategy: The Future of Energy in Scotland. 94 pp, https://www.gov.scot/publications/scottish-energy-strategy-future-energy-scotland-9781788515276/.
Shields, M.A., L.J. Dillon, D.K. Woolf, and A.T. Ford. 2009. Strategic priorities for assessing ecological impacts of marine renewable energy devices in the Pentland Firth (Scotland). Marine Policy 33:635–642, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2008.12.013.
Smythe, T.C., and J. McCann. 2019. Achieving integration in marine governance through marine spatial planning: Findings from practice in the United States. Ocean & Coastal Management 167:197–207, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2018.10.006.
Soma, K., and C. Haggett. 2015. Enhancing social acceptance in marine governance in Europe. Ocean & Coastal Management 117:61–69, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2015.11.001.
Sovacool, B.K. 2014. What are we doing here? Analysing 15 years of energy scholarship and proposing a social science research agenda. Energy Research and Social Science 1:1–29, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2014.02.003.
Stead, S.M. 2005. Changes in Scottish coastal fishing communities: Understanding socio-economic dynamics to aid management, planning and policy. Ocean and Coastal Management 48:670–692. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2005.08.001.
Stelzenmüller, V., R. Diekmann, F. Bastardie, T. Schulze, J. Berkenhagen, M. Kloppmann, G. Krause, B. Pogoda, B.H. Buck, and G. Kraus. 2016. Co-location of passive gear fisheries in offshore wind farms in the German EEZ of the North Sea: A first socio-economic scoping. Journal of Environmental Management 183:794–805, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.08.027.
St. Martin, K. and J. Olson. 2017. Creating space for community in marine conservation and management: Mapping “communities-at-sea.” Pp. 123–141 in Conservation for the Anthropocene Ocean. P.S. Levin and M.R. Poe, eds, Academic Press, London, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-805375-1.00007-6.
ten Brink, T., and T. Dalton. 2018. Perceptions of commercial and recreational fishers on the potential ecological impacts of the Block Island Wind Farm (US). Frontiers in Marine Science 5:439, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2018.00439.
UK Government (Department for Business, Energy, and Industrial Strategy). 2020. Policy Paper: Offshore Wind Sector Deal, https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/offshore-wind-sector-deal/offshore-wind-sector-deal.
Vandendriessche, S., J. Derweduwen, and K. Hostens. 2015. Equivocal effects of offshore wind farms in Belgium on soft substrate epibenthos and fish assemblages. Hydrobiologia 756:19–35, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-014-1997-z.
Weir, S., and S. Kerr. 2019. Property, power and planning: Attitudes to spatial enclosure in Scottish seas. Marine Policy 108:103633, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2019.103633.
Woods, B. 2019. US has only one offshore wind energy farm, but a $70 billion market is on the way. CNBC, December 13, 2019, https://www.cnbc.com/2019/12/13/us-has-only-one-offshore-wind-farm-but-thats-about-to-change.html.
Wright, G. 2016. Regulating wave and tidal energy: An industry perspective on the Scottish marine governance framework. Marine Policy 65:115–126, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2015.12.014.