Oceanography The Official Magazine of
The Oceanography Society
Volume 08 Issue 03

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Volume 08, No. 3
Pages 112 - 113


Multinational Oceanographic Cooperation

Muriel Cole
First Paragraph

“Without international cooperation, things would fall apart,” Ants Leetmaa told me recently, referring to the joint efforts of the U.S., Japan, Korea, and others in developing and maintaining the TOGA TAO Array. The extent to which international cooperation benefits us is not always obvious nor is how it works. There is an untold number of acronyms, groups, and programs, which sometimes overlap in purpose, providing healthy competition at best, redundancy at worst.


Cole, M. 1995. Multinational oceanographic cooperation. Oceanography 8(3):112–113, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.1995.14.

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