Oceanography The Official Magazine of
The Oceanography Society
Volume 27 Issue 04

View Issue TOC
Volume 27, No. 4
Pages 48 - 67

Jump to
Article Abstract Citation References Copyright & Usage
Article Abstract

Few fisheries oceanography surveys in the United States have sampled hydrography and ichthyoplankton or juvenile fishes for 15 years or more. We describe six long time series surveys, including three from the California Current System, and one each from Alaska (Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea, and the Arctic), the Northeast US Shelf, and the Gulf of Mexico. We examine the applications of long time series data as well as the output of published analyses, Web-based graphical summaries, and quality controlled data to the broader scientific community (including resource managers and stakeholders). Potential improvements to the surveys using new technologies are evaluated, and possible changes in survey design are discussed. We conclude with a summary of the benefits derived from these long time series fisheries oceanography surveys and make the case for their continuation.


McClatchie, S., J. Duffy-Anderson, J.C. Field, R. Goericke, D. Griffith, D.S. Hanisko, J.A. Hare, J. Lyczkowski-Shultz, W.T. Peterson, W. Watson, E.D. Weber, and G. Zapfe. 2014. Long time series in US fisheries oceanography. Oceanography 27(4):48–67, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2014.86.


Ainley, D.G., W.J. Sydeman, R.H. Parrish, and W.H. Lenarz. 1993. Oceanic factors influencing distribution of young rockfish (Sebastes) in central California: A predator’s perspective. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports 34:133–139.

Bacheler, N.M., L. Ciannelli, K.M. Bailey, and J.T. Duffy-Anderson. 2010. Spatial and temporal patterns of walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) spawning in the eastern Bering Sea inferred from egg and larval distributions. Fisheries Oceanography 19:107–120, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2419.2009.00531.x.

Bailey, K.M. 2000. Shifting control of recruitment of walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma after a major climatic and ecosystem change. Marine Ecology Progress Series 198:215–224, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps198215.

Bailey, K.M., L. Ciannelli, N.A. Bond, A. Belgrano, and N.C. Stenseth. 2005. Recruitment of walleye pollock in a physically and biologically complex ecosystem: A new perspective. Progress in Oceanography 67:24–42, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2005.06.001.

Begg, G.A., J.A. Hare, and D.D. Sheehan. 1999. The role of life history parameters as indicators of stock structure. Fisheries Research 43:141–163, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-7836(99)00071-5.

Bell, R.J., J.A. Hare, J.P. Manderson, and D.E. Richardson. 2014. Externally driven changes in the abundance of summer and winter flounder. ICES Journal of Marine Science, https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsu069.

Berner, L.D. 1960. Unusual features in the distribution of pelagic tunicates in 1957 and 1958. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports 7:133–135.

Beszczynska-Möller, A., and S.R. Dye, eds. 2013. ICES Report on Ocean Climate 2012. ICES Cooperative Research Report No. 321, 73 pp.

Bi, H., W. Peterson, and P. Strub. 2011. Transport and coastal zooplankton communities in the northern California Current system. Geophysical Research Letters 38, L12607, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL047927.

Bigelow, H.B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40:1–509.

Bjorkstedt, E., R. Goericke, S. McClatchie, E. Weber, W. Watson, N. Lo, W.T. Peterson, R.D. Brodeur, T. Auth, J. Fisher, and others. 2012. State of the California Current 2011–2012: Ecosystems respond to local forcing as La Niña wavers and wanes. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports 50:41–78.

Boeing, W.J., and J.T. Duffy-Anderson. 2008. Ichthyoplankton dynamics and biodiversity in the Gulf of Alaska: Responses to environmental change. Environmental Indicators 8:292–302, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2007.03.002.

Bograd, S.J., C.G. Castro, E. Di Lorenzo, D.M. Palacios, H. Bailey, W. Gilly, and F.P. Chavez. 2008. Oxygen declines and the shoaling of the hypoxic boundary in the California Current. Geophysical Research Letters 35, L12607, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL034185.

Braun-McNeill, J., C.R. Sasso, S.P. Epperly, and C. Rivero. 2008. Feasibility of using sea surface temperature imagery to mitigate cheloniid sea turtle–fishery interactions off the coast of northeastern USA. Endangered Species Research 5:257–266, https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00145.

Brinton, E. 1960. Changes in the distribution of the euphausiid crustaceans in the region of the California Current. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports 7:137–146.

Brinton, E., and A. Townsend. 2003. Decadal variability in abundances of the dominant euphausiid species in southern sectors of the California Current. Deep Sea Research Part II 50:2,449–24,72, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0645(03)00126-7.

Brodziak, J., and L. O’Brien. 2005. Do environmental factors affect recruits per spawner anomalies of New England groundfish? ICES Journal of Marine Science 62(7):1,394–1,407, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icesjms.2005.04.019.

Burke, B.J., W.T. Peterson, B.R. Beckman, C. Morgan, E.A. Daly, and M. Litz. 2013. Multivariate models of adult Pacific Salmon returns. PLOS ONE 8(1):e54134, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054134.

Busby, M.S., J.T. Duffy-Anderson, K.L. Mier, and L.G. De Forest. 2014. Spatial and temporal patterns in summer ichthyoplankton assemblages on the eastern Bering Sea shelf 1996–2007. Fisheries Oceanography 23:270–287, https://doi.org/10.1111/fog.12062.

Checkley, D. Jr., and M. Lindegren. 2014. Sea surface temperature variability at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography pier. Journal of Physical Oceanography, https://doi.org/10.1175/JPO-D-13-0237.1.

Chelton, D.B., P.A. Bernal, and J.A. McGowan. 1982. Large-scale interannual physical and biological interaction in the California Current. Journal of Marine Research 40:95–112.

Ciannelli, L., K.M. Bailey, K.-S. Chan, A. Belgrano, and N.C. Stenseth. 2005. Climate change causing phase transitions of walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) recruitment dynamics. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 272:1,735–1,743.

Clark, F.N., and J.C. Marr. 1955. Part II: Population dynamics of the Pacific sardine. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Progress Report 4:11–48.

Clarke, G., W.T. Edmondson, and W.E. Ricker. 1946. Dynamics of production in a marine area. Ecological Monographs 16:321–337.

Cowen, R.K., and C.M. Guigand. 2008. In situ Ichthyoplankton Imaging System (ISIIS): System design and preliminary results. Limnology and Oceanography Methods 6:126–132, https://doi.org/10.4319/lom.2008.6.126.

Daly, E., T. Auth, R. Brodeur, and W. Peterson. 2013. Winter ichthyoplankton biomass as a predictor of early summer prey fields and survival of juvenile salmon in the northern California Current. Marine Ecology Progress Series 484:203–217, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps10320.

Davis, C.S., S.M. Gallager, M. Marra, W.K. Stewart. 1996. Rapid visualization of plankton abundance and taxonomic composition using the Video Plankton Recorder. Deep Sea Research Part II 43:1,947–1,970, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0645(96)00051-3.

Di Lorenzo, E., N. Schneider, K. Cobb, P. Franks, K. Chhak, A. Miller, J. McWilliams, S. Bograd, H. Arango, E. Curchitser, and others. 2008. North Pacific Gyre Oscillation links ocean climate and ecosystem change. Geophysical Research Letters 35, L08607, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL032838.

Dougherty, A.B., Bailey, K.M., and K.L. Mier. 2007. Interannual differences in growth and hatch date distributions of age-0 walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma (Pallas) from the Shumagin Islands region of the Gulf of Alaska, 1985–2001. Journal of Fish Biology 71:763–780, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01543.x.

Doyle, M.J., and K.L. Mier. 2012. A new conceptual framework for evaluating the early ontogeny phase of recruitment processes among marine fish species. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 69:2,112–2,129, https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2012-0171.

Doyle, M.J., S.J. Picquelle, K.L. Mier, M.C. Spillane, and N.A. Bond. 2009. Larval fish abundance and physical forcing in the Gulf of Alaska, 1981–2003. Progress in Oceanography 80(3–4):163–187, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2009.03.002.

Duffy-Anderson, J.T., M.S. Busby, K.L. Mier, C.M. Deliyanides, and P.J. Stabeno. 2006. Spatial and temporal patterns in summer ichthyoplankton assemblages on the eastern Bering Sea shelf 1996–2000. Fisheries Oceanography 15(1):80–94, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2419.2005.00348.x.

EcoAP (Ecosystem Assessment Program). 2012. Ecosystem Status Report for the Northeast Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem–2011. US Department of Commerce, Northeast Fisheries Science Center Ref Doc. 12–07, 32 pp.

Edwards, M., G. Beaugrand, G.C. Hays, A.J. Koslow, and A.J. Richardson. 2010. Multi-decadal oceanic ecological datasets and their application in marine policy and management. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2:602–610, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2010.07.007.

Field, J.C. 2013. Status of Bocaccio, Sebastes paucispinis, in the Conception, Monterey and Eureka INPFC Areas as Evaluated for 2013. Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation, Pacific Fishery Management Council, Portland, OR, 79 pp.

Field, J.C., A.D. MacCall, R.W. Bradley, and W.J. Sydeman. 2010a. Estimating the impacts of fishing on dependant predators: A case study in the California Current. Ecological Applications 20:2,223–2,236, https://doi.org/10.1890/09-0428.1.

Field, J.C., A.D. MacCall, S. Ralston, M. Love, and E. Miller. 2010b. Bocaccionomics: The effectiveness of pre-recruit indices for assessment and management of bocaccio. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports 51:77–90.

Fogarty, M., L. Incze, K. Hayhoe, D. Mountain, and J. Manning. 2008. Potential climate change impacts on Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) off the northeastern USA. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 13:453–466, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-007-9131-4.

Francis, R.C., and S.R. Hare. 1994. Decadal-scale regime shifts in the large marine ecosystems of the North-east Pacific: A case for historical science. Fisheries Oceanography 3:279–291, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2419.1994.tb00105.x.

Gallaway, B.J., W.J. Gazey, J.G. Cole, and R.G. Fechhelm. 2007. Estimation of potential impacts from offshore liquefied natural gas terminals on red snapper and red drum fisheries in the Gulf of Mexico: An alternative approach. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 136:655–677, https://doi.org/10.1577/T06-062.1.

Gledhill, C.T., and J. Lyczkowski-Shultz. 2000. Indices of larval king mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla) abundance in the Gulf of Mexico for use in population assessments. Fishery Bulletin of the United States 98:684–691, http://fishbull.noaa.gov/984/03.pdf.

Greene, C.H., E.L. Meyer-Gutbrod, L.P. McGarry, L.C. Hufnagle Jr., D. Chu, S. McClatchie, A. Packer, J.-B. Jung, T. Acker, H. Dorn, and C. Pelkie. 2014. A Wave Glider approach to fisheries acoustics: Transforming how we monitor the nation’s commercial fisheries in the 21st century. Oceanography 27(4):168–174, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2014.82.

Greene, C.H., E. Meyer-Gutbrod, B.C. Monger, L.P. McGarry, A.J. Pershing, I.M. Belkin, P.S. Fratantoni, D.G. Mountain, R.S. Pickart, A. Proshutinsky, and others. 2013. Remote climate forcing of decadal-scale regime shifts in Northwest Atlantic shelf ecosystems. Limnology and Oceanography 58(3):803–816.

Greene, C.H., A.J. Pershing, T.M. Cronin, and N. Cecci. 2008. Arctic climate change and its impacts on the ecology of the North Atlantic. Ecology (suppl. 2008) 89:S24S38, https://doi.org/10.1890/07-0550.1.

Hanisko, D.S., and J. Lyczkowski-Shultz. 2003. Occurrence and pelagic habitat of reef fish larvae in the Gulf of Mexico. Pp. 205–224 in Fisheries, Reefs, and Offshore Development. D.R. Stanley and A. Scarborough-Bull, eds, American Fisheries Society, Symposium 36, Bethesda, MD.

Hanisko, D.S., J. Lyczkowski-Shultz, and G.W. Ingram. 2007. Indices of larval red snapper occurrence and abundance for use in stock assessment. Pp. 285–300 in Red Snapper Ecology and Fisheries in the US Gulf of Mexico. W.F. Patterson III, J.H. Cowan Jr., G.R. Fitzhugh, and D.L. Nieland, eds, American Fisheries Society Symposium 60, Bethesda, MD.

Hare, J.A., J.P. Manderson, J.A. Nye, M.A. Alexander, P.J. Auster, D.L. Borggaard, A.M. Capotondi, K.B. Damon-Randall, E. Heupel, I. Mateo, and others. 2012. Cusk (Brosme brosme) and climate change: Assessing the threat to a candidate marine fish species under the US Endangered Species Act. ICES Journal of Marine Science 69:1,753–1,768, https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fss160.

Hastie, J., and S. Ralston. 2007. Pre-Recruit Survey Workshop: Report to the Pacific Fishery Management Council. http://www.pcouncil.org/bb/2007/0407/E1b_NWFSC3_sup.pdf

He, X., D.E. Pearson, E.J. Dick, J.C. Field, S. Ralston, and A.D. MacCall. 2011. Status of the Widow Rockfish Resource in 2011. Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation, Pacific Fishery Management Council, Portland, OR, 317 pp.

Heintz, R.A., E.C. Siddon, E.V. Farley, and J.M. Napp. 2013. Correlation between recruitment and fall condition of age-0 pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) from the eastern Bering Sea under varying climate conditions. Deep-Sea Research Part II 94:150–156, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2013.04.006.

Hooff, R.C., and W.T. Peterson. 2006. Copepod biodiversity as an indicator of changes in ocean and climate conditions of the northern California current ecosystem. Limnology and Oceanography 51:2,607–2,620, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2006.51.6.2607.

Johnson, D.R., H.M. Perry, J. Lyczkowski-Shultz, and D.S. Hanisko. 2009. Red snapper larval transport in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 138:458–470, https://doi.org/10.1577/T08-008.1.

Jones, D.T., S.C. Steinssen, and A.L. McCarthy. 2014. Results of the Acoustic-Trawl Surveys of Walleye Pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) in the Gulf of Alaska, February-March 2013 (DY2013–02 and DY2013–03). AFSC Processed Report 2014-03, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, NOAA, NMFS, Seattle, WA, 81 pp.

Jossi, J.W., A.W.G. John, and D. Sameoto. 2003. Continuous plankton recorder sampling off the east coast of North America: History and status. Progress in Oceanography 58:313–325, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2003.08.010.

Kane, J. 2007. Zooplankton abundance trends on Georges Bank, 1977–2004. ICES Journal of Marine Science 64:909–919, https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsm066.

Karl, D.M. 2010. Oceanic ecosystem time-series programs: Ten lessons learned. Oceanography 23(3):104–125, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2010.27.

Karl, D.M., J.E. Dore, R. Lukas, A.F. Michaels, N.R. Bates, and A. Knap. 2001. Building the long-term picture: The US JGOFS time-series programs. Oceanography 14(4):6–17, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2001.02.

Karnauskas, M., M.J. Schirripa, C.R. Kelble, G.S. Cook, and J.K. Craig. 2013. Ecosystem Status Report for the Gulf of Mexico. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-653, Miami, FL, 52 pp.

Keister, J.E., E. Di Lorenzo, C.A. Morgan, V. Combes, and W.T. Peterson. 2011. Zooplankton species composition is linked to ocean transport in the northern California Current. Global Change Biology 17:2,498–2,511, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02383.x.

Knight, C.R. 2014. Taxonomy, diversity, and distribution patterns of portunid crab megalopae in the northern Gulf of Mexico during fall of 2003. MS Thesis, University of Southern Mississippi, 174 pp.

Koslow, A.J., and J. Couture. 2013. Follow the fish. Nature 502:163–164, http://www.nature.com/news/ocean-sciences-follow-the-fish-1.13886.

Koslow, A.J., and J. Couture. 2015. Pacific Ocean observation programs: Gaps in ecological time series. Marine Policy 51:408–414, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2014.09.003.

Koslow, A.J., R. Goericke, and W. Watson. 2013. Fish assemblages in the southern California Current: Relationships with climate, 1951–2008. Fisheries Oceanography 22:207–219, https://doi.org/10.1111/fog.12018.

Kramer, D., M.J. Kalin, E.G. Stevens, J.R. Thrailkill, and J.R. Zweifel. 1972. Collecting and Processing Data on Fish Eggs and Larvae in the California Current Region. NOAA Technical Report, NMFS Circular 370, La Jolla, CA, 38 pp.

Lasker, R., ed. 1985. An Egg Production Method for Estimating Spawning Biomass of Pelagic Fish: Application to Northern Anchovy, Engraulis mordax. US Department of Commerce, National Marine Fisheries Service, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, La Jolla, CA, NOAA Technical Report, NMFS 36, 105 pp.

Lee, R., W. Hagen, and G. Kattner. 2006. Lipid storage in marine zooplankton. Marine Ecology Progress Series 307:273–306, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps307273.

Lin, P., R. Ji, C.S. Davis, and D.J. McGillicuddy Jr. 2010. Optimizing plankton survey strategies using observing system simulation experiments. Journal of Marine Systems 82:187–194, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2010.05.005.

Lindegren, M., and D.M. Checkley Jr. 2013. Temperature dependence of Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) recruitment in the California Current Ecosystem revisited and revised. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 70:245–252, https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2012-0211.

Link, J., L. Col, V. Guida, D. Dow, J. O’Reilly, J. Green, W. Overholtz, D. Pelka, C. Legault, J. Vitaliano, and others. 2009. Response of balanced network models to large-scale perturbation: Implications for evaluating the role of small pelagics in the Gulf of Maine. Ecological Modelling 220:351–369, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2008.10.009.

Link, J.S., E.A. Fulton, and R.J. Gamble. 2010. The northeast US application of ATLANTIS: A full system model exploring marine ecosystem dynamics in a living marine resource management context. Progress in Oceanography 87(1):214–234, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2010.09.020.

Lo, N.C.H. 2007. Daily larval production of Pacific hake (Merluccius productus) off California in 1951–2006. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports 48:147–164.

Lo, N.C.H., E. Dorval, R. Funes-Rodríguez, M.E. Hernández-Rivas, Y. Huang, and Z. Fan. 2010. Utilities of larval densities of Pacific mackerel (Scomber japonicus) off California, USA and west coast of Mexico from 1951 to 2008, as spawning biomass indices. Ciencia Pesquera 18(2):59–75.

Lough, R.G. 2004. Essential Fish Habitat Source Document: Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua, Life History and Habitat Characteristics, 2nd ed. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NE 190, 104 pp.

Lyczkowski-Shultz, J., and D.S. Hanisko. 2007. A time series of observations on red snapper larvae from SEAMAP surveys, 1982–2003: Seasonal occurrence, distribution, abundance, and size. Pp. 3–23 in Red Snapper Ecology and Fisheries in the US Gulf of Mexico. W.F. Patterson III, J.H. Cowan Jr., G.R. Fitzhugh, and D.L. Nieland, eds, American Fisheries Society, Symposium 60, Bethesda, MD.

Lyczkowski-Shultz, J., D.S. Hanisko, K.J. Sulak, M. Konieczna, and P.J. Bond. 2013. Characterization of ichthyoplankton in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico from SEAMAP plankton surveys, 1982–1999. Gulf and Caribbean Research 25:43–98.

Lynch, P.D, J.A. Nye, J.A. Hare, C.A. Stock, M.A. Alexander, J.D. Scott, K.L. Curti, and K. Drew. 2014. Projected ocean warming creates a conservation challenge for river herring populations. ICES Journal of Marine Science, https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsu134.

Mantua, N.J., S.R. Hare, Y. Zhang, J.W. Wallace, and R.C. Francis. 1997. A Pacific interdecadal oscillation with impacts on salmon production. Bulletin of the American the Meteorological Society 78:1,069–1,079, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1997)078<1069:APICOW>2.0.CO;2.

Marancik, K.E., D.E. Richardson, J. Lyczkowski-Shultz, R.K. Cowen, and M. Konieczna. 2012. Spatial and temporal distribution of grouper larvae (Serranidae: Epinephelinae: Epinephelini) in the Gulf of Mexico and Straits of Florida. Fishery Bulletin of the United States 110:1–20, http://fishbull.noaa.gov/1101/marancik.pdf.

McClatchie, S. 2014. Regional Fisheries Ocean-ography of the California Current System: The CalCOFI Program. Springer, Dordrecht, 235 pp.

McClatchie, S., R. Goericke, R. Cosgrove, G. Auad, and R. Vetter. 2010. Oxygen in the Southern California Bight: Multidecadal trends and implications for demersal fisheries. Geophysical Research Letters 37, L19602, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL044497.

Megrey, B.A., A.B. Hollowed, S.R. Hare, S.A. Macklin, and P.J. Stabeno. 1996. Contributions of FOCI research to forecasts of year-class strength of walleye pollock in Shelikof Strait, Alaska. Fisheries Oceanography 5:189–203, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2419.1996.tb00092.x.

Meyer-Gutbrod, E.L., and C.H. Greene. 2014. Climate-associated regime shifts drive decadal-scale variability in recovery of North Atlantic right whale population. Oceanography 27(3):148–153, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2014.64.

Millett, A.F. 2010. Zooplankton communities in the northern Gulf of Mexico: Implications for ecosystem management. MS Thesis, University of South Alabama, 79 pp.

Mountain, D.G., and J. Kane. 2009. Major changes in the Georges Bank ecosystem, 1980s to the 1990s. Marine Ecology Progress Series 398:81–91, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps08323.

Muhling, B.A., J.T. Lamkin, and M.A. Roffer. 2010. Predicting the occurrence of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) larvae in the northern Gulf of Mexico: Building a classification model from archival data. Fisheries Oceanography 19:526–539, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2419.2010.00562.x.

Muhling, B.A., J.T. Lamkin, and W.J. Richards. 2012a. Decadal-scale responses of larval fish assemblages to multiple ecosystem processes in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Marine Ecology Progress Series 450:37–53, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps09540.

Muhling, B.A., M.A. Roffer, J.T. Lamkin, G.W. Ingram Jr., M.A. Upton, G. Gawlikowski, F. Muller-Karger, S. Habtes, and W.J. Richards. 2012b. Overlap between Atlantic bluefin tuna spawning grounds and observed Deepwater Horizon surface oil in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Marine Pollution Bulletin 64:679–687, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2012.01.034.

Murawski, S.A. 1993. Climate change and marine fish distributions: Forecasting from historical analogy. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 122:647–658, https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8659(1993)122<0647:CCAMFD>2.3.CO;2.

Nye, J.A., J.S. Link, J.A. Hare, and W.J. Overholz. 2009. Changing spatial distribution of fish stocks in relation to climate and population size on the Northeast United States continental shelf. Marine Ecology Progress Series 393:111–129, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps08220.

O’Brien, T.D., P.H. Wiebe, and T. Falkenhaug, eds. 2013. ICES Zooplankton Status Report 2010/2011. ICES Cooperative Research Report No. 318, 208 pp.

Ohman, M., and P. Smith. 1995. A comparison of zooplankton sampling methods in the CalCOFI time series. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports 36:153–158.

Ohman, M., and E. Venrick. 2003. CalCOFI in a changing ocean. Oceanography 16(3):76–85, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2003.34.

Olson, R.J., and H.M. Sosik. 2007. A submersible imaging-in-flow instrument to analyze nano-and microplankton: Imaging FlowCytobot. Limnology and Oceanography Methods 5:195–203, https://doi.org/10.4319/lom.2007.5.195.

Peterson, W.T., C.A. Morgan, J.O. Peterson, J.L. Fisher, B.J. Burke, and K. Fresh. 2013. Ocean Ecosystem Indicators of Salmon Marine Survival in the Northern California Current. http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/research/divisions/fe/estuarine/oeip/documents/Peterson_etal_2013.pdf.

Peterson, W.T., and F.B. Schwing. 2003. A new climate regime in Northeast Pacific ecosystems. Geophysical Research Letters 30, 1896, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003GL017528.

Petrik, C., J.T. Duffy-Anderson, F.J. Mueter, K. Hedstrom, and E. Curchitser. In press. Modeling the effect of climate variations on the transport and distribution of walleye pollock early life stages in the eastern Bering Sea. Progress in Oceanography.

Picquelle, S. and B. Megrey. 1993. A preliminary spawning biomass estimate for walleye pollock, Theragra chalcogramma, in the Shelikof Strait, Alaska, based on the annual egg production method. Bulletin of Marine Science 53:728–749.

Posgay, J.A., and R.R. Marak. 1980. The MARMAP bongo zooplankton samplers. Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Science 1:91–99, http://journal.nafo.int/J01/posgay.pdf.

Rago, P.J. 1984. Production forgone: An alternative method for assessing the consequences of fish entrainment and impingement losses at power plants and other water intakes. Ecological Modelling 24:79–111, https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3800(84)90056-5.

Ralston, S., J. Bence, E. Eldridge, and W. Lenarz. 2003. An approach to estimating rockfish biomass based on larval production with application to Sebastes jordani. Fishery Bulletin of the United States 101:129–146, http://fishbull.noaa.gov/1011/11ralsto.pdf.

Ralston, S., J.C. Field, and K.M. Sakuma. In press. Longterm variation in a Central California pelagic forage assemblage. Journal of Marine Systems, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2014.06.013.

Ralston, S., and B. MacFarlane. 2010. Population estimation of bocaccio (Sebastes paucispinis) based on larval production. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 67:1,005–1,020, https://doi.org/10.1139/F10-039.

Ralston, S., K.M. Sakuma, and J.C. Field. 2013. Interannual variation in pelagic juvenile rockfish abundance: Going with the flow. Fisheries Oceanography 22:288–308, https://doi.org/10.1111/fog.12022.

Ralston, S., and I. Stewart. 2013. Anomalous distributions of pelagic juvenile rockfish on the US West Coast in 2005 and 2006. California Cooperative Oceanic and Fisheries Investigations Reports 54:155–166.

Remsen, A., T. Hopkins, and S. Samson. 2004. What you see is not what you catch: A comparison of concurrently collected net, optical plankton counter, and shadowed image particle profiling evaluation recorder data from northeast Gulf of Mexico. Deep Sea Research Part I 51:129–151, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2003.09.008.

Rester, J.K. 2010. SEAMAP Environmental and Biological Atlas of the Gulf of Mexico, 2010. Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, Ocean Springs, MS, 84 pp.

Richards, W.J. 1987. MEXUS-Gulf ichthyoplankton research, 1977–84. Marine Fisheries Review 49:39–41, http://spo.nmfs.noaa.gov/mfr491/mfr4917.pdf.

Richards, W.J., ed. 2006. Early Stages of Atlantic Fishes: An Identification Guide for the Western Central North Atlantic. CRC Press, FL, 2,640 pp.

Richardson, D.E., J.A. Hare, W.J. Overholtz, and D.L. Johnson. 2010. Development of long-term larval indices for Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) on the northeast US continental shelf. ICES Journal of Marine Science 67:617–627, https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsp276.

Sakuma, K.M., E.P. Bjorkstedt, and S. Ralston. 2013. Distribution of pelagic juvenile rockfish (Sebastes spp.) in relation to temperature and fronts off central California. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports 54:167–179.

Sakuma, K.M., S. Ralston, and V.G. Wespestad. 2006. Interannual and spatial variation in the distribution of young-of-the-year rockfish (Sebastes spp.): Expanding and coordinating a survey sampling frame. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports 47:127–139.

Samson, S., T. Hopkins, A. Remsen, L. Langebrake, T. Sutton, and J. Patten. 2001. A system for high-resolution zooplankton imaging. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering 26:671–676, https://doi.org/10.1109/48.972110.

Santora, J.A., S. Ralston, and W.J. Sydeman. 2011. Spatial organization of krill and seabirds in the California Current. ICES Journal of Marine Science 68(7):1,391–1,402, https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsr046.

Santora, J.A., I.D. Schroeder, J.C. Field, B.K. Wells, and W.J. Sydeman. 2014. Spatio-temporal dynamics of ocean conditions and forage taxa reveals regional structuring of seabird-prey relationships. Ecological Applications 24:1,730–1,747, https://doi.org/10.1890/13-1605.1.

Schroeder, I.D., J.A. Santora, A.M., Moore, C.A. Edwards, J. Fiechter, E.L. Hazen, S.J. Bograd, J.C. Field, and B.K. Well. 2014. Application of a data-assimilative regional ocean modeling system for assessing California Current System ocean conditions, krill, and juvenile rockfish interannual variability. Geophysical Research Letters 41:5,942–5,950, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014GL061045.

Scott, G.P., S.C. Turner, C.B. Grimes, W.J. Richards, and E.B. Brothers. 1993. Indices of larval bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, abundance in the Gulf of Mexico: Modeling variability in growth, mortality, and gear selectivity. Bulletin of Marine Science 53:912–929.

Sette, O.E. 1943. Biology of the Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) of North America: Part I. Early life history, including growth, drift, and mortality of the egg and larval populations. Fishery Bulletin of the United States 50:149–237, http://www.nefsc.noaa.gov/publications/classics/sette1943/sette1943.pdf.

Sheffield Guy, L., J. Duffy-Anderson, A.C. Matarese, C.W. Mordy, J.M. Napp, and P.J. Stabeno. 2014. Understanding climate control of fisheries recruitment in the eastern Bering Sea: Long-term measurements and process studies. Oceanography 27(4):90–103, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2014.89.

Sherman, K., R. Lasker, W. Richards, and A.W. Kendall Jr. 1983. Ichthyoplankton and fish recruitment studies in large marine ecosystems. Marine Fisheries Review 45:1–25, http://spo.nmfs.noaa.gov/mfr4510-12/mfr4510-121.pdf.

Siddon, E.C., J.T. Duffy-Anderson, and F.J. Mueter. 2011. Community-level response of fish larvae to environmental variability in the southeastern Bering Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 426:225–239, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps09009.

Smart, T., J.T. Duffy-Anderson, and J. Horne. 2012. Alternating climate states influence walleye pollock life stages in the southeastern Bering Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 455:257–267, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps09619.

Smith, P.E., and S.L. Richardson, eds. 1977. Standard Techniques for Pelagic Fish Egg and Larva Surveys. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 175, Rome, 100 pp.

Soutar, A., and J. Isaacs. 1974. Abundance of pelagic fish during the 19th and 20th centuries as recorded in anaerobic sediment off the Californias. Fishery Bulletin of the United States 72:257–273, http://fishbull.noaa.gov/72-2/soutar.pdf.

Stuntz, W.E., C.E. Bryan, K. Savastano, R.S. Waller and P.A. Thompson. 1983. SEAMAP Environmental and Biological Atlas of the Gulf of Mexico, 1982. Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, Ocean Springs, MS, 145 pp.

Thayer, J.A., J.C. Field, and W.J. Sydeman. 2014. Changes in California Chinook salmon diet over the past 50 years: Relevance to the recent population crash. Marine Ecology Progress Series 498:249–261, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps10608.

Thayer, J.A., and W.J. Sydeman. 2007. Spatio-temporal variability in prey harvest and reproductive ecology of a piscivorous predator, Cerorhinca monocerata, in an upwelling system. Marine Ecology Progress Series 329:253–265, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps329253.

Todd, R.E., D. Rudnick, M. Mazloff, R. Davis, and B. Cornuelle. 2011. Poleward flows in the southern California Current System: Glider observations and numerical simulation. Journal of Geophysical Research 116, C02026, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JC006536.

Wells, B.K., J.A. Santora, J.C. Field, R.B. MacFarlane, B.B. Marinovic, and W.J. Sydeman. 2012. Population dynamics of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha relative to prey availability in the central California coastal region. Marine Ecology Progress Series 457:125–137, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps09727.

Wilson, M.T. 2009. Ecology of small midwater fishes in the western Gulf of Alaska: Part I. Geographic distribution in relation to prey density and hydrography. Marine Ecology Progress Series 392:223–237, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps08160.

Zador, S., ed. 2013. Ecosystem Considerations 2013. Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation Report, North Pacific Fisheries Management Council, Anchorage, AK, 236 pp.

Zwolinski, J.P., R.L. Emmett, and D.A. Demer. 2011. Predicting habitat to optimize sampling of Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax). ICES Journal of Marine Science 68:867–879, https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsr038.

Copyright & Usage

This is an open access article made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format as long as users cite the materials appropriately, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate the changes that were made to the original content. Images, animations, videos, or other third-party material used in articles are included in the Creative Commons license unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If the material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission directly from the license holder to reproduce the material.