The HYdrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment (HyMeX) Special Observing Period 2 (SOP2, January 27–March 15, 2013) was dedicated to the study of dense water formation in the Gulf of Lion in the northwestern Mediterranean. This paper outlines the deep convection of winter 2012–2013 and the meteorological conditions that produced it. Alternating phases of mixing and restratification are related to periods of high and low heat losses, respectively. High-resolution, realistic, three-dimensional models are essential for assessing the intricacy of buoyancy fluxes, horizontal advection, and convective processes. At the submesoscale, vertical velocities resulting from symmetric instabilities of the density front bounding the convection zone are crucial for ventilating the deep ocean. Finally, concomitant atmospheric and oceanic data extracted from the comprehensive SOP2 data set highlight the rapid, coupled evolution of oceanic and atmospheric boundary layer characteristics during a strong wind event.
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Volume 29, No. 4
Pages 196 - 206
HyMeX-SOP2: The Field Campaign Dedicated to Dense Water Formation in the Northwestern Mediterranean
By Claude Estournel , Pierre Testor, Isabelle Taupier-Letage, Marie-Noelle Bouin, Laurent Coppola , Pierre Durand, Pascal Conan, Anthony Bosse, Pierre-Etienne Brilouet, Laurent Beguery, Sophie Belamari, Karine Béranger, Jonathan Beuvier , Denis Bourras , Guylaine Canut, Alexis Doerenbecher, Xavier Durrieu de Madron, Fabrizio D’Ortenzio, Philippe Drobinski, Véronique Ducrocq, Nadia Fourrié, Hervé Giordani, Loïc Houpert, Laurent Labatut, Cindy Lebeaupin Brossier, Mathieu Nuret, Louis Prieur, Odile Roussot , Leo Seyfried, and Samuel Somot
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