By 2100, ocean waters are expected to be substantially warmer and more acidic than they are today, with profound effects on coupled social-ecological fisheries systems. Despite broad recognition of impacts from both anthropogenic climate change and natural climate variability, incorporating climate and acidification considerations into management approaches has been difficult. However, clear opportunities exist for fostering “climate-ready” fisheries management, as evidenced by emerging research and implementation experiences that we review here. Approaches now exist for integrating climate change and variability into monitoring, vulnerability assessments, stock assessments, spatial management, annual harvest limits, international agreements, and management of emerging fisheries. While uncertainty, limited understanding, and the increased complexity of these new considerations have delayed more widespread implementation to date, these factors do not change the reality of climate change impacts on living marine resources. We conclude that, despite ongoing research needs, fisheries management can substantially expand capacity to respond to a changing climate.
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