Oceanography The Official Magazine of
The Oceanography Society
Volume 27 Issue 04

View Issue TOC
Volume 27, No. 4
Pages 134 - 145

Derived Ocean Features for Dynamic Ocean Management

Alistair J. Hobday Jason R. Hartog
Article Abstract

Primary environmental variables, such as sea surface temperature, wind speed, and chlorophyll, have been used widely in a variety of studies by biological oceanographers to explore the relationship between “physics” and, say, distribution and abundance of marine organisms. Fisheries scientists in particular have explored a range of relationships between physics and catch data to understand fish distribution and fishing impacts. The explanatory power of models based on such primary variables is typically limited and may not lead to insight into mechanisms behind the environmental associations. Variables that are more direct measures of habitat, such as thermal fronts, upwelling zones, eddies, and water column descriptors (e.g., mixed layer depth), may yield additional explanatory power. We have developed a suite of these derived variables and demonstrate their utility using examples from Australian fisheries and marine spatial planning. Refinement and access to derived variables may be useful in a range of applications, including catch standardization, habitat prediction, ecosystem models, spatial management, and harvest strategies, and will play an important role in the emerging area of dynamic ocean management.

Citation

Hobday, A.J., and J.R. Hartog. 2014. Derived ocean features for dynamic ocean management. Oceanography 27(4):134–145, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2014.92.

References

Alheit, J., and M. Niquen. 2004. Regime shifts in the Humboldt Current ecosystem. Progress in Oceanography 60:201–222, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2004.02.006.

Alpine, J.E., and A.J. Hobday. 2007. Area requirements and pelagic protected areas: Is size an impediment to implementation? Marine and Freshwater Research 58: 558–569, https://doi.org/10.1071/MF06214.

Bakun, A. 1973. Coastal upwelling indices, west coast of North America, 1946–71. NOAA Technical Report NMFS SSRF-671:1–13.

Bakun, A. 2006. Fronts and eddies as key structures in the habitat of marine fish larvae: Opportunity, adaptive response and competitive advantage. Scientia Marina 70:105–122.

Ban, N., N.J. Bax, K.M. Gjerde, R. Devillers, D.C. Dunn, P.K. Dunstan, A.J. Hobday, S.M. Maxwell, D.M. Kaplan, R.L. Pressey, and others. 2014. Systematic conservation planning: A better recipe for managing the high seas for biodiversity conservation and sustainable use. Conservation Letters 7:41–54, https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12010.

Basson, M. 1999. The importance of environmental factors in the design of management procedures. ICES Journal of Marine Science 56:933–942, https://doi.org/10.1006/jmsc.1999.0541.

Behrenfeld, M.J., and P. Falkowski. 1997. Photosynthetic rates derived from satellite-based chlorophyll concentration. Limnology and Oceanography 42:1–20, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1997.42.1.0001.

Bernal, M., Y. Stratoudakis, S. Coombs, M.M. Angelico, A. Lago de Lanzós, C. Porteiro, Y. Sagarminaga, M. Santos, Á. Uriarte, E. Cunha, L. Valdés, and D. Borchers. 2007. Sardine spawning off the European Atlantic coast: Characterization of and spatio-temporal variability in spawning habitat. Progress in Oceanography 74:210–227, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2007.04.018.

Bigelow, K.A., C.H. Boggs, and X. He. 1999. Environmental effects on swordfish and blue shark catch rates in the US North Pacific longline fishery. Fisheries Oceanography 8:178–198, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2419.1999.00105.x.

Bigelow, K.A., and M.N. Maunder. 2007. Does habitat or depth influence catch rates of pelagic species? Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 64:1,581–1,594, https://doi.org/10.1139/f07-115.

Bost, C.-A., C. Cotte, F. Baileul, Y. Cherel, J.-B. Charrassin, C. Guinet, D.G. Ainley, and H. Weimerskirch. 2009. The importance of oceanographic fronts to marine birds and mammals of the southern oceans. Journal of Marine Systems 78:363–376, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.11.022.

Campbell, R., and J. Young. 2012. Monitoring the behaviour of longline gears and the depth and time of fish capture in the Australian Eastern Tuna and Billfish Fishery. Fisheries Research 119–120:48–65, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2011.12.006.

Cayula, J.-F., and P. Cornillon. 1990. Edge detection applied to SST fields. Digital Image Processing and Visual Communication Technologies in the Earth and Atmospheric Sciences 1,301:13–24, https://doi.org/10.1117/12.21410.

Cayula, J.-F., and P. Cornillon. 1992. Edge detection algorithm for SST images. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 9:67–80, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0426(1992)009<0067:EDAFSI>2.0.CO;2.

Cayula, J.-F., and P. Cornillon. 1995. Multi-image edge detection for SST images. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 12:821–829, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0426(1995)012<0821:MIEDFS>2.0.CO;2.

Chelton, D.B., M.G. Schlax, and R.M. Samelson. 2011. Global observations of nonlinear mesoscale eddies. Progress in Oceanography 91:167–216, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2011.01.002.

Condie, S.A., and J.R. Dunn. 2006. Seasonal characteristics of the surface mixed layer in the Australasian region: Implications for primary production regimes and biogeography. Marine and Freshwater Research 57:569–590, https://doi.org/10.1071/MF06009.

Condie, S.A., J.V. Mansbridge, and M.L. Cahill. 2011. Contrasting local retention and cross-shore transports of the East Australian Current and the Leeuwin Current and their relative influences on the life histories of small pelagic fishes. Deep Sea Research Part II 58:606–616, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.06.003.

Cury, P., A. Bakun, R.J.M. Crawford, A. Jarre, R.A. Quiñones, L.J. Shannon, and H.M. Verheye. 2000. Small pelagics in upwelling systems: Patterns of interaction and structural changes in “wasp-waist” ecosystems. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57:603–618, https://doi.org/10.1006/jmsc.2000.0712.

Cury, P., and C. Roy. 1989. Optimal environmental window and pelagic fish recruitment success in upwelling areas. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 46:670–680, https://doi.org/10.1139/f89-086.

Dambacher, J.M., G.R. Hosack, and W.A. Rochester. 2012. Ecological Indicators for the Exclusive Economic Zone of Australia’s East Marine Region. Technical report prepared for the Australian Government Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, CSIRO Wealth from Oceans Flagship, Hobart, 125 pp.

Dell, J., C. Wilcox, and A.J. Hobday. 2011. Estimation of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) habitat in waters adjacent to Australia’s East Coast: Making the most of commercial catch data. Fisheries Oceanography 20:383–396, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2419.2011.00591.x.

Dell, J.T., C. Wilcox, R.J. Matear, M.A. Chamberlain, and A.J. Hobday. 2014. Potential impacts of climate change on the distribution of longline catches of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) in the Tasman Sea. Deep Sea Research Part II, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2014.07.002

Dunn, D.C., J. Ardron, N. Bax, P. Bernal, J. Cleary, I. Cresswell, B. Donnelly, P.K. Dunstan, K. Gjerde, D. Johnson, and others. 2014. The convention on biological diversity’s ecologically or biologically significant areas: Origins, development, and current status. Marine Policy 49:137–145, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2013.12.002.

Dunn, D.C., A.M. Boustany, and P.N. Halpin. 2011. Spatio-temporal management of fisheries to reduce by-catch and increase fishing selectivity. Fish and Fisheries 12:110–119, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2979.2010.00388.x.

Dunstan, P., and M. Fuller. 2012. Data to inform the CBD Southern Indian Ocean Regional Workshop to Facilitate the Description of Ecologically or Biologically Significant Marine Areas. Document UNEP/CBD/RW/EBSA/SIO/1/2 (16 July 2012). Available from http://www.cbd.int/doc/meetings/mar/ebsa-sio-01/official/ebsa-sio-01-02-en.pdf.

Everett, J.D., M.E. Baird, P.R. Oke, and I.M. Suthers. 2012. An avenue of eddies: Quantifying the biophysical properties of mesoscale eddies in the Tasman Sea. Geophysical Research Letters 39, L16608, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL053091.

Faure, V., C.A. Inejih, H. Demarcq, and P. Cury. 2000. The importance of retention processes in upwelling areas for recruitment of Octopus vulgaris: The example of the Arguin Bank (Mauritania). Fisheries Oceanography 9:343–355, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2419.2000.00149.x.

Franks, P.J.S. 1992. Sink or swim: Accumulation of biomass at fronts. Marine Ecology Progress Series 82:1–12, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps082001.

Gaughan, D.J. 2007. Potential mechanisms of influence of the Leeuwin Current eddy system on teleost recruitment to the Western Australian continental shelf. Deep-Sea Research Part II 54:1,129–1,140, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2006.06.005.

Gershwin, L.-a., S.A. Condie, J.V. Mansbridge, and A.J. Richardson. 2014. Dangerous jellyfish blooms are predictable. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:20131168, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2013.1168.

Gill, P. 2002. A blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) feeding ground in a southern Australian coastal upwelling zone. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 4:179–184.

Gjerde, K.M., D. Currie, K. Wowk, and K. Sack. 2013. Ocean in peril: Reforming the management of global ocean living resources in areas beyond national jurisdiction. Marine Pollution Bulletin 74:540–551, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.07.037.

Graham, B.S., D. Grubbs, K. Holland, and B.N. Popp. 2007. A rapid ontogenetic shift in the diet of juvenile yellowfin tuna from Hawaii. Marine Biology 150:647–658, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-006-0360-y.

Grantham, H.S., E.T. Game, A.T. Lombard, A.J. Hobday, A.J. Richardson, L.E. Beckley, R.L. Pressey, J.A. Huggett, J.C. Coetzee, C.D. van der Lingen, and others. 2011. Accommodating dynamic oceanographic processes and pelagic biodiversity in marine conservation planning. PLoS ONE 6(2):e16552, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016552.

Handegard, N.O., L. du Buisson, P. Brehmer, S.J. Chalmers, A. De Robertis, G. Huse, R. Kloser, G. Macaulay, O. Maury, P.H. Ressler, and others. 2013. Towards an acoustic-based coupled observation and modelling system for monitoring and predicting ecosystem dynamics of the open ocean. Fish and Fisheries 14:605–615, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2979.2012.00480.x.

Hartog, J., A.J. Hobday, R. Matear, and M. Feng. 2011. Habitat overlap of southern bluefin tuna and yellowfin tuna in the east coast longline fishery: Implications for present and future spatial management. Deep Sea Research Part II 58:746–752, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.06.005.

Hayes, K.R., J.M. Dambacher, V. Lyne, R. Sharples, W.A. Rochester, L.X.C. Dutra, and R. Smith. 2012. Ecological Indicators for Australia’s Exclusive Economic Zone: Rationale and Approach with Application to the South West Marine Region. A report prepared for the Australian Government Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, CSIRO Wealth from Oceans Flagship, Hobart, 219 pp.

Hazen, E.L., S.J. Jorgensen, R.R. Rykaczewski, S.J. Bograd, D.G. Foley, I.D. Jonsen, S.A. Shaffer, J.P. Dunne, D.P. Costa, L.B. Crowder, and B.A. Block. 2013. Predicted habitat shifts of Pacific top predators in a changing climate. Nature Climate Change 3:234–238, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1686.

Henson, S.A., and A.C. Thomas. 2008. A census of oceanic anticyclonic eddies in the Gulf of Alaska. Deep Sea Research Part I 55:163–176, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2007.11.005.

Herron, R.C., T.D. Leming, and J. Li. 1989. Satellite-detected fronts and butterfly fish aggregations in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Continental Shelf Research 9:569–589, https://doi.org/10.1016/0278-4343(89)90022-8.

Hjort, J. 1914. Fluctuations in the great fisheries of northern Europe, viewed in the light of biological research. Rapports et Procès-Verbaux des Réunions du Conseil Permanent International pour l’Exploration de la Mer 20:1–228.

Hobday, A.J. 2011. Sliding baselines and shuffling species: Implications of climate change for marine conservation. Marine Ecology 32:392–403, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0485.2011.00459.x.

Hobday, A.J., J.D. Bell, T.R. Cook, M.A. Gasalla, and K.C. Weng. In press. Reconciling conflicts in pelagic fisheries under climate change. Deep Sea Research Part II.

Hobday, A.J., and K. Hartmann. 2006. Near real-time spatial management based on habitat predictions for a longline bycatch species. Fisheries Management & Ecology 13:365–380, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2400.2006.00515.x.

Hobday, A.J., S.M. Maxwell, J. Forgie, J. McDonald, M. Darby, K. Seto, H. Bailey, S.J. Bograd, D.K. Briscoe, D.P. Costa, and others. 2014. Dynamic ocean management: Integrating scientific and technological capacity with law, policy and management. Stanford Environmental Law Journal 33:125–165.

Hosack, G.R., and J.M. Dambacher. 2012. Ecological Indicators for the Exclusive Economic Zone of Australia’s South East Marine Region. A report prepared for the Australian Government Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, CSIRO Wealth from Oceans Flagship, Hobart, 81 pp.

Howell, E.A., D.R. Kobayashi, D.M. Parker, G.H. Balazs, and J.J. Polovina. 2008. TurtleWatch: A tool to aid in the bycatch reduction of loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta in the Hawaii-based pelagic longline fishery. Endangered Species Research 5:267–278, http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/esr/v5/n2-3/p267-278.

Hsieh, W.W., D.M. Ware, and R.E. Thomson. 1995. Wind-induced upwelling along the west coast of North America, 1899–1988. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 52:325–334, https://doi.org/10.1139/f95-033.

Hyrenbach, K.D., K.A. Forney and P.K. Dayton. 2000. Marine Protected Areas and ocean basin management. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 10:437–458, https://doi.org/10.1002/1099-0755(200011/12)10:6<437::AID-AQC425>3.0.CO;2-Q.

Kara, A.B., P.A. Rochford, and H.E. Hurlburt. 2000. An optimal definition for ocean mixed layer depth. Journal of Geophysical Research 105(C7):16,803–16,821, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JC900072.

Kloser, R.J., T.E. Ryan, J.W. Young, and M.E. Lewis. 2009. Acoustic observations of micronekton fish on the scale of an ocean basin: Potential and challenges. ICES Journal of Marine Science 66:998–1,006, https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsp077.

Koslow, J.A., A.J. Hobday, and G.W. Boehlert. 2002. Climate variability and marine survival of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in the Oregon Production Area. Fisheries Oceanography 11:65–77, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2419.2002.00187.x.

Lehodey, P., R. Murtugudde, and I. Senina. 2010. Bridging the gap from ocean models to population dynamics of large marine predators: A model of mid-trophic functional groups. Progress in Oceanography 84:69–84, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2009.09.008.

Logerwell, E.A., and P.E. Smith. 2001. Mesoscale eddies and survival of late stage Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) larvae. Fisheries Oceanography 10:13–25, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2419.2001.00152.x.

Luschi, P., G.C. Hays, and F. Papi. 2003. A review of long-distance movements by marine turtles, and the possible role of ocean currents. Oikos 103:293–302.

Maury, O., K. Miller, L. Campling, H. Arrizabalaga, O. Aumont, O. Bodin, P. Guillotreau, A.J. Hobday, F. Marsac, Z. Suzuki, and R. Murtugudde. 2013. A global science-policy partnership for progress towards sustainability of oceanic ecosystems and fisheries. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 5:314–319, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2013.05.008.

Merrie, A., D.C. Dunn, M. Metian, A.M. Boustany, Y. Takei, A.O. Elferink, Y. Ota, V. Christensen, P.N. Halpin, and H. Osterblom. 2014. An ocean of surprises: Trends in human use, unexpected dynamics and governance challenges in areas beyond national jurisdiction. Global Environmental Change 27:19–31, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.04.012.

Miller, P.I. 2009. Composite front maps for improved visibility of dynamic sea-surface features on cloudy SeaWiFS and AVHRR data. Journal of Marine Systems 78:327–336, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.11.019.

Morgan, L.E., S.R. Wing, L.W. Botsford, C.J. Lundquist, and J.M. Diehl. 2000. Spatial variability in red sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus franciscanus) recruitment in northern California. Fisheries Oceanography 9:83–98, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2419.2000.00124.x.

Myers, R.A. 1998. When do environment-recruitment correlations work? Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 8:285–305, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008828730759.

Nieblas, A.E., B.M. Sloyan, A.J. Hobday, R. Coleman, and A.J. Richardson. 2009. Variability of biological production in low wind-forced regional upwelling systems: A case study off southeastern Australia. Limnology and Oceanography 54:1,548–1,558, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2009.54.5.1548.

Oke, P.R., G.B. Brassington, D.A. Griffin, and A. Schiller. 2008. The Bluelink ocean data assimilation system (BODAS). Ocean Modelling 21:46–70, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2007.11.002.

Palacios, D.M., S.J. Bograd, D.G. Foley, and F.B. Schwing. 2006. Oceanographic characteristics of biological hot spots in the North Pacific: A remote sensing perspective. Deep Sea Research Part II 53:250–269, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2006.03.004.

Podestá, G.P., J.A. Browder, and J.J. Hoey. 1993. Exploring the association between swordfish catch rates and thermal fronts on US longline grounds in the western North Atlantic. Continental Shelf Research 13:253–277, https://doi.org/10.1016/0278-4343(93)90109-B.

Polovina, J.J., D.R. Kobayashi, D.M. Parker, M.P. Seki, and G.H. Balzas. 2000. Turtles on the edge: Movement of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) along oceanic fronts, spanning longline fishing grounds in the central North Pacific, 1997–1998. Fisheries Oceanography 9:71–82, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2419.2000.00123.x.

Ritz, D., A.J. Hobday, J. Montgomery, and A. Ward. 2011. Social aggregation in the pelagic zone with special reference to fish and invertebrates. Advances in Marine Biology 60:161–227, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-385529-9.00004-4.

Royer, F., J.M. Fromentin, and P. Gaspar. 2004. Association between bluefin tuna schools and oceanic features in the western Mediterranean. Marine Ecology Progress Series 269:249–263, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps269249.

Roughgarden, J., S. Gaines, and H. Possingham. 1988. Recruitment dynamics in complex life cycles. Science 241:1,460–1,466, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.11538249.

Schaefer, K.M., and D.W. Fuller. 2003. Movements, behavior, and habitat selection of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obsesus) in the eastern equatorial Pacific, ascertained through archival tags. Fishery Bulletin 100:765–788, http://fishbull.noaa.gov/1004/11schaef.pdf.

Schick, R.S., and M.E. Lutcavage. 2009. Inclusion of prey data improves prediction of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) distribution. Fisheries Oceanography 18(1):77–81, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2419.2008.00499.x/abstract.

Shillinger, G.L., D.M. Palacios, H. Bailey, S.J. Bograd, A.M. Swithenbank, P. Gaspar, B.P. Wallace, J.R. Spotila, F.V. Paladino, R. Piedra, and others. 2008. Persistent leatherback turtle migrations present opportunities for conservation. PloS Biology 6(7):e171, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060171.

Sournia, A. 1994. Pelagic biogeography and fronts. Progress in Oceanography 34:109–120, https://doi.org/10.1016/0079-6611(94)90004-3.

Stock, C.A., M.A. Alexander, N.A. Bond, K.M. Brander, W.W.L. Cheung, E.N. Curchitser, T.L. Delworth, J.P. Dunne, S.M. Griffies, M.A. Haltuch, and others. 2011. On the use of IPCC-class models to assess the impact of climate on Living Marine Resources. Progress in Oceanography 88:1–27, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2010.09.001.

Stramma, L., E.D. Prince, S. Schmidtko, J. Luo, J.P. Hoolihan, M. Visbeck, D.R. Wallace, P. Brandt, and A. Körtzinger. 2011. Expansion of oxygen minimum zones may reduce available habitat for tropical pelagic fishes. Nature Climate Change 2:33–37, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1304.

Sun, C., M. Feng, R. Matear, M.A. Chamberlain, P. Craig, K. Ridgway, and A. Schiller. 2012. Marine downscaling of a future climate scenario for Australian boundary currents. Journal of Climate 25:2,947–2,962, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00159.1.

Teo, S.L.H., A.M. Boustany, and B.A. Block. 2007. Oceanographic preferences of Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, on their Gulf of Mexico breeding grounds. Marine Biology 152:1,105–1,119, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-007-0758-1.

Tew Kai, E., V. Rossi, J. Sudre, H. Weimerskirch, C. Lopez, E. Hernandez-Garcia, F. Marsac, and V. Garcon. 2009. Top marine predators track Lagrangian coherent structures. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106:8,245–8,250, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0811034106.

van Ruth, P.D., G.G. Ganf, and T.M. Ward. 2010. Hot-spots of primary productivity: An alternative interpretation to conventional upwelling models. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Sciences 90:142–158.

Williams, A.J., V. Allain, S.J. Nicol, K.J. Evans, S.D. Hoyle, C. Dupoux, E. Vourey, and J. Dubosc. 2014. Vertical behavior and diet of albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) vary with latitude in the South Pacific Ocean. Deep Sea Research Part II, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2014.03.010.

Willis, J., and A.J. Hobday. 2007. Influence of upwelling on movement of southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) in the Great Australian Bight. Marine and Freshwater Research 58:699–708, https://doi.org/10.1071/MF07001.

Wingfield, D.K., S.H. Peckham, D.G. Foley, D.M. Palacios, B.E. Lavaniegos, R. Durazo, W.J. Nichols, D.A. Croll and S.J. Bograd. 2011. The making of a productivity hotspot in the coastal ocean. PLoS ONE 6(11):e27874, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027874.

Worm, B., E.B. Barbier, N. Beaumont, J.E. Duffy, C. Folke, B.S. Halpern, J.B.C. Jackson, H.K. Lotze, F. Micheli, S.R. Palumbi, and others. 2006. Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services. Science 314:787–790, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1132294.

Young, J.W., R.W. Bradford, T.D. Lamb, L.A. Clementson, R. Kloser, and H. Galea. 2001. Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) aggregations along the shelf break off southeastern Australia: Links between inshore and offshore processes. Marine and Freshwater Research 52:463–474, https://doi.org/10.1071/MF99168.

Zainuddin, M., H. Kiyofujia, K. Saitohb, and S.-I. Saitoh. 2006. Using multi-sensor satellite remote sensing and catch data to detect ocean hot spots for albacore (Thunnus alalunga) in the northwestern North Pacific. Deep-Sea Research Part II 53:419–431, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2006.01.007.