Oceanography The Official Magazine of
The Oceanography Society
Volume 14 Issue 04

View Issue TOC
Volume 14, No. 4
Pages 6 - 17


Building the Long-Term Picture: The U.S. JGOFS Time-Series Programs

David M. Karl John E. DoreRoger Lukas Anthony F. MichaelsNicholas R. BatesAnthony Knap
Jump to
Citation Copyright & Usage
First Paragraph

Long-term time-series studies are ideally suited for investigation of the subtle habitat changes, irregularly spaced stochastic events and complex interdependent ecological phenomena that affect biogeochemical cycles in the world ocean. In 1986, during the early planning stages of what would eventually become the U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), timeseries studies were identified as crucial for assessing the baseline or mean states of key parameters in the oceanic carbon cycle and their variability. They were patterned initially after the VERtical Transport and EXchange (VERTEX) time-series study then underway in the northeast Pacific Ocean, but the VERTEX field program, which included six cruises and lasted for 18 months, proved to be too short in length and the observations too infrequent to resolve much of the natural variability in open-ocean ecosystems. This discovery presented a scientific and logistical challenge for JGOFS planners.


Karl, D.M., J.E. Dore, R. Lukas, A.F. Michaels, N.R. Bates, and A. Knap. 2001. Building the long-term picture: The U.S. JGOFS time-series programs. Oceanography 14(4):6–17, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2001.02.

Copyright & Usage

This is an open access article made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format as long as users cite the materials appropriately, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate the changes that were made to the original content. Images, animations, videos, or other third-party material used in articles are included in the Creative Commons license unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If the material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission directly from the license holder to reproduce the material.