Oceanography The Official Magazine of
The Oceanography Society
Volume 27 Issue 04

View Issue TOC
Volume 27, No. 4
Pages 68 - 79

OpenAccess

Building on Fisheries Acoustics for Marine Ecosystem Surveys

Juan P. Zwolinski David A. Demer George R. Cutter Jr.Kevin Stierhoff Beverly J. Macewicz
Article Abstract

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Fisheries Service endeavors to manage fish stocks with an ecosystem perspective. This objective requires an understanding of the effects of the environment and fishing on all major ecosystem components. For example, in large upwelling systems like the California Current Ecosystem (CCE), natural cycles in the oceanographic and atmospheric conditions appear to drive large fluctuations in the distributions and relative abundances of coastal pelagic fish species (CPS), for example, sardine, anchovy, mackerels, and herring. These changes may be accelerated or delayed by changes in mortality due to fishing or predation of larger fish, marine mammals, and seabirds. We suggest that the data necessary to manage CPS with an ecosystem perspective may be obtained from frequent surveys of multiple CPS and their biotic and abiotic environment. We show that this is practical with surveys based on a combination of acoustic and trawl sampling coupled with complementary measures from numerous other sensors. Such acoustic-trawl-method (ATM) surveys of the CCE were conducted during the spring and summer of 2012 and 2013. We present the results of these surveys, including the seasonal distributions and abundances of multiples of the most ecological and economically important CPS. These data hint at the ultimate potential of periodic surveys using ATM sampling augmented with physical oceanographic, zooplankton, ichthyoplankton, fish, seabird, and mammal investigations to characterize the ecosystems.

Citation

Zwolinski, J.P., D.A. Demer, G.R. Cutter Jr., K. Stierhoff, and B.J. Macewicz. 2014. Building on fisheries acoustics for marine ecosystem surveys. Oceanography 27(4):68–79, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2014.87.

References

Agostini, V.N., R.C. Francis, A.B. Hollowed, S.D. Pierce, C. Wilson, and A.N. Hendrix. 2006. The relationship between Pacific hake (Merluccius productus) distribution and poleward subsurface flow in the California Current System. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 63:2,648–2,659, https://doi.org/10.1139/f06-139.

Alheit, J., and A. Bakun. 2010. Population synchronies within and between ocean basins: Apparent teleconnections and implications as to physical-biological linkage mechanisms. Journal of Marine Systems 79:267–285, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.11.029.

Asch, R.G., and D.M. Checkley. 2013. Dynamic height: A key variable for identifying the spawning habitat of small pelagic fishes. Deep Sea Research Part I 71:79–91, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2012.08.006.

Bakun, A., and R.H. Parrish. 1982. Turbulence, transport, and pelagic fish in the California and Peru current systems. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports 23:99–112.

Barange, M., I. Hampton, and M. Soule. 1996. Empirical determination of in situ target strengths of three loosely aggregated pelagic fish species. ICES Journal of Marine Science 53:225–232, https://doi.org/10.1006/jmsc.1996.0026.

Baumgartner, T., A. Soutar, and V. Ferreira-Bartrina. 1992. Reconstruction of the history of pacific sardine and northern anchovy populations over the past two millennia from sediments of the Santa Barbara Basin, California. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports 33:24–40.

Bograd, S.J., D.G. Foley, F.B. Schwing, C. Wilson, R.M. Laurs, J.J. Polovina, E.A. Howell, and R.E. Brainard. 2004. On the seasonal and interannual migrations of the transition zone chlorophyll front. Geophysical Research Letters 31, L17204, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GL020637.

Checkley, D.M., P.B. Ortner, L.R. Settle, and S.R. Cummings. 1997. A continuous, underway fish egg sampler. Fisheries Oceanography 6:58–73, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2419.1997.00030.x.

Cutter, G.R. Jr., and D.A. Demer. 2008. California current ecosystem survey 2006. Acoustic Cruise Reports for NOAA FSV Oscar Dyson and NOAA FRV David Starr Jordan. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SWFSC-415, 98 pp.

Demer, D.A. 2004. An estimate of error for the CCAMLR 2000 survey estimate of krill biomass. Deep Sea Research Part II 51:1,237–1,251, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2004.06.012.

Demer, D.A. 2012. 2007 Survey of Rockfishes in the Southern California Bight Using the Collaborative Optical-Acoustic Survey Technique. US Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum, NOAA-SWFSC-498,110 pp.

Demer, D.A., G.R. Cutter, J.S. Renfree, and J.L. Butler. 2009a. A statistical-spectral method for echo classification. ICES Journal of Marine Science 66:1,081–1,090, https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsp054.

Demer, D.A., R.J. Kloser, D.N. MacLennan, and E. Ona. 2009b. An introduction to the proceedings and a synthesis of the 2008 ICES Symposium on the Ecosystem Approach with Fisheries Acoustics and Complementary Technologies (SEAFACTS). ICES Journal of Marine Science 66:961–965, https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsp146.

Demer, D.A., J.P. Zwolinski, K. Byers, G.R. Cutter Jr., J.S. Renfree, S.T. Sessions, and B.J. Macewicz. 2012. Prediction and confirmation of seasonal migration of Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) in the California Current ecosystem. Fisheries Bulletin 110:52–70, http://fishbull.noaa.gov/1101/demer.pdf.

Demer, D.A., J.P. Zwolinski, G.R. Cutter Jr., K.A. Byers, B.J. Macewicz, and K. Hill. 2013. Sampling selectivity in acoustic-trawl surveys of Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) biomass and length distribution. ICES Journal of Marine Science 70:1,369–1,377, https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fst116.

Efron, B. 1981. Nonparametric standard errors and confidence intervals. Canadian Journal of Statistics 9:139–172.

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 2003. Fisheries Management: The Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries. FAO Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries No. 4, Suppl. 2, 112 pp.

FAO. 2012. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, Rome, http://www.fao.org/docrep/016/i2727e/i2727e00.htm.

Field, J.C., R.C. Francis, and A. Strom. 2001. Toward a fisheries ecosystem plan for the northern California Current. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports 42:74–87.

Finney, B.P., I. Gregory-Eaves, M.S.V. Douglas, and J.P. Smol. 2002. Fisheries productivity in the northeastern Pacific Ocean over the past 2,200 years. Nature 416:729–733, https://doi.org/10.1038/416729a.

Foote, K.G. 1980. Importance of the swimbladder in acoustic scattering by fish: A comparison of gadoid and mackerel target strengths. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 67:2,084–2,089, https://doi.org/10.1121/1.384452.

Foote, K.G. 1983. Linearity of fisheries acoustics, with additional theorems. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 73:1,932–1,940, https://doi.org/10.1121/1.389583.

Foote, K.G., F.R. Knudsen, G. Vestnes, D.N. MacLennan, and E.J. Simmonds. 1987. Calibration of Acoustic Instruments for Fish Density Estimates: A Practical Guide. ICES Cooperative Research Report No. 144, 81 pp.

Fry, D.H. Jr., and P.M. Roedel. 1949. Tagging Experiments on the Pacific Mackerel (Pneumato-phorus diego). State of California Department of Natural Resources, Fish Bulletin 73, 67 pp, http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/33t588wf.

Garibaldi, L., and L. Limongelli. 2002. Trends in Oceanic Captures and Clustering of Large Marine Ecosystems: Two Studies Based on the FAO Capture Database. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 435, 71 pp.

Graham, T.R., J.T. Harvey, S.R. Benson, J.S. Renfree, and D.A. Demer. 2010. The acoustic identification and enumeration of scyphozoan jellyfish, prey for leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), off central California. ICES Journal of Marine Science 67:1,739–1,748, https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsq112.

Gunderson, D.R. 1993. Surveys of Fisheries Resources. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 256 pp.

Herman, A.W. 1988. Simultaneous measurement of zooplankton and light attenuance with a new Optical Plankton Counter. Continental Shelf Research 8:205–221, https://doi.org/10.1016/0278-4343(88)90054-4.

Hewitt, R.P., and D.A. Demer. 1991. Krill abundance. Nature 353:310–310, https://doi.org/10.1038/353310b0.

Hewitt, R.P., and D.A. Demer. 1994. In Situ Target Strength Measurements of Antarctic Zooplankton (Euphausia superba and Salpa thompsoni) at 120 kHz and 200 kHz, Corroboration of Scattering Models, and a Statistical Technique for Delineating Species. Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) WG-Krill 4/12, Sixth Meeting of the CCAMLR Working Group on Krill, Cape Town, South Africa, July 25–August 3, 1994, 22 pp.

Hewitt, R.P., and D.A. Demer. 2000. The use of acoustic sampling to estimate the dispersion and abundance of euphausiids, with an emphasis on Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba. Fisheries Research 47:215–229, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-7836(00)00171-5.

Hilborn, R., and C.J. Walters. 1992. Quantitative Fisheries Stock Assessment: Choice, Dynamics and Uncertainty. Chapman and Hall, New York, 570 pp.

Hill, K., P.R. Crone, D. Demer, J.P. Zwolinski, E. Dorval, and B.J. Macewicz. 2014. Assessment of the Pacific Sardine Resource in 2014 for USA Management in 2014–15. Pacific Fishery Management Council, April 2014 Briefing Book, Agenda Item H.1.b, Portland, Oregon, 182 p.

Hill, K., P.R. Crone, N.C. Lo, B.J. Macewicz, E. Dorval, J.D. McDaniel, and Y. Gu. 2011. Assessment of the Pacific Sardine Resource in 2011 for US Management in 2012. US Department of Commerce. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SWFSC-487, 16 pp.

Jacobson, L.D., and A.D. MacCall. 1995. Stock recruitment models for Pacific sardine (Sardinops-Sagax). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 52:2,062–2,062, https://doi.org/10.1139/f95-057.

Johannesson, K.A., and R.B. Mitson. 1983. Fisheries Acoustics: A Practical Manual for Aquatic Biomass Estimation. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 240, 249 pp.

JTC (International Joint Technical Committee for Pacific Hake). 2014. Status of the Pacific Hake (Whiting) Stock in US and Canadian Waters in 2014 with a Management Strategy Evaluation. International Joint Technical Committee for Pacific Hake Report, 194 pp.

Karp, W.A., and G.E. Walters. 1994. Survey assessment of semi-pelagic Gadoids: The example of walleye pollock, Theragra chalcogramma, in the Eastern Bering Sea. Marine Fisheries Review 56:8–22.

Kim, H.J., A.J. Miller, D.J. Neilson, and J.A. McGowan. 2005. Decadal variations of mixed layer depth and biological response in the southern California current. Paper presented at the Sixth Conference on Coastal Atmospheric and Oceanic Prediction and Processes, San Diego.

Korneliussen, R.J., and E. Ona. 2002. An operational system for processing and visualizing multi-frequency acoustic data. ICES Journal of Marine Science 59:291–313, https://doi.org/10.1006/jmsc.2001.1168.

Lo, N.C., B.J. Macewicz, and D.A. Griffith. 2011. Migration of Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) off the west coast of United States in 2003–2005. Bulletin of Marine Science 87:395–412, https://doi.org/10.5343/bms.2010.1077.

Lo, N.C., B.J. Macewicz, and D.A. Griffith. 2009. Spawning Biomass of Pacific Sardine (Sardinops sagax) of US in 2009. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SWFSC-449, 31pp.

Longhurst, A.R. 1998. Ecological Geography of the Sea. Academic Press, 542 pp.

Love, M.S. 1996. Probably More Than You Want to Know About the Fishes of the Pacific Coast. Really Big Press, Santa Barbara, CA, 386 pp.

Lynam, C.P., M.J. Gibbons, B.E. Axelsen, C.A.J. Sparks, J. Coetzee, B.G. Heywood, and A.S. Brierley. 2006. Jellyfish overtake fish in a heavily fished ecosystem. Current Biology 16:R492–R493.

MacCall, A.D. 2009. Mechanisms of low-frequency fluctuations in sardine and anchovy populations. Pp. 285–299 in Climate Change and Small Pelagic Fish. D.M. Checkley Jr., J. Alheit, Y. Oozeki, and C. Roy, eds, Cambridge University Press, NY.

MacCall, A.D. 2012. Data-limited management reference points to avoid collapse of stocks dependent on learned migration behaviour. ICES Journal of Marine Science 69:267–270, https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fss008.

MacCall, A.D., and G.D. Stauffer. 1983. Biology and fishery potential of jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus). California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports 24:46–56.

Macewicz, B.J., and J.R. Hunter. 1993. Spawning frequency and batch fecundity of jack mackerel, Trachurus symmetricus, off California during 1991. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports 34:112–121.

Mais, K.F. 1974. Pelagic Fish Surveys in the California Current. State of California, Resources Agency, Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, 79 pp.

Morse, P.M., and K.U. Ingard. 1968. Theoretical Acoustics. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 949 pp.

Moser, H.G., R.L. Charter, P.E. Smith, D.A. Ambrose, W. Watson, S.R. Charter, and E.M. Sandknop. 2001. Distributional Atlas of Fish Larvae and Eggs in the Southern California Bight Region: 1951–1998. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Atlas 34, 208 pp.

Peña, H. 2008. In situ target-strength measurements of Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus murphyi) collected with a scientific echosounder installed on a fishing vessel. ICES Journal of Marine Science 65:594–604, https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsn043.

PICES (North Pacific Marine Science Organization). 2004. Marine Ecosystems of the North Pacific. PICES Special Publication 1, 280 pp.

Pikitch, E.K., K.J. Rountos, T.E. Essington, C. Santora, D. Pauly, R. Watson, U.R. Sumaila, P.D. Boersma, I.L. Boyd, D.O. Connover, and others. 2014. The global contribution of forage fish to marine fisheries and ecosystems. Fish and Fisheries 15:43–64, https://doi.org/10.1111/faf.12004.

Polovina, J.J., E. Howell, D.R. Kobayashi, and M.P. Seki. 2001. The transition zone chlorophyll front, a dynamic global feature defining migration and forage habitat for marine resources. Progress in Oceanography 49:469–483, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6611(01)00036-2.

Radovich, J. 1982. The collapse of the California sardine fishery: What have we learned? California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports 23:56–78.

Sherman, K., and A.M. Duda. 1999. Large marine ecosystems: An emerging paradigm for fishery sustainability. Fisheries 24:15–26, https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8446(1999)024<0015:LME>2.0.CO;2.

Simmonds, E.J., and D.N. MacLennan. 2005. Fisheries Acoustics: Theory and Practice. Blackwell, Oxford, 456 pp.

Swartzman, G. 1997. Analysis of the summer distribution of fish schools in the Pacific Eastern Boundary Current. ICES Journal of Marine Science 54:105–116, https://doi.org/10.1006/jmsc.1996.0160.

Wiebe, P.H., D.Z. Chu, S. Kaartvedt, A. Hundt, W. Melle, E. Ona, and P. Batta-Lona. 2010. The acoustic properties of Salpa thompsoni. ICES Journal of Marine Science 67:583–593, https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsp263.

Williams, K., C.D. Wilson, and J.K. Horne. 2013. Walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) behavior in midwater trawls. Fisheries Research 143:109–118, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2013.01.016.

Willson, M.F., R.H. Armstrong, M.C. Hermans, and K. Koski. 2006. Eulachon: A Review of Biology and an Annotated Bibliography. National Marine Fisheries Service, Alaska Fisheries Science Center Processed Report 2006-12, 246 pp.

Wolf, P. 1992. Recovery of the Pacific sardine and the California sardine fishery. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Report 33:76–86.

Yaremko, M.L. 1996. Age Determination in Pacific Sardine, Sardinops sagax. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SWFSC-223, 38 pp.

Zwolinski, J.P., and D.A. Demer. 2012. A cold oceanographic regime with high exploitation rates in the Northeast Pacific forecasts a collapse of the sardine stock. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109:4,175–4,180, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1113806109.

Zwolinski, J.P., and D.A. Demer. 2014. Environmental and parental control of Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) recruitment. ICES Journal of Marine Science 71:2,198–2,207, https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fst173.

Zwolinski, J.P., D.A. Demer, K.A. Byers, G.R. Cutter, J.S. Renfree, S.T. Sessions, and B.J. Macewicz. 2012. Distributions and abundances of Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) and other pelagic fishes in the California Current ecosystem during spring 2006, 2008, and 2010, estimated from acoustic-trawl surveys. Fisheries Bulletin 110:110–122, http://fishbull.noaa.gov/1101/zwolinski.pdf.

Zwolinski, J.P., R.L. Emmett, and D.A. Demer. 2011. Predicting habitat to optimize sampling of Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax). ICES Journal of Marine Science 68:867–879, https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsr038.

Zwolinski, J., P.G. Fernandes, V. Marques, and Y. Stratoudakis. 2009. Estimating fish abundance from acoustic surveys: Calculating variance due to acoustic backscatter and length distribution error. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 66:2,081–2,095, https://doi.org/10.1139/F09-138.

Copyright & Usage

This is an open access article made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format as long as users cite the materials appropriately, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate the changes that were made to the original content. Images, animations, videos, or other third-party material used in articles are included in the Creative Commons license unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If the material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission directly from the license holder to reproduce the material.