2012, Oceanography 25(2):42–51, http://dx.doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2012.40
Zhongxiang Zhao | Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
Matthew H. Alford | Applied Physics Laboratory, and School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
James B. Girton | Applied Physics Laboratory, and Affiliate Assistant Professor, School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
Low-mode internal tides propagate over thousands of kilometers from their generation sites, distributing tidal energy across the ocean basins. Though internal tides can have large vertical displacements (often tens of meters or more) in the ocean interior, they deflect the sea surface only by several centimeters. Because of the regularity of the tidal forcing, this small signal can be detected by state-of-the-art, repeat-track, high-precision satellite altimetry over nearly the entire world ocean. Making use of combined sea surface height measurements from multiple satellites (which together have denser ground tracks than any single mission), it is now possible to resolve the complex interference patterns created by multiple internal tides using an improved plane-wave fit technique. As examples, we present regional M2 internal tide fields around the Mariana Arc and the Hawaiian Ridge and in the North Pacific Ocean. The limitations and some perspective on the multisatellite altimetric methods are discussed.
Zhao, Z., M.H. Alford, and J.B. Girton. 2012. Mapping low-mode internal tides from multisatellite altimetry. Oceanography 25(2):42–51, http://dx.doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2012.40.
Alford, M.H. 2003. Redistribution of energy available for ocean mixing by long-range propagation of internal waves. Nature 423:159–162, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature01628.
Alford, H.M., J. MacKinnon, Z. Zhao, R. Pinkel, and T. Peacock. 2007. Internal waves across the Pacific. Geophysical Research Letters 37, L24061, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2007GL031566.
Alford, M.H., and Z. Zhao. 2007. Global patterns of low-mode internal-wave propagation. Part II: Group velocity. Journal of Physical Oceanography 37:1,849–1,858, http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JPO3086.1.
Arbic, B.K., A.J. Wallcraft, and E.J. Metzger. 2010. Concurrent simulation of the eddying general circulation and tides in a global ocean model. Ocean Modelling 32:175–187, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2010.01.007.
Chiswell, S.M. 2006. Altimeter and current meter observations of internal tides: Do they agree? Journal of Physical Oceanography 36:1,860–1,872, http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JPO2944.1.
Colosi, J.A., and W. Munk. 2006. Tales of the venerable Honolulu tide gauge. Journal of Physical Oceanography 36:967–996, http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JPO2876.1.
Cummins, P.F., J.Y. Cherniawsky, and M.G.G. Foreman. 2001. North Pacific internal tides from the Aleutian Ridge: Altimeter observations and modeling. Journal of Marine Research 59:167–191.
Dale, A.C., J.M. Huthnance, and T.J. Sherwin. 2001. Coastally-trapped waves and tides at near-inertial frequencies. Journal of Physical Oceanography 31:2,958–2,970, http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(2001)031<2958:CTWATA>2.0.CO;2.
Durand, M., L.L. Fu, D.P. Lettenmaier, D.E. Alsdorf, E. Rodriguez, and D. Esteban-Fernandez. 2010. The surface water and ocean topography mission: Observing terrestrial surface water and oceanic submesoscale eddies. Proceedings of the IEEE 98:766–779, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JPROC.2010.2043031.
Dushaw, B.D. 2002. Mapping low-mode internal tides near Hawaii using TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data. Geophysical Research Letters 29, 1250, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2001GL013944.
Dushaw, B.D. 2006. Mode-1 internal tides in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Deep-Sea Research Part I 53:449–473, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2005.12.009.
Dushaw, B.D., B.M. Howe, B.D. Cornuelle, P.F. Worcester, and D.S. Luther. 1995. Barotropic and baroclinic tides in the central North Pacific Ocean determined from long-range reciprocal acoustic transmissions. Journal of Physical Oceanography 25:631–647, http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1995)025<0631:BABTIT>2.0.CO;2.
Dushaw, B.D., P.F. Worcester, and M.A. Dzieciuch. 2011. On the predictability of mode-1 internal tides. Deep-Sea Research Part I 58(6):677–698, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2011.04.002.
Egbert, G.D., S.Y. Erofeeva, and E.D. Zaron. 2012. Mapping M2 internal tides using a data-assimilative reduced gravity model. Paper presented at the Ocean Sciences Meeting, Salt Lake City, Utah, February 19, 2012, poster B2112.
Egbert, G.D., and R.D. Ray. 2000. Significant dissipation of tidal energy in the deep ocean inferred from satellite altimeter data. Nature 405:775–778, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35015531.
Egbert, G.D., and R.D. Ray. 2001. Estimates of M2 tidal energy dissipation from TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data. Journal of Geophysical Research 106(C10):22,475–22,502, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2000JC000699.
Fu, L.-L., D.B. Chelton, P.-Y. Le Traon, and R. Morrow. 2010. Eddy dynamics from satellite altimetry. Oceanography 23(4):14–25, http://dx.doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2010.02.
Gill, A.E. 1982. Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics. Academic Press, 662 pp.
Hendry, R.M. 1977. Observations of the semidiurnal internal tide in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A 286:1–26, http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsta.1977.0108.
Kantha, L.H., and C.C. Tierney. 1997. Global baroclinic tides. Progress in Oceanography 40:163–178, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6611(97)00028-1.
Kunze, E., and S.G. Llewellyn Smith. 2004. The role of small-scale topography in turbulent mixing of the global ocean. Oceanography 17(1):55–64, http://dx.doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2004.67.
MacKinnon, J.A., and K.B. Winters. 2005. Subtropical catastrophe: Significant loss of low-mode tidal energy at 28.9. Geophysical Research Letters 32, L15605, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2005GL023376.
Maraldi, C., F. Lyard, L. Testut, and R. Coleman. 2011. Energetics of internal tides around the Kerguelen Plateau from modeling and altimetry. Journal of Geophysical Research 116, C06004, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2010JC006515.
Le Provost, C. 2001. Ocean tides. Pp. 267–303 in Satellite Altimetry and Earth Sciences: A Handbook for Technique and Applications. L.-L. Fu and A. Cazenave, eds, Academic, San Diego, California.
Munk, W.H., and D.C. Cartwright. 1966. Tidal spectroscopy and prediction. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A 259:533–581, http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsta.1966.0024.
Munk, W.H., and C. Wunsch. 1998. Abyssal recipes II: Energetics of tidal and wind mixing. Deep-Sea Research Part I 45:1,977–2,010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0637(98)00070-3.
Nash, J.D., M.H. Alford, E. Kunze, K. Martini, and S. Kelly. 2007. Hotspots of deep ocean mixing on the Oregon continental slope. Geophysical Research Letters 34, L01605, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2006GL028170.
Rainville, L., T.M.S. Johnston, G.S. Carter, M.A. Merrifield, R. Pinkel, P.F. Worcester, and B.D. Dushaw. 2010. Interference pattern and propagation of the M2 internal tide south of the Hawaiian Ridge. Journal of Physical Oceanography 40:311–325, http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2009JPO4256.1.
Rainville, L., and R. Pinkel. 2006. Propagation of low-mode internal waves through the ocean. Journal of Physical Oceanography 36:1,220–1,236, http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JPO2889.1.
Ray, R.D., and D.A. Byrne. 2010. Bottom pressure tides along a line in the southeast Atlantic Ocean and comparisons with satellite altimetry. Ocean Dynamics 60:1,167–1,176, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10236-010-0316-0.
Ray, R.D., and D.E. Cartwright. 2001. Estimates of internal tide energy fluxes from TOPEX/Poseidon altimetry: Central North Pacific. Geophysical Research Letters 28:1,259–1,262, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2000GL012447.
Ray, R.D., G.D. Egbert, and S.Y. Erofeeva. 2011. Tide predictions in shelf and coastal waters: Status and prospects. Pp. 191–216 in Coastal Altimetry. S. Vignudelli, A.G. Kostianoy, P. Cipollini, and J. Benveniste, eds, Springer, New York.
Ray, R.D., and G.T. Mitchum. 1996. Surface manifestation of internal tides generated near Hawaii. Geophysical Research Letters 23:2,101–2,104, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/96GL02050.
Ray, R.D., and G.T. Mitchum. 1997. Surface manifestation of internal tides in the deep ocean: Observations from altimetry and island gauges. Progress in Oceanography 40:135–162, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6611(97)00025-6.
Ray, R.D., and E.D. Zaron. 2011. Non-stationary internal tides observed with satellite altimetry. Geophysical Research Letters 38, L17609, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011GL048617.
Simmons, H.L, R.W. Hallberg, and B.K. Arbic. 2004. Internal wave generation in a global baroclinic tide model. Deep-Sea Research Part II 51:3,043–3,068, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2004.09.015.
St. Laurent, L., and C. Garrett. 2002. The role of internal tides in mixing the deep ocean. Journal of Physical Oceanography 32:2,882–2,899, http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(2002)032<2882:TROITI>2.0.CO;2.
Tian, J., L. Zhou, and X. Zhang. 2006. Latitudinal distribution of mixing rate caused by the M2 internal tide. Journal of Physical Oceanography 36:35–42, http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JPO2824.1.
Wunsch, C. 1975. Internal tides in the ocean. Reviews of Geophysics 13:167–182, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/RG013i001p00167.
Zaron, E.D., C. Chavanne, G.D. Egbert, and P. Flament. 2009. Baroclinic tidal generation in the Kauai Channel inferred from high-frequency radio Doppler current meters. Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans 48(1–3):93–120, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dynatmoce.2009.03.002.
Zhao, Z., and M.H. Alford. 2009. New altimetric estimates of mode-1 M2 internal tides in the central North Pacific Ocean. Journal of Physical Oceanography 39:1,669–1,684, http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2009JPO3922.1.
Zhao, Z., M.H. Alford, J. Girton, T.M.S. Johnston, and G.S. Carter. 2011. Internal tides around the Hawaiian Ridge estimated from multisatelliate altimetry. Journal of Geophysical Research 41, JC12041, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011JC007045.
Zhao, Z., M.H. Alford, J.A. MacKinnon, and R. Pinkel. 2010. Long-range propagation of the semidiurnal internal tides from the Hawaiian Ridge. Journal of Physical Oceanography 40:713–736, http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2009JPO4207.1.
Zhao, Z., and E.A. D’Asaro. 2011. A perfect focus of the internal tide from the Mariana Arc. Geophysical Research Letters 38, L14609, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011GL047909.