Oceanography > Issues > Archive > Volume 25, Issue 1

2012, Oceanography 25(1):313–316, http://dx.doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2012.36

OCEAN POLICY | Hydrothermal Vent Ecosystems and Conservation

Author | First Paragraph | Full Article | Citation | References


Cindy Lee Van Dover | Division of Marine Science and Conservation, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Beaufort, NC, USA


First Paragraph

A decade of Ridge 2000 and related research has yielded new and refined understanding of events and processes that occur on mid-ocean ridge and back-arc spreading centers, as reported in this special issue of Oceanography. Exciting exploration has also continued, with the past decade witnessing discovery of vent ecosystems in the Arctic (Pedersen et al., 2010), a new vent biogeographic province in the Southern Ocean (Rogers et al., 2012), and what may be a new vent province in the Caribbean, where the deepest known vent site was found on the Cayman Rise (Connelly et al., 2012). These recently discovered sites are home to many species new to science, some of which are especially strange in their abundance and distribution, including relatives of the yeti crab (Macpherson et al., 2006) reported from vents of the Scotia back arc (Rogers et al., 2012).


Full Article

485 KB pdf



Van Dover, C.L. 2012. Ocean policy: Hydrothermal vent ecosystems and conservation. Oceanography 25(1):313–316, http://dx.doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2012.36.



Arnaud-Haond, S., J.M. Arrieta, and C.M. Duarte. 2011. Marine biodiversity and gene patents. Science 331:1,521–1,522, http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1200783.

Arrieta, J.M., S. Arnaud-Haond, and C.M. Duarte. 2010. What lies underneath: Conserving the ocean’s genetic resources. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107:18,318–18,324, http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0911897107.

Baker, M.C., E.Z. Ramirez-Llodra, P. Tyler, C.R. German, A. Boetius, E.E. Cordes, N. Dubilier, C.R. Fisher, L.A. Levin, A. Metaxas, and others. 2010. Biogeography, ecology, and vulnerability of chemosynthetic ecosystems in the deep sea. Pp. 161–182 in Life in the World’s Oceans: Diversity, Distribution, and Abundance. A. McIntyre, ed., Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, NJ.

Connelly, D., J.T. Copley, B.J. Murton, K. Stansfield, P.A. Tyler, C.R. German, C.L. Van Dover, D. Amon, M. Furlong, N. Grindlay, and others. 2012. Hydrothermal vent fields and chemosynthetic biota on the world’s deepest seafloor spreading centre. Nature Communications, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms1636.

Dando, P., and S.K. Juniper, eds. 2001. Management of Hydrothermal Vent Ecosystems: Report from an InterRidge Workshop. InterRidge, 35 pp, http://www.interridge.org/node/160.

Detjen, P.T. 2010. Hydrothermal Vents: Conservation and Management Beyond National Jurisdiction. VDM Publishing House Ltd., Mauritius, 139 pp.

Devey, C.W., C.R. Fisher, and S. Scott. 2007. Responsible science at hydrothermal vents. Oceanography 20(1):162–171, http://dx.doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2007.90.

Gjerde, K.M., H. Dotinga, S. Hart, E.J. Molenaar, R. Rayfuse, and R. Warner. 2008. Regulatory and Governance Gaps in the International Regime for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Marine Biodiversity in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, 80 pp. Available online at: http://www.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/EPLP-MS-1.pdf (accessed January 22, 2012).

Glowka, L. 2003. Putting marine scientific research on a sustainable footing at hydrothermal vents. Marine Policy 27:303–312, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-597X(03)00042-3.

Godet, L., K.A. Zelnio, and C.L. Van Dover. 2011. Scientists as stakeholders in conservation of hydrothermal vents. Conservation Biology 25:214–222, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01642.x.

Halfar, J., and R.M. Fujita. 2007. Danger of deep-sea mining. Science 316:987, http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1138289.

Hannington, M., J. Jamieson, T. Monecke, S. Petersen, and S. Beaulieu. 2011. The abundance of seafloor massive sulfide deposits. Geology 39:1,155–1,158, http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/G32468.1.

Hoagland, P., S. Beaulieu, M.A. Tivey, R.G. Eggert, C. German, L. Glowka, and J. Lin. 2010. Deep-sea mining of seafloor massive sulfides. Marine Policy 34:728–732, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2009.12.001.

International Seabed Authority. 2007. Polymetallic Sulphides and Cobalt-Rich Ferromanganese Crusts Deposits: Establishment of Environmental Baselines and an Associated Monitoring Programme During Exploration. Proceedings of the International Seabed Authority’s workshop held in Kingston, Jamaica, September 6–10, 2004. Prepared by the Office of Resources and Environmental Monitoring, International Seabed Authority, Kingston, Jamaica, 481 pp. Available online at: http://www.isa.org.jm/en/scientific/workshops/2004 (accessed January 22, 2012).

International Seabed Authority. 2011. Environmental Management of Deep-Sea Chemosynthetic Ecosystems: Justification of and Considerations for a Spatially Based Approach. Available online at: http://www.isa.org.jm/files/documents/EN/Pubs/TS9/index.html (accessed December 28, 2011).

Leary, D.K. 2007. International Law and the Genetic Resources of the Deep Sea. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Leiden, 302 pp.

Macpherson, E., W.J. Jones, and M. Segonzac. 2006. A new squat lobster family of Galatheoidea (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura) from the hydrothermal vents of the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. Zoosystema 27:709–723.

McMurray, G.R., ed. 1990. Gorda Ridge: A Seafloor Spreading Center in the United States’ Exclusive Economic Zone. Proceedings of the Gorda Ridge Symposium, Portland, Oregon, May 11–13, 1987, Gorda Ridge Technical Task Force, Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, 311 pp.

Mullineaux, L., D. Desbruyères, and K. Juniper. 1998. Deep-sea hydrothermal vents sanctuaries: A position paper. InterRidge News 7.1:15–16. Available online at: http://www.whoi.edu/science/GG/interridge/oldIR/DOWNLOADS/irnpdf.html#71 (accessed December 28, 2011).

Pedersen, R.B., H.T. Rapp, I.H. Thorseth, M.D. Lilley, F.J.A.S. Barriga, T. Baumberger, K. Flesland, R. Fonseca, G.L. Früh-Green, and S.L. Jorgensen. 2010. Discovery of a black smoker vent field and vent fauna at the Arctic mid-ocean ridge. Nature Communications 1, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms1124.

Ramirez-Llodra, E., P.A. Tyler, M.C. Baker, O.A. Bergstad, M.R. Clark, E. Escobar, L. Levin, L. Menot, A.A. Rowden, C.R. Smith, and C.L. Van Dover. 2011. Man and the last great wilderness: Human impact on the deep sea. PLoS ONE 6(8):e22588, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022588.

Rogers, A.D., P.A. Tyler, D.P. Connelly, J.T. Copley, R.D. Larter, K. Linse, R.A. Mills, A. Naveiro-Garabato, R.D. Pancost, D.A. Pearce, and others. 2012. The discovery of new deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities in the Southern Ocean and implications for biogeography. PLoS Biology 10(1):e1001234, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001234.

Van Dover, C.L. 2011a. Mining seafloor massive sulfides and biodiversity: What is at risk? ICES Journal of Marine Science 68:341–348, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsq086.

Van Dover, C.L. 2011b. Tighten regulations on deep-sea mining. Nature 470:31–33, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/470031a.

Van Dover, C.L., C.R. Smith, J. Ardron, D. Dunn, K. Gjerde, L. Levin, S. Smith, and the Dinard Workshop Contributors. 2012. Designating networks of chemosynthetic ecosystem reserves in the deep sea. Marine Policy 36:378–381, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2011.07.002.

Woodwell, G.M. 2011. Curb deep-sea mining now. Nature 471:36, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/471036a.