2009, Oceanography 22(2):64–75, http://dx.doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2009.39
Eric P. Chassignet | Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA
Harley E. Hurlburt | Ocean Modeling and Prediction, Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Stennis Space Center, MS, USA
E. Joseph Metzger | Ocean Dynamics and Prediction Branch, NRL, Stennis Space Center, MS, USA
Ole Martin Smedstad | QinetiQ North America–Technology Solutions Group, Stennis Space Center, MS, USA
James A. Cummings | Ocean Dynamics and Prediction Branch, NRL, Stennis Space Center, MS, USA
George R. Halliwell | Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Miami, FL, USA
Rainer Bleck | Goddard Institute for Space Studies, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY, USA, and Earth Systems Research Laboratory, NOAA, Boulder, CO, USA
Remy Baraille | Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine, Toulouse, France
Alan J. Wallcraft | Ocean Dynamics and Prediction Branch, NRL, Stennis Space Center, MS, USA
Carlos Lozano | Environmental Modeling Center, National Centers for Environmental Prediction, NOAA, Camp Springs, MD, USA
Hendrik L. Tolman | Environmental Modeling Center, National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Marine Modeling and Analysis Branch, NOAA, Camp Springs, MD, USA
Ashwanth Srinivasan | Division of Meteorology and Oceanography, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA
Steve Hankin | Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, NOAA, Seattle, WA, USA
Peter Cornillon | Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI, USA
Robert Weisberg | College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL, USA
Alexander Barth | GeoHydrodynamics and Environment Research, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium
Ruoying He | Department of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA
Francisco Werner | Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA
John Wilkin | Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA
During the past five to ten years, a broad partnership of institutions under NOPP sponsorship has collaborated in developing and demonstrating the performance and application of eddy-resolving, real-time global- and basin-scale ocean prediction systems using the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). The partnership represents a broad spectrum of the oceanographic community, bringing together academia, federal agencies, and industry/commercial entities, and spanning modeling, data assimilation, data management and serving, observational capabilities, and application of HYCOM prediction system outputs. In addition to providing real-time, eddy-resolving global- and basin-scale ocean prediction systems for the US Navy and NOAA, this project also offered an outstanding opportunity for NOAA-Navy collaboration and cooperation, ranging from research to the operational level. This paper provides an overview of the global HYCOM ocean prediction system and highlights some of its achievements. An important outcome of this effort is the capability of the global system to provide boundary conditions to even higher-resolution regional and coastal models.
Chassignet, E.P., H.E. Hurlburt, E.J. Metzger, O.M. Smedstad, J.A. Cummings, G.R. Halliwell, R. Bleck, R. Baraille, A.J. Wallcraft, C. Lozano, H.L. Tolman, A. Srinivasan, S. Hankin, P. Cornillon, R. Weisberg, A. Barth, R. He, F. Werner, and J. Wilkin. 2009. US GODAE: Global ocean prediction with the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). Oceanography 22(2):64–75, http://dx.doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2009.39.
Barth, A., A. Alvera-Azcárate, and R.H. Weisberg. 2008. Benefit of nesting a regional model into a large-scale ocean model instead of climatology: Application to the West Florida Shelf. Continental Shelf Research 28:561–573.
Bleck, R. 2002. An oceanic general circulation model framed in hybrid isopycnic-Cartesian coordinates. Ocean Modelling 4:55–88.
Bleck, R., and E.P. Chassignet. 1994. Simulating the oceanic circulation with isopycnic-coordinate models. Pp. 17–39 in The Oceans: Physical-Chemical Dynamics and Human Impact. S.K. Majumdar, E.W. Miller, G.S. Forbes, R.F. Schmalz, and A.A. Panah, eds, The Pennsylvania Academy of Science.
Bleck, R., C. Rooth, D. Hu, and L.T. Smith. 1992. Salinity-driven transients in a wind- and thermohaline-forced isopycnic coordinate model of the North Atlantic. Journal of Physical Oceanography 22:1,486-1,505.
Carnes, M.R., D.N. Fox, R.C. Rhodes, and O.M. Smedstad. 1996. Data assimilation in a North Pacific Ocean monitoring and prediction system. Pp. 319–345 in Modern Approaches to Data Assimilation in Ocean Modeling. P. Malanotte-Rizzoli, ed., Elsevier, New York.
Chassignet, E.P., and Z.D. Garraffo. 2001. Viscosity parameterization and the Gulf Stream separation. Pp. 37–41 in From Stirring to Mixing in a Stratified Ocean. P. Muller and D. Henderson, eds., Proceedings 'Aha Huliko'a Hawaiian Winter Workshop. University of Hawaii, January 15–19, 2001.
Chassignet, E.P., and J. Verron, eds. 2006. Ocean Weather Forecasting: An Integrated View of Oceanography. Springer, 577 pp.
Chassignet, E.P., H.E. Hurlburt, O.M. Smedstad, G.R. Halliwell, P.J. Hogan, A.J. Wallcraft, R. Baraille, and R. Bleck. 2007. The HYCOM (HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model) data assimilative system. Journal of Marine Systems 65:60–83.
Chassignet, E.P., H.E. Hurlburt, O.M. Smedstad, G.R. Halliwell, A.J. Wallcraft, E.J. Metzger, B.O. Blanton, C. Lozano, D.B. Rao, P.J. Hogan, and A. Srinivasan. 2006. Generalized vertical coordinates for eddy-resolving global and coastal ocean forecasts. Oceanography 19(1):118–129. [pdf]
Chassignet, E.P., L.T. Smith, G.R. Halliwell, and R. Bleck. 2003. North Atlantic simulation with the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM): Impact of the vertical coordinate choice, reference density, and thermobaricity. Journal of Physical Oceanography 33:2,504–2,526.
Cooper, M., and K. Haines. 1996. Altimetric assimilation with water property conservation. Journal of Geophysical Research 101:1,059–1,078.
Cummings, J.A. 2005. Operational multivariate ocean data assimilation. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 131:3,583–3,604.
Fox, D.N., W.J. Teague, C.N. Barron, M.R. Carnes, and C.M. Lee. 2002. The Modular Ocean Data Analysis System (MODAS). Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 19:240–252.
Fratantoni, D.M. 2001. North Atlantic surface circulation during the 1990's observed with satellite-tracked drifters. Journal of Geophysical Research 106:22,067–22,093.
Griffies, S.M., C. Böning, F.O. Bryan, E.P. Chassignet, R. Gerdes, H. Hasumi, A. Hirst, A.-M. Treguier, and D. Webb. 2000. Developments in ocean climate modelling. Ocean Modelling 2:123–192.
Halliwell, G., 2004. Evaluation of vertical coordinate and vertical mixing algorithms in the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). Ocean Modelling 7:285–322.
Hurlburt, H.E., and P.J. Hogan. 2000. Impact of 1/8° to 1/64° resolution on Gulf Stream model-data comparisons in basin-scale subtropical Atlantic Ocean models. Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans 32:283–329.
Hurlburt, H.E., E.P. Chassignet, J.A. Cummings, A.B. Kara, E.J. Metzger, J.F. Shriver, O.M. Smedstad, A.J. Wallcraft, and C.N. Barron. 2008. Eddy-resolving global ocean prediction. Pp. 353–381 in Ocean Modeling in an Eddying Regime. M. Hecht and H. Hasumi, eds, Geophysical Monograph 177, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.
Kelly, K., L. Thompson, W. Cheng, and E.J. Metzger. 2007. Evaluation of HYCOM in the Kuroshio Extension region using new metrics. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, C01004, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2006JC003614.
Maltrud, M.E., and J.L. McClean. 2005. An eddy resolving global 1/10° ocean simulation. Ocean Modelling 8:31–54.
Maximenko, N.A., and P.P. Niiler. 2005. Hybrid decade-mean sea level with mesoscale resolution. Pp. 55–59 in Recent Advances in Marine Science and Technology. N. Saxena, ed., PACON International, Honolulu.
Schmitz, W.J. 1996. On the World Ocean Circulation. Vol. 1: Some Global Features/North Atlantic Circulation. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Technical Report WHOI-96-03, 141 pp.
Shchepetkin, A.F., and J.C. McWilliams. 2005. The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): A split-explicit, free-surface, topography-following coordinates ocean model. Ocean Modelling 9:347–404.
Smith, R.D., M.E. Maltrud, F.O. Bryan, and M.W. Hecht, 2000. Numerical simulations of the North Atlantic Ocean at 1/10°. Journal of Physical Oceanography 30:1,532–1,561.